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[Ethic evaluation of sexual health programs on adolescence]. Valoracion Etica de los Programas de Salud Sexual en la Adolescencia.
Cuadernos De Bioetica. 2011 Jan-Apr; 22(74):77-91.In public health services, the interest in sexuality seems to turning from traditional topics such as potential treatments for male erectile dysfunction, psychosomatic disorders, the control of premature ejaculation and contraception. Instead, an increasingly prominent role is being given to prevention strategies carried out by means of campaigns or through sexual health programme sin schools. The different teaching strategies that underlie these programmes, which in many cases lack social consensus but are often promoted by international organizations such as WHO or UNESCO, reveal not only divergent ethical conceptions and worldviews on the meaning of sexuality, but also conflicting starting points, means and goals, focusing either on barrier-contraceptive methods or on sexual abstinence and personal responsibility. There is therefore a pressing need to understand the scientific evidence underlying each educational approach and the ethical postulates of each pedagogical proposal. This paper presents an outline of a six-point adolescent sexuality education program, which is respectful of individuals' ethical convictions. Given that few works on preventive medicine issues include an ethical evaluation of the steps followed in their development, this article also proposes a systematic evaluation of strategies for sexual health in the community that is developed through four steps verifying the following aspects: 1) the accuracy of information, 2) the level of evidence, 3) efficiency and 4) non-maleficence about the target population of each health program. The methodology used in these sexual health programs is another aspect that will verify their ethical consistence or, conversely, their absence of ethical values. We emphasize the duty of designers of programme for children not to carry then out against the will of their parents or tutors, and not conceal sensitive and relevant information.
Generations and Gender Survey (GGS): Towards a better understanding of relationships and processes in the life course.
Demographic Research. 2007 Nov 30; 17(14):389-440.The Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) is one of the two pillars of the Generations and Gender Programme designed to improve understanding of demographic and social development and of the factors that influence these developments. This article describes how the theoretical perspectives applied in the survey, the survey design and the questionnaire are related to this objective. The key features of the survey include panel design, multidisciplinarity, comparability, context-sensitivity, inter-generational and gender relationships. The survey applies the life course approach, focussing on the processes of childbearing, partnership dynamics, home leaving, and retiring. The selection of topics for data collection mainly follows the criterion of theoretically grounded relevance to explaining one or more of the mentioned processes. A large portion of the survey deals with economic aspects of life, such as economic activity, income, and economic well-being; a comparably large section is devoted to values and attitudes. Other domains covered by the survey include gender relationships, household composition and housing, residential mobility, social networks and private transfers, education, health, and public transfers. The third chapter of the article describes the motivations for their inclusion. The GGS questionnaire is designed for a face-to-face interview. It includes the core that each participating country needs to implement in full, and four optional submodules on nationality and ethnicity, on previous partners, on intentions of breaking up, and on housing, respectively. The participating countries are encouraged to include also the optional sub-modules to facilitate comparative research on these topics. (author's)
Proposal for the 2006 UNGA resolution on the rights of the Child-- text on violence against children.
Geneva, Switzerland, NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 2006 Oct 2. 4 p.The resolution should be used to ensure that States endorse the SG's Report and its recommendations (both the overarching and the setting-specific ones) and commit to its full implementation. The UNGA resolution needs to highlight and reinforce States' obligations to prohibit and condemn all forms of violence against children, including all corporal punishment, traditional practices and sexual violence. The resolution should establish the mandate of a Special Representative on Violence against Children for 4 years, to ensure systematic follow-up to the Study and to work with relevant UN agencies, special mechanisms, NGOs and civil society, children and others to prevent and eliminate violence against children. The resolution should call for voluntary contributions from governments to support the core costs of a small but functional secretariat. Voluntary contributions should ideally come from a wide range of countries, especially from those which have been involved throughout the Study process and hosted national and regional consultations and follow-up. North-South and East-West ownership needs to continue in order to ensure that VAC is recognized as a global problem and therefore addressed and tackled everywhere. Voluntary contributions can range in size. (excerpt)
Pakistan Development Review. 2004 Winter; 43(4 Pt 1):423-440.Pakistan's development project that was initiated in the 1950s with a focus on creating a prosperous and equitable society, making the benefits of scientific advancement and progress available to all the people, got lost somewhere in the labyrinth of development fashions and econometric modelling learned in American universities and World Bank/IMF seminars. The latest of these fashions being eagerly followed by the economic managers of the state is the implementation of structural adjustments, termed "Washington Consensus" by some, flowing from the operative rules and ideological framework of neo-liberal globalisation. In practice these adjustments, euphemistically called reforms, have foreclosed the possibility of improving the condition of working masses, not only in Pakistan but globally, including the developed West. If Pakistan is to reclaim its original people-centred development project, it will have to set its own priorities of development in the context of indigenous realities shared in common with its South Asian neighbours. Following the globalisation agenda at the behest of the Washington-based IFIs will sink the country into ever greater debt and mass poverty. (author's)
Asia-Pacific Journal on Human Rights and the Law. 2004; 5(2):63-78.This article endevours to answer questions on this negative social behaviour which have recently engulfed the minds of many, especially in light of its increase in occurrence. These are queries such as: What are honour crimes? Whose honour is at stake? What steps are being taken to curb them? What is the extent to which they are prevalent in Islamic states, as well as Western states and others such as India?1 And where finally does the problem lie? (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., Voice of America, 2002 Dec 16. 2 p.The United States has been defending its aid policy on family planning at an international conference in Bangkok. Delegates at the fifth Asian and Pacific Population Conference say Washington's concerns about abortion are already being addressed. The American delegation faced criticism Monday over Washington's concerns about using abortion as a means of family planning. The U.S. team defended Washington's family planning aid, amid diplomatic skirmishes in Bangkok over whether abortion was a key element of an international family planning agreement reached in Cairo in 1994. (excerpt)
U.S. loses vote at population conference. Bush administration's stance on abortion and condom use rejected at population conference.
New York, New York, ABC News, 2002 Dec 17. 2 p.The United States lost a vote at an international conference Tuesday as Asia-Pacific countries rejected the Bush administration's stand against abortion and condom use among adolescents. The vote was held at the end of the U.N.-sponsored Asian and Pacific Population Conference, which adopted a plan of action on population policies in a bid to reduce poverty in the region. (excerpt)
POPULI. 1993 Jun; 20(6):7.Population education should be included in the school curriculum, according to the Istanbul Declaration adopted at the International Congress on Population Education and Development, held in Istanbul, Turkey, on April 14-17, 1993, organized by UNESCO and UNFPA. Education ministers, government officials, and experts from 92 countries participated in the Congress, the first meeting of its kind. Runaway population growth can be checked by population education according to the director general of the UN's Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Already, more than 100 countries include population education in their schools. Population education promotes changes in outlook, attitudes, and behavior in individuals and groups towards population issues and contributes to the improvement of the quality of life. Population education contributes to the acquisition of knowledge and the development of skills and values which enable individuals to understand population issues, according to "Population Education: An Action Framework on the Eve of the 21st Century," also adopted at Istanbul. Population issues include: marriage age, adolescent pregnancy, family size, gender roles, sexual health, relations between generations, internal and international migration, human settlements and population distribution, and the interaction between population, the environment, and resources. However, in specific lessons, consideration must be accorded to the economic and social realities and the diversity of cultural and religious values of each society. Following-up on the World Conference on Education for All, the Declaration and action framework call for special efforts to reach out-of school youths and uneducated young adults to provide information on how to regulate their fertility, especially for prevention of maternal and infant mortality, prevention of HIV/AIDS, and managing migrations. Education will promote behavior which will delay the age of marriage, space out births, and reduce infant mortality.
Education to prevent AIDS / STDs in the Pacific. A teaching guide for secondary schools. A product of a regional workshop jointly organized by World Health Organization, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
[Unpublished] 1989. , 109, 15 p.This is a teaching guide developed by delegates at the WHO Regional Workshop on the Development of Instructional Materials on AIDS Education held in Suva, Fiji in January 1989, to be used with separate teacher training materials. It contains general background, purpose, resources and suggestions for teaching about AIDS/STDs, glossary, 13 teaching plans with several discussion topics with personal situations, and an illustrated hand-out booklet for students. Besides presenting accurate information, the purpose of the guide is to give students the opportunity to develop their decision-making skills, clarify their values, determine responsibility they have towards others, and change their behavior. Topics of the lesson plans include: HIV transmission, the course of HIV infection, protection, cultural, personal and community values, sexual and social responsibility, respecting HIV infected people, decision making, how to say no, safer sex, talking about STDs and AIDS. A compilation of common questions and answers about AIDS is also included.
Thai perspectives on the consulting process: an inquiry into organization renewal strategies for rural development agencies.
[Unpublished] 1988. xv, 212 p. (Doctoral dissertation, North Carolina State University, 1988.)A researcher interviewed 18 Thai consultants, 4 of their clients, and 4 other change agents to learn what processes Thai consultants use in deciding upon intervention strategies. The researcher drew upon organization development literature, Thai history, anthropology, social psychology, and adult education. A wide range of interacting variables influenced these Thai consultants when constructing intervention strategies. Unlike Western consultants who use a system for decision making, Thai consultants make intuitive judgments by determining opportunities for change in light of environmental forces (social, political, economic, and historical forces) and the norms of predominant subcultures in the client agency. They must deal with status relations (e.g., debt and favors), resistance (e.g., power), and "balance" (e.g., having presence of mind) in Thai society which strongly lead them in determining change strategies based on values and culturally determined behaviors. The mix of clients which consultants must cope with includes members of the bureaucratic culture, the culture of technocrats, and the new breed. The 1st 2 cultures are characteristic of governmental agencies while the new breed are generally associated with nongovernmental organizations. All 3 subcultures are represented to some degree in every large development organization. Based on this research, 6 propositions were developed ranging from the proposition that despite systems theory being a useful tool for diagnosis of problems and assessment of change opportunities, it does not contribute to determining how to intervene in the Thai context to the proposition that only new practices and beliefs rationalized within the Thai culture will take root.
London, England, IPPF, 1984 Aug. 50  p.The need for family life education today is urgent. The rapid social changes taking place around the world are altering traditional family and community structures and values, and the task of preparing young people to cope with adult life has become more difficult. If family life education is to succeed, it must meet the needs of the young people for whom it is designed. Some common needs of young people are: coping with the physical and emotional changes of adolescence; establishing and maintaining satisfying personal relationships; understanding and responding positively to changing situations, e.g. the changing roles of men and women; and developing the necessary values and skills for successful marriage, child-rearing and social participation in the wider community. The potential scope for family life education programs encompasses psychological and emotional, social, developmental, moral, health, economic, welfare and legal components. The integration of these perspectives into family life education programs are issues which are explored in many of the materials listed in this bibliography. The bibliography is divided into 5 sections. It includes a listing of materials which discuss the definition, content and scope of family life education. It also presents family life bibliographies, curriculum guides, and training manuals and handbooks. Finally, it deals with studies of family life education programs and projects. Publishers' addresses are listed at the end of the bibliography.