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Washington, D.C., DKT International, 1992 Jun.  p.1991 statistics form various contraceptive social marketing programs are presented in a 5-page leaflet complete with a table and 2 bar graphs. The table consists of program sales and couple years of protection (CYP) data for 32 social marketing programs in developing countries ranging from Bangladesh to Zimbabwe. 1 CYP is defined as 100 condoms or foaming tablets, 13 cycles of oral contraceptives (OCs), 0.53 IUDs, and 4 injectables. All but 2 programs distribute condoms. Peru's social marketing program markets only OCs and vaginal foam tablets. The program in Thailand just sells OCs. 12 programs distribute only condoms, including programs in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Costa Rica, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Turkey, and the Nirodh program in India. Other contraceptives distributed by various programs are IUDs and injectables. Only the program in Sri Lanka markets Norplant. It also provides condoms, OCs, vaginal foam tablets, IUDs, and injectables. In 1991, India had by far the highest CYPs at around 3.28 million followed by Bangladesh at 1.44 million. Bolivia had the lowest CYPs (10,608), CYPs (10,608). CYPs as percentage of target market (80% of 15-44 year old women in a union) statistics do not exhibit the same pattern, however. Jamaica had the highest share (15.9%) followed relatively closely by Egypt (14.8%). 2 other outstanding countries in terms of CYPs as percentage of target market were Colombia (11.7%) and Bangladesh (9.2%). India had only 2.8% and the 3 lowest were Turkey (0.3%), Philippines (0.1%), and Nigeria (0.1%). Leading funding supporters of social marketing programs include USAID, country governments, and IPPF.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1987. vii, 80 p.This WHO manual on barrier contraceptives and spermicides covers all methods, their effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages, non-contraceptive advantages, uses in special cases, family program considerations, the logistics of supply, monitoring shelf-life and quality control, and application of condoms in AIDS prevention programs. Condoms and foaming tablets are the most appropriate methods for developing countries, especially those in the tropics. Other methods present problems such as expense (diaphragms, foams, sponges), unavailability outside the U.K. and U.S. (caps, sponges), bulk and expense (canned foams). Certain individuals are particularly good candidates for barriers and spermicides: lactating women, people using abstinence or natural family planning, adolescents, older women, women waiting to start using other methods, and those at risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases. Program officials should consider providing supplies in their special environments, with limitations such as transport, reliability of shipments, storage requirements, cultural sensitivity, multiple outlets for supplies, and cost both to the program and to the users. Methods of insuring steady supply and techniques of testing condoms are described. Barrier methods, condoms in particular, help stop the spread of gonorrhea, syphilis, Chlamydia, Candida, Trichomonas and HIV. An appendix describes basic information about AIDS and the relevance of barriers and spermicides, as well as monogamy and abstinence, in preventing AIDS transmission. Other appendices list sources of supply for developing countries, addresses of manufacturers and sources of further information, techniques for using these methods, and teaching methods for illiterates and semi-illiterates.
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1985. 48 p. (IPPF Medical Publications.)This booklet, published by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), discusses the mode of action of barrier methods of contraception--their advantages, disadvantages, and effectiveness. Each method is dealt with in detail under the headings of 'application,' 'instruction to users,' 'advantages,' 'disadvantages and side-effects' and 'effectiveness.' Areas of research and safety issues are also discussed. The various types of barrier contraceptives are: 1) spermicides--creams, jellies, melting suppositories, foaming suppositories or tablets, and aerosol foams; 2) unmedicated mechanical barriers--vagnial diaphrams and cervical caps, including cavity-rim, Vimule and vault caps; 3) medicated mechanical barriers--vaginal sponges; and 4) condoms. When used properly and conscientiously, the contraceptive agents are both safe and effective, although their mode of action may be more complex than has been assumed in the past. The function of barrier contraceptives is to block the passage of sperm into the cervical mucus; the condom prevents sperm from being deposited in the vagina, whereas the vaginal barriers interfere with sperm transport after semen has entered the vagina. In addition to blocking the intial wave of sperm form entering the cervix, the spermicidal preparations also kill the sperm within the vagina; most products now in use contain a nonionic surface active agent as a spermicide. Favorable attributes of barrier methods are: 1) few local side effects, 2) no highly skilled medical intervention is needed, 3) they are applied locally in the vagina, 4) they may inhibit sexually transmitted diseases, 5) there are few medical contraindications to their use, and 6) most are available without prescription. Disadvantages are: 1) they are generally less effective than most hormonal contraceptive and IUDs, 2) strong motivation is required for successful use, 3) they require manipulation of the genitalia, 4) some types are inconvenient or messy, and 5) most must be applied at or near the time of sexual intercourse. New spermicides, custom fitted cervical caps, and enzyme inhibitors are some of the new methods being researched and developed. The appendix includes the IPPF policy statement on barrier methods of contraception.
Victor-Bostrom Fund Report No. 16, Winter 1972-73. 31 p.Add to my documents.
London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, June 1971. 83 pThis is a comprehensive listing of available contraceptives worldwide compiled by the International Planned Parenthood Medical Dept. Contraceptives are listed by brand name and by country, and are categorized by: 1) caps, i.e. diaphragms and others; 2) condoms; 3) spermicides; 4) IUDs; and 5) oral contraceptives. Codes indicate the composition of all oral contraceptives. No assessment of quality has been made. Most oral contraceptives have been approved by the national governments. The IUDs have been clinically tested. There is 1 national standard for diaphragms, several national standards for condoms, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation test for spermicidals.
Presented at Expert Group Meeting on the Production and Distribution of Contraceptives in the Developing Countries (sponsored by United Nations Industrial Organization and United Nations Fund for Population Activities), New York, November 22-24, 1971. 10 pThe paper examines in the developing nations patterns of contraceptive demand, present trends in the growth of demand, and opportunities for generating an even more rapid expansion of demand. While the commercial sector has a tremendous importance in the supply of contraceptive demand in more developed areas of the world, its importance is very much less in the less developed areas. The consumer-oriented approach of the commercial sector is successful in generating contraceptive demand. Even the noncommercial sectors could employ the consumer-oriented approach with success. A new type of family planning program, the social/commerical effort, utilizes both noncommerical and commerical sectors. This combined approach rectifies the problem of low sales performance of the commerical sector, a problem associated with the rough economic going in developing nations when no aid is given by noncommerical groups. India's Nirodh Marketing Program, a social/commercial effort, has already produced a 500% increase in consumer condom purchases and is already responsible for perhaps 1,000,000 new users. Total demand for contraceptives is probably growing on the order of 5-10% annually in the developing nations.