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  1. 1
    047290

    Barrier contraceptives and spermicides: their role in family planning care.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1987. vii, 80 p.

    This WHO manual on barrier contraceptives and spermicides covers all methods, their effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages, non-contraceptive advantages, uses in special cases, family program considerations, the logistics of supply, monitoring shelf-life and quality control, and application of condoms in AIDS prevention programs. Condoms and foaming tablets are the most appropriate methods for developing countries, especially those in the tropics. Other methods present problems such as expense (diaphragms, foams, sponges), unavailability outside the U.K. and U.S. (caps, sponges), bulk and expense (canned foams). Certain individuals are particularly good candidates for barriers and spermicides: lactating women, people using abstinence or natural family planning, adolescents, older women, women waiting to start using other methods, and those at risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases. Program officials should consider providing supplies in their special environments, with limitations such as transport, reliability of shipments, storage requirements, cultural sensitivity, multiple outlets for supplies, and cost both to the program and to the users. Methods of insuring steady supply and techniques of testing condoms are described. Barrier methods, condoms in particular, help stop the spread of gonorrhea, syphilis, Chlamydia, Candida, Trichomonas and HIV. An appendix describes basic information about AIDS and the relevance of barriers and spermicides, as well as monogamy and abstinence, in preventing AIDS transmission. Other appendices list sources of supply for developing countries, addresses of manufacturers and sources of further information, techniques for using these methods, and teaching methods for illiterates and semi-illiterates.
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  2. 2
    029804

    Barrier methods of contraception.

    Kleinman RL

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1985. 48 p. (IPPF Medical Publications.)

    This booklet, published by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), discusses the mode of action of barrier methods of contraception--their advantages, disadvantages, and effectiveness. Each method is dealt with in detail under the headings of 'application,' 'instruction to users,' 'advantages,' 'disadvantages and side-effects' and 'effectiveness.' Areas of research and safety issues are also discussed. The various types of barrier contraceptives are: 1) spermicides--creams, jellies, melting suppositories, foaming suppositories or tablets, and aerosol foams; 2) unmedicated mechanical barriers--vagnial diaphrams and cervical caps, including cavity-rim, Vimule and vault caps; 3) medicated mechanical barriers--vaginal sponges; and 4) condoms. When used properly and conscientiously, the contraceptive agents are both safe and effective, although their mode of action may be more complex than has been assumed in the past. The function of barrier contraceptives is to block the passage of sperm into the cervical mucus; the condom prevents sperm from being deposited in the vagina, whereas the vaginal barriers interfere with sperm transport after semen has entered the vagina. In addition to blocking the intial wave of sperm form entering the cervix, the spermicidal preparations also kill the sperm within the vagina; most products now in use contain a nonionic surface active agent as a spermicide. Favorable attributes of barrier methods are: 1) few local side effects, 2) no highly skilled medical intervention is needed, 3) they are applied locally in the vagina, 4) they may inhibit sexually transmitted diseases, 5) there are few medical contraindications to their use, and 6) most are available without prescription. Disadvantages are: 1) they are generally less effective than most hormonal contraceptive and IUDs, 2) strong motivation is required for successful use, 3) they require manipulation of the genitalia, 4) some types are inconvenient or messy, and 5) most must be applied at or near the time of sexual intercourse. New spermicides, custom fitted cervical caps, and enzyme inhibitors are some of the new methods being researched and developed. The appendix includes the IPPF policy statement on barrier methods of contraception.
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  3. 3
    002586

    Neo Sampoon: evaluating a spermicide.

    Chen KH

    Intercom. 1981 Jun; 9(6):12.

    Neo Sampoon is a spermicidal tablet developed and marketed worldwide by Eisai Ltd of Japan and used by the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) in a major spermicidal distribution program since 1978. Bangladesh, Ghana, and Egypt are the largest recipient countries with over 5 million tablets. Thailand, Sri Lanka and Brazil have more than 1 million tablets each. The tablets are used in subsidized Contraceptive Retail Sales programs and Community-Based Distribution programs. Spermicides may become the contraceptive of choice for lactating mothers, mothers with infrequent coitus, couples who dislike condoms, and women who dislike or experience side effects from oral pills. In developing countries, these women represent about 1/5 of all married women of reproductive ages. Of many vaginal spermicides considered by USAID for its distribution program, Neo Sampoon appears to be the best in terms of product safety and effectiveness. Menfegol (TS-88) is a non-ionic surface active spermicidal ingredient in the Neo Sampoon tablet. The Pearl Index (number of pregnancies per 100 women-years of use) for Neo Sampoon tablets reported in 10 clinical studies involving 4 countries ranged from 2.3 to 20.2. However, these pregnancy rates should be interpreted with caution, since the subjects in some of these studies were selected for high motivation, good education, or prior experience with coital-related contraceptive methods. There have been no reported side effects associated with use of Neo Sampoon tablets as yet. Increase of vaginal discharge and subjective sensation of warmth in the vagina (signaling dissolution of tablet) are the most common reported side effects. Further research on the culture perception of frequently reported side effects should be done prior to mass marketing/community distribution of Neo Sampoon.
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  4. 4
    735203

    Indonesia (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, June 1973. 10 p.

    The Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA) was founded in 1957 and pioneered family planning services. It made little headway duri ng the pronatalist Sukarno regime, but in 1967 the present government announced an intensive family planning program and the IPPA was named as an implementing unit in 1971. 2 primary roles now are the training activities for fieldworkers and the development of community education and motivation programs. This complements the national mass media program. In 1970 the government took over all clinics except those in the Outer Islands (the islands outside Java, Bali, and Madura). The IPPA runs 150 clinics in the Outer Islands, is responsible for all supplies and maintenance, and has a number of model clinics in Java and Bali. The Community Education program has 8 components: speakers bureau, family planning clubs, mobile audiovisual units, exhibitions, tr aditional media, special events, local mass media support, and evaluatio n. In 1971 the 'ippa trained 2951 people; in 1972 this was increased by 25%. In 1973 the target is training 3000 fieldworkers with 16 centers for training and 16 field demonstration areas. An agreement with the U.N. Fund for Population Activities/International Development Association (UNFPA/IDA) will provide for building, equipping, and staffing. The research and evaluation function is also expanding to complement government activities. The government program aims to train 20,250 medical and paramedical personnel over 5 years and medical schools have incorporated the teaching of population and family planning. Government allowances are being curtailed for all children over 3 for government workers. An active clinic program aims to set up 1200 fully equipped and 1250 moderately equipped facilities by 1973. An active media campaign has been launched and for the 1st time in the population field the UNFPA and the IDA are helping to finance a project to expand a family planning program and broaden its activities. This su pport will provide for physical facilities, technical assistance, training, motivation, evaluation, research, and population education.
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  5. 5
    711563

    Directory of contraceptives.

    Hardy N; Kestelman P

    London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, June 1971. 83 p

    This is a comprehensive listing of available contraceptives worldwide compiled by the International Planned Parenthood Medical Dept. Contraceptives are listed by brand name and by country, and are categorized by: 1) caps, i.e. diaphragms and others; 2) condoms; 3) spermicides; 4) IUDs; and 5) oral contraceptives. Codes indicate the composition of all oral contraceptives. No assessment of quality has been made. Most oral contraceptives have been approved by the national governments. The IUDs have been clinically tested. There is 1 national standard for diaphragms, several national standards for condoms, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation test for spermicidals.
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