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Measuring the level of effort in the national and international response to HIV / AIDS: The AIDS Programme Effort Index (API). Summary report.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, . 24 p.UNAIDS, USAID and the POLICY Project have developed the AIDS Programme Effort Index (API) to measure programme effort in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The index is designed to provide a profile that describes national effort and the international contribution to that effort. The API was applied to 40 countries in 2000. The results show that programme effort is relatively high in the areas of legal and regulatory environment, policy formulation and organizational structure. Political support was somewhat lower but increased the most from 1998. Monitoring and evaluation and prevention programmes scored in the middle range, about 50 out of 100 possible points. The lowest rated components were resources and care. The API also measured the availability of key prevention and care services. Overall, essential services are available to about half of the people living in urban areas but to only about one-quarter of the entire population. International efforts to assist country programmes received relatively high rating in all categories except care. The results presented here will be supplemented later in 2001 with a new component on human rights. (excerpt)
Measuring the level of effort in the national and international response to HIV / AIDS: The AIDS Program Effort Index (API).
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2001 Feb. 31 p.UNAIDS, USAID and the POLICY Project have developed the AIDS Program Effort Index (API) to measure program effort in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The index is designed to provide a profile that describes national effort and the international contribution to that effort. The API was applied to 40 countries in 2000. The results show that program effort is relatively high in the areas of legal and regulatory environment, policy formulation and organizational structure. Political support was somewhat lower but increased the most from 1998. Monitoring and evaluation and prevention programs scored in the middle range, about 50 out of 100 possible points. The lowest rated components were resources and care. The API also measured the availability of key prevention and care services. Overall, essential services are available to about half of the people living in urban areas but to only about one-quarter of the entire population. International efforts to assist country programs received relatively high rating in all categories except care. The results presented here will be supplemented later this year with a new component on human rights and a score that compares countries on program effort. (excerpt)
Global HealthLink. 2001 Jul-Aug; (110):11, 17.With a population of more than 6 million, expected to double in just 22 years, and with the highest infant mortality rate in the hemisphere, high maternal mortality rates and low contraceptive use, our objective was to find hope among people recovering from 36 years of civil war. In August, the Global Health Council is taking a congressional delegation to Guatemala and Honduras on a study tour to show the strides made and challenges unmet. Two hours outside of Guatemala City is San Juan Comalapa, Chimaltenango, where we visited a small rural clinic providing maternal and child health (MCH) services. This clinic is one of many supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development’s (USAID) 1997 “Better Health for Rural Women and Children” grant to the Guatemalan Ministry of Health (MOH), focused on reducing the gap in health care services between rural Mayans and urban Latino populations. A result of the 1996 Peace Accords, this program is considered the largest health reform example in the world of a MOH contracting out to NGOs to extend basic health services to poor populations. (excerpt)
The USAID population program in Ecuador: a graduation report. [El Programa de USAID para la población de Ecuador aprueba su examen final. Informe]
Washington, D.C., LTG Associates, Population Technical Assistance Project [POPTECH], 2001 Oct.  p. (POPTECH Publication No. 2001–031–006; USAID Contract No. HRN–C–00–00–00007–00)For nearly 30 years, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) provided assistance for population, family planning, and reproductive health programs in Ecuador. Throughout the early years, USAID worked with both private and public sector institutions to establish a broad base for national awareness of and support for family planning and for the introduction of contraceptive services. USAID led all other donors in this sector in terms of financial, technical, and contraceptive commodity assistance. Upon reflection of the accomplishments of the USAID population program during these years and considering its most recent Strategic Objective of “increased use of sustainable family planning and maternal child health services,” it is apparent that the Agency was successful in this endeavor and has adequately provided for the graduation of its local partners, particularly those in the private sector, where USAID had directed the major focus of its assistance over the past decade. During the last and final phase of assistance, 1992–2001, the USAID strategy focused primarily on assuring the financial and institutional sustainability of the two largest local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that provide family planning services. USAID/Ecuador worked in partnership with the Asociación Pro-bienestar de la Familia Ecuatoriana (APROFE), which is the Ecuadorian affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and the Centro Médico de Orientación y Planificación Familiar (CEMOPLAF)—institutions that provide contraceptive and other reproductive health services. At the same time, in order to assure that the necessary tools were in place for future program monitoring, planning, and evaluation, USAID assistance was provided to the Centro de Estudios de Población y Desarrollo Social (CEPAR). (excerpt)
Epidemic preparedness and response in Africa: an epidemiological block approach. Summary report. AFRO / EMC epidemiological blocks.
Washington, D.C., AED, SARA, 2001 Mar.  p. (USAID Contract No. AOT-00-99-00237-00)Following a series of epidemics that occurred in 1995 and 1996 in several countries in West and Central Africa, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Africa (AFRO) and the USAID Africa Bureau, Office of Sustainable Development (AFR/SD), decided to strengthen their cooperation on epidemic preparedness and response (EPR) throughout the continent. Many African countries lack drugs and other supplies for prompt and effective interventions to address epidemic outbreaks. Many country officials lack both awareness of the risk of epidemics and the capacity to effectively detect and manage them. In order to improve the situation, WHO/AFRO defined five groups of countries with similar epidemiological profiles, and created a political framework to facilitate inter-country collaboration within each of these epidemiological blocks. The Swiss Disaster Relief (SDR), the European Union (EU), and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also joined the effort to strengthen capacity for EPR in West Africa. Almost four years later, AFRO and AFR/SD decided to organize a review and documentation of the epidemic preparedness and response program. The present summary report contains the findings and recommendations of this review. The report presents the epidemiological block approach used by WHO/AFRO to implement its Emerging and other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control (EMC) programs, and discusses the performance of the epidemiological teams in the West Africa Block (WAB) and Great Lakes Block (GLB). It discusses the availability and use of data for assessing trends in the incidence, mortality, and occurrence of outbreaks of epidemic-prone diseases — cholera and meningitis in particular. It concludes with a short discussion and recommendations for further efforts to strengthen capacities for epidemic preparedness and response in the Africa region. (excerpt)
Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Center for Pharmaceutical Management, Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus Program, 2001. iv, 9 p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00)As part of its contribution to USAID’s SO5—reduce the threat of infectious diseases of major public health importance, the Rational Pharmaceutical Management (RPM) Plus program is providing technical support to the national Tuberculosis (TB) program in Vietnam through the SO5 ID/TB Activity 3: Conduct TB drug procurement training in Vietnam. The RPM Plus assistance will facilitate Vietnam’s procurement of TB drugs under a secured World Bank project. Thomas Moore of RPM Plus and Hugo Vrakking of Royal Netherlands Tuberculosis Association (KNCV) traveled to Vietnam to conduct the training course. The Ministry of Health (MOH) has recently reorganized its procurement department, devolving procurement activities to respective vertical programs such as Tuberculosis, Malaria, and Hematology. Course participants (listed in Annex 1: Proceedings of the Training Workshop—Vietnam) are members of the management committee of the national TB program (NTP). All are expected to play some part in the procurement of TB drugs. (excerpt)
Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2001 Dec 28.  p.For the past 24 years, PATH has been developing, adapting, transferring, and introducing appropriate new health technologies for resource-poor populations. In 1987, USAID started funding PATH’s work in this area through a cooperative agreement with PATH called the Technologies for Child Health: HealthTech program. This agreement was renewed in 1990 and then again in 1996 as the Technologies for Health program (HealthTech III). This report primarily summarizes the activities under the program during the last agreement, but also reflects work under the entire term of HealthTech since so much of the work is a continuum. The primary goal of HealthTech has been to identify health needs that can be met with technology solutions, and then either identify existing technologies that need adapting to be affordable and appropriate, or develop new ones. This research and development phase includes design, development, scale-up, evaluation in the laboratory and field settings, and finally introduction of technologies for health, nutrition, and family planning. Over the last ten years, HealthTech has effectively scaled up these activities and developed a critical mass of in-house expertise in product and diagnostic design, engineering, evaluation, and introduction of developing world technologies. Multiple collaborations with private industry and global and local agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have been established. Under HealthTech and other similar programs, PATH to date has worked with 57 private-sector companies (21 U.S. firms, 14 additional industrial-world firms and 22 developing-world firms) and at least 40 public-sector partners (22 in the developed world and 18 in developing countries). The results of these collaborations have been to advance more than 30 economically sustainable technologies—17 of which are now in use in more than 25 developing countries. Six of these products are currently being (or have been) distributed worldwide by global agencies. (excerpt)