Your search found 22 Results
[Unpublished] 1979 Jul 16. 23, , 5 p. (EGY-02)Building on previous AID-supported research by the American University in Cairo, specifically a study of household contraceptive delivery, the Social Research Center (SRC) expanded a household distribution system tested in Shanawan to 38 rural villages in the Menoufia Governorate. The project, which cost US $919,440, was designed to test the effectiveness of the household-based approach to delivery of family planning (FP) services. Like the earlier project, this study was based on the assumptions that there was an unmet demand for contraceptives and that this demand could be systematically identified and met in a culturally acceptable way, using lay women as distributors. Once a community is systematically exposed to FP information and services, a community-based resupply system can effectively meet the ongoing demand for services. The project tests 4 different FP systems, where a first round of free household distribution is followed by: 1) free resupply at the clinic; 2) free resupply in the village; 3) resupply sold at the clinic; and 4) resupply sold at a village depot. Distribution and resupply agents were local women. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Villages were matched as far as possible on sociodemographic characteristics and contraceptive usage and were randomly assigned to one of the 4 types of delivery systems. Data were collected through a baseline survey conducted at the same time as the household distribution of contraceptives to assess contraceptive behavior. A follow-up survey conducted 9 months later with eligible women only (married, fecund, and age 15-44) was designed to evaluate the household delivery system and focused on contraceptive and fertility behavior. Prevalence increased from 19.1% at the baseline to 27.7% 8 months after the distribution (relative increase of 45%). The delivery system proved to be culturally, logistically, and administratively feasible. There was no significant difference in prevalence between those groups who were charged for a resupply of contraceptives and those who were not. Prevalence increased from 19.5 to 28.5% in the former group and from 18.7 to 26.9% in the latter. Based on this study, a modified version of the tested delivery system was implemented in collaboration with the Governorate of Menoufia among the entire rural population of 1.4 million. The modified system included a wider range of contraceptive methods as well as health and community development components.
[Washington, D.C.], U.S. Agency for International Development, Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination, 1979 Apr. 43 p. (A.I.D. Program Evaluation Discussion Paper No. 4)The current state of knowledge on design, installation and maintenance of rural water supply systems is surveyed. Present statistics suggest that it may be possible to provide safe water for everyone during the 1980-1990 period designated as the International Drinking Water Decade. The results on a regional basis are uneven. Africa is making rapid progress in providing rural water supply and may equal Latin America, which had been far ahead. Southeast Asia, however, represents a major problem. More than 60% of the world's population without reasonable access to water is in this area. There are a number of evaluations underway, including studies by OECD, UNICF-WHO, IBRD, International Research Center, and a number of bilateral agencies like AID. All these evaluations have a non-hardware component of rural water programs in common. Maintaining the system once it is installed is one of the key elements in the long term success or failure of rural water schemes. There are 3 reasons for failure: 1) the technology; 2) the capability; and 3) the motivation. In many cases, lack of spare parts and motivation are to blame for system failure. There remains a need to strengthen the capacity of national water programs. Unless this takes place, there will be no sustained progress. Commitment on all levels will help insure continual success of rural water efforts. Successful programs will also require balance between hardware, community involvement, and repair and maintenence. One useful approach would be to fund programs, not projects. There are 2 activities that AID should consider: rehabilitation of existing systems and development of methodologies to measure consumer satisfaction with water systems. A need to: 1) keep abreast of technological development; 2) assess the need for manpower training; 3) encurage local manufacturers; 4) evaluate and strengthen the ability of national organizations and programs; 5) provide materials for health community involvement guidelines; and 6) collabotate and coordinate with other agencies exists.
Planning for health and development: a strategic perspective for technical cooperation. Volume II. Technical background papers.
Washington, D.C., Family Health Care, 1979, Sep 13. 2 281 p.This volume is 1 of a series of Family Health Care Reports. Section I of Volume II gives a detailed rationale for comprehensive multisectoral planning for health. Definitions, theoretical models and arguments, and empirical documentation of intersectoral linkages and implications for health programming are taken up. This section is background material for section IV (Volume I)--planning for health elements of a strategic perspective for National Health Development. Included is a lengthy examination of the empirical evidence supporting intersectoral approaches to health and development programming. Section II of Volume II gives the framework for assessment of planning for health in less developed countries. Empirical and qualitative approaches to assessment are discussed. An introduction to the analytic approach is given under the empirical approach. Cross-country analysis, the health planning process and the distribution of wealth is discussed. Experiences of less-developed countries are given in the section on qualitative approach as are assistance efforts of the World Health Organization and the US Agency for International Development. Training in international health planning is also covered. This section is background material for section II (Volume I)--assessment of experiences in planning for health in less-developed countries. The results of an empirical approach to assessment are largely used as input to section III, B.1--experiences of less-developed countries. The results of the qualitative approach to assessment correspond to each and every section of the assessment findings (Section III.B) in Volume I. The bibliography provides a list of general reference works relevant to planning for health and development in the Third World.
Washington, D.C., Focus International, Inc; May 11, 1979. 95 p.Findings from an investigation into evaluation of development activities designed to affect women in the 3rd World are presented. The methodology used in the investigation is described. Organizations reviewed are AID/Africa, AID/Asia, AID/Latin America and the Carribbean Bureau, AID/Near East, AID/Agency-wide projects, Inter-American Foundation, Peace Corps, World Bank, private and voluntary organizations and Canadian organizations. The scope of women in development activities is discussed and constraints to evaluations of projects designed to benefit women are examined. Evaluation activities by the organizations reviewed are summarized. Activities related to the issues raised in the investigation are discussed. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made regarding the need for a minimum data set, evaluation criteria, social analysis, coordination of women in development concerns within AID, information systems and policy related research findings. Profiles of development projects which identify women as beneficiaries and which have been evaluated are presented. AID profiles include 11 projects in Africa, 2 in Asia, 11 in Latin America and the Carribbean, 3 in the Near East and 6 Agency-wide projects. 10 projects undertaken by private and voluntary organizations and 1 funded by the Central America and Carribbean regional office of the Inter-American Foundation area also profiled. The following information is included in the profiles: project title and coding number, goegraphic area, sector addressed by the project, total cost and source of funds, duration, beneficiaries, purpose, organizational structure, summary evaluative statement, documentation.
In: Conference for Identification of Unmet Needs in Family Health Care in Anglophone Africa, 1979, London. Report of the Conference. [London, ICM and USAID, 1979]. 5 p..In this report of the Conference for Identification of Unmet Needs in Family Health Care in Anglophone Africa, meeting in London in 1979, objectives were reviewed and shortcomings of health care were outlined. Objectives included the following: giving leaders the opportunity to state their unmet needs in their own country in the field of maternal and child health and family planning; identifying the role of rural health personnel within such programs; and recommending individual midwives capable of implementing in-country programs aimed at meeting the needs. Adequate financial resources were considered to be the primary constraint against development of comprehensive health care services. Generally, there were insufficient facilities to meet the needs of the populations and overcrowding was often encountered. Maldistribution of facilities and services brought a concentration of available care in the urban areas and deficiencies in the rural areas. The scope of maternal and child health care in most countries left room for improvement. Health education, with emphasis on community participation, had been begun in many countries but required strengthening. Every country delegate thought that their health services were unduly concentrated in the urban areas and that the rural areas were neglected. No country had sufficient health personnel at any level, and equipment was scanty and frequently out-of-date. There was a growing realization of the need for the involvement of the community in all aspects of health care delivery. Points highlighted during discussions following presentations included approaches to establishing primary bealth care projects, with the identification, training and utilization of village level workers who were selected by the villages and who would work in their villages following training. The wide variety of care provided by traditional birth attendants highlight the need for training to be based on a spot description of the tasks they would be expected to perform. There were family planning programs in all of the countries, and the majority involved the midwives in some aspect of the program.
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, Research Triangle Institute and South East Consortium for International Development, 1979 Jun. 227 p. (Rural Development and Fertility Project; Contract AID/ta-CA-1)This document examines the available knowledge of migration and fertility, particularly among the rural poor. The chapters are as follows: "Who moves and why: an examination of current theory and evidence," "The cost-benefit model," "Non-economic theories," "Synthesis of the economic and non-economic approaches," "Migration and fertility: what do we know?" "Rural-urban migration: lower fertility for migrant women?" "Migration and fertility: change among women in the origin?" "Migration and fertility: proposed research items," "The likely migration and related rural fertility consequences of rural development programs," "Increased participation of the rural poor," "Expansion of off-farm employment opportunities," "Development of rural financial markets," "Extension of social services," "Development of rural marketing systems," and "Area development." Rural-urban migration can take any number of forms: migration to nearby or distant cities, to small, medium or large cities. Not all rural-urban migrants become unemployed in the capital city. All migrants do not permanently leave their rural villages; many leave and return several times. The different motives or structural situations underlying male vs. female migration may contribute to differential rural fertility responses to migration.
Washington, D.C., USAID, 1979 Dec. 246 p. (A.I.D. Program Evaluation Report No. 1.)USAID sponsored a workshop in April 1979 to identify from research and experience the circumstances under which direct family planning services or developmental activities are most effective in reducing population growth in specific developing countries. Background papers prepared for the workshop on family planning efforts in Java, Colombia, and Thailand showed that family planning alone, without socioeconomic developmental additions, had lowered fertility levels significantly. However, these programs did not consider other factors which might have been responsible as well. Most of the crosscultural studies which have been done show that family planning and development activities taken together will have the greatest impact of fertility declines. Political commitment to these programs is necessary. Such commitment facilitates localized family planning activity, the most effective delivery system system. Administrative capability and socioeconomic/cultural acceptability of family planning are factors of major importance also. The workshop examined experience and made projections as to whether various countries, based on certain demographic and socioeconomic trends, will be able to achieve annual crude birth rates of 20/1000 by the year 2000. Countries were classified as certain, probably, possible, and unlikely. Flexibility of approach is urged.
Report to USAID of the Ad Hoc Consultative Panel of Depot Medroxyprogesterone, New York City, December 7-8, 1978.
[Unpublished] . 59 p.An Ad Hoc Consultative Panel on Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA) reviewed the results of animal toxicology studies and available information on the use, benefits, and risks of DMPA in humans in the U.S. and abroad. It also reviewed the conclusions of the World Health Organization (WHO) Toxicological Review Panel. Based on the information available, the Ad Hoc Consultative Panel recommended that the USAID make DMPA available to nations which request it. At present, DMPA is approved in the U.S. for treatment of endometrial cancer, but not for use as a contraceptive. It is approved for contraception in 76 developed and developing countries and has unusual popularity in many settings. The Panel found that DMPA has been used widely for clinical gynecologic uses at doses higher than that recommended for contraception, and no reports have been made of significant adverse effects. DMPA is the only available long-acting injectable contraceptive and has a higher use effectiveness than any other reversible contraceptive method. It has no relation to coitus, requires infrequent administration, and is provided outside the home. There is a mild effect on carbohydrate tolerance and a mild adrenal suppressive effect, but these are probably less than similar effects caused by oral contraceptives. Menstrual side effects are the most important complaints. Initially, there is irregular spotting, staining or bleeding; later, amenorrhea develops in 60% of women. No reason was found to support the Federal Drug Administration's decision not to approve DMPA as a contraceptive in the U.S.
Directory of development resources: on-call technical support services, information clearinghouses, field research facilities, newsletters, data banks, training.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Agency for International Development, Office of Development Information and Utilization, 1979 Jun. 345 p.This directory was compiled and published by the Office of Development Information and Utilization (DIU) at the headquarters of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The purpose of the directory is to increase awareness, particularly among less developed countries, of currently available development resources. The resources covered are U.S.-based data banks; U.S.-based information clearinghouses; newsletters and journals published by U.S. organizations; on-call technical support services available through USAID arrangements with U.S. institutions; and national, regional, and international development institutions and organizations located outside the U.S., primarily in less developed countries, which offer one or more of the following: information clearinghouses, newsletters and journals, research, and training. With a few exceptions, the resources listed were funded by USAID. The directory begins with publications and services of the Office of Development Information and Utilization including technicians on call for development; research literature for development; research literature summary; and USAID research and development abstracts. Maps of Africa, Middle East, South Asia, Far East, Central America and the Caribbean, South America, United States, and the World are also included. Forms for readers' comments complete the directory.
In: Zatuchni GI, Sobrero AJ, Speidel JJ, Sciarra JJ, ed. Vaginal contraception: new developments. Hagerstown, Md., Harper and Row, 1979. 66-81.Although condoms are still produced from a variety of materials, the popularity of the condom increased mainly after the dipped latex process was developed in the 1930s. Condoms went with US troops all over the world during World War Two. It is only in recent years that strict quality standards were established. Many countries, including the US, measure quality in the number of pinholes acceptable per unit, the number of acceptable holes varying considerably between countries. Japan has made a standard based on leakage as measured by sodium ion concentration. Various types, colors, names, and sizes of condoms are popular in different countries. Large scale distribution in recent years has raised the question of shelf life. It is generally thought that a condom kept in a sealed tinfoil package will stay good indefinitely. Nonetheless, for management as well as safety purposes smaller shipments are preferred over large shipments in mass distribution programs. Condom popularity is partly associated with the number and accessibility of distribution points; therefore, it has become more prevalent to use both government units and regular commercial distribution points for popularizing the condom, and there is reason to believe that this type of program will grow. In light of the current interest in integration of contraceptive programs with health care and development efforts, population specialists should look closely at the condom and the commercial resources available for its distribution. A series of tables gives gross numbers of condoms supplied by international donor agencies in the developing countries, 1975-78.
[Unpublished] . 56 p.USAID has developed its program in Niger from one of emergency food aid and drought relief to one of medium term activity. The program has emphasized increased food production and small farmers. By December 1977, the supported programs will be the Niger Cereals Program, Phase 1; Niamey Department Rural Development, Phase 1; Niger Range and Livestock, Phase 1; the Niger Rural Health Program; and, INRAN Agricultural Economic Research Program. These programs represent $40 million to be spent in the next few years. The Niger Cereals Program, scheduled to complete its first phase in FY 79, represents $13 million and the Mission is submitting a $21 million (U.S. inputs) second phase, 1979-83. In both phases the Cereals program's investment amounts to $42 million over 8 years. Two programs recommended for funding are one for training and education of a rural development cadre, and one for managing irrigation in arid and semiarid climates. Regional activities under the Sahel Devleopment Program are also supported by USAID. Support for the Niger Departmetn of Water and Forestry, the Niger Rural Roads Program, and development of better watered agricultural lands in the south is recommended.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GYNAECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS. 1979; 17(2):102-4.A brief summary of the historical development of the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) and a review of the organization's recent activities was presented. Efforts to develop an international association of midwives began in 1922. The 1st World Congress of Midwives was held in 1954 and since that time the Congress has met once every 3 years. National midwife associations from 51 countries belong to the ICM. The goals of the organization are 1) to improve the knowledge, training, and professional status of midwives; 2) to promote improved maternal and child care in member countries; and 3) to further information exchange. Since 1961 the ICM and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics have cooperated in a joint study of midwife training and practice. In 1966 the study group completed its 1st report on the status of maternal care around the world and made a number of recommendations for improving the training of midwives and for establishing uniform licensing requirements. It soon became apparent that these problems could not be dealt with on a worldwide basis, and 12 working parties in different regions were established to investigate the problem at the local level and also to make recommendation in regard to providing family planning services in the context of maternal and child health programs. Each working party has a Field Director who seeks to implement the recommendations of the group. Field Directors have also arranged seminars in reproductive health for rural health workers and especially for traditional birth attendants. The ICM also works in cooperation with the European Economic Community, WHO, IPPF, and several other international agencies. The activities of the working parties have received financial support from USAID.
Washington, D.C., USAID, 1979. 26 p.Senegal is a poor country with limited economic resources in the Sudan-Sahelian climatic zone. The population of 5.1 million is largely rural, with 70% working in agriculture. The mean per capita income is about $300 per year with many farmers making $75 per year. The AID development strategy emphasizes assisting the rural poor in agricultural development, particularly the groundnut basin, the Fleuve, and the Casamance, which have the greater concentrations of rural poor and the most potential for increased production. Small-scale farms consisting of 360,000 units account for 70% of the population and produce over 95% of Senegal's agricultural production. With the exception of lands held by religious leaders, there are no tenant-landlord relationships or landless poor classes. Health programs are also needed to increase agricultural productivity. Human resource development is needed because people must be sensitized to the need for change and trained to play an active role in their development. The key limitations to implementation of projects are lack of trained Senegalese, administrative delays, and local costs. Basic infrastructure development is necessary for Senegal's long-term development, particularly large-scale irrigation projects.
Population and Development Review. 1979 Sep; 5(3):387-403.4 types of data are commonly presented in estimates of population size and trends: population size, crude birth rates, changes in crude birth rates, and measures of rates of population growth. World population sizes range from 3920 million by the Worldwatch Institute to 4147 million by the Environmental Fund. Crude birth rate estimates range from a low of 26.6/1000 (AID) to 33.7/1000 (Environmental Fund). With China the range for developing countries is from 30.8 to 40.2/1000. The world crude birth rate dropped by 12% between 1950-55 and 1970-75. Mauldin and Berelson postulate that the birth rate in the developing world declined from 41 to 35.5/1000 between 1965-75. Declines in the birth rate have exceeded those in the death rate. The United Nations (UN) data, above all others, has seniority in authority and experience in collecting and evaluating national data. The UN is less concerned with day to day changes and takes a longer, broader perspective. The Bureau of the Census is the next most reliable authority for data. Their compendium presents basic demographic data from every country in the world. The Bureau is very conservative about accepting new sources of data. The Population Reference Bureau is an intermediate source which provides as early warning system for AID in contraceptive use and fertility data.
Agenda. 1979 Apr; 2(3):25-28.USAID is proposing for FY 1980 economic assistance to Israel for $785 million, Egypt $750 million plus $220 million under P.L. 490, Jordan, $60 million, Syria, $60 million, Lebanon, 0 (since October, 1975, United States provided $107 million, only 1/2 of which is expended and is available for housing, water, health and other urgent requirements), Yemen, $14 million. Israel has reduced its balance of payments through cutbacks and budgeting from $4 billion to $2.6 billion between 1975-77. Egypt's balance of payments situation was precarious in 1977. Since then, massive Arab aid and increased disbursement rates from the United States have reduced Egypt's debt. Jordan's economic growth averages 11% a year. Syria's funds will be addressed to basic human needs, particularly in rural areas. Because of cultural differences, U.S. sponsored programs are moving slowly. Lebanon's successful training programs will be continued. Yemen's per capita GNP is estimated at $390 but the quality of life reveals widespread poverty.
Voorburg, The Hague, Netherlands, International Statistical Institute, (1979), (World Fertility Survey) 91 pThe World Fertility Survey assesses the current state of fertility through promotion and support of nationally representative, internationally comparable, and scientifically conducted sample surveys of fertility behavior in as many countries as possible. With the collaboration of the UN, the WFS is conducted by the International Statistical Institute in cooperation with the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. It is funded by the UN and USAID. The position of developing counties at the end of 1978 were as follows: 11 intending to participate; 9 in the preparatory/data collection stage; 12 in data processing stage; 17 in analysis stage; and 1 completed. Of the participating countries 12 are in Africa, 14 in Asia and the Pacific, 1 in Europe, 5 in the Middle East, 4 in the Caribbean, and 14 in Latin America. Summaries of committees and meetings are included in this report. Two national seminars, one in Nepal and one in Sri Lanka, were held in 1978 and focussed attention and publication of Country Reports No. 1. The first of a series of workshops on data analysis was convened in Bombay and organized jointly with UNESCAP and the International Institute for Population Studies.
In: Raphael, D., ed. Breastfeeding and food policy in a hungry world. New York, Academic Press, 1979. p. 265-268USAID's Office of Nutrition supports research activity in infant weaning foods and breastfeeding at the Human Lactation Center. The project involves health and anthropological fieldwork that analyzes reasons for adverse trends in breastfeeding. Along with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Office of Nutrition supports efforts to develop low-cost nutritious food and intermediate technology for young children. A low-cost extrusion cooker for producing precooked childrens' food is being used in Central America, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines. Other research activities by the Office of Nutrition include evaluations of preschool feeding and the identification of time and technology constraints on low-income women. Breastfeeding data is also collected by the Office of Population. A combined "milk pill" and ovulation suppressant is being researched at Johns Hopkins University. The milk pill is designed to counteract the adverse effect of oral contraceptives on quantity of milk and duration of lactation.
In: Raphael, D., ed. Breastfeeding and food policy in a hungry world. New York, Academic Press, 1979. p. 277-285Pregnant Indian women and nursing mothers are often deficient in absorbable iron, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin C, and calcium. These nutrients combined in an oil base with a protein fortificant could be marketed as a medicine. Project Poshak and the Kasa project are two maternal-child-health nutrition programs in which breastfeeding, solid food weaning and preschool child care were emphasized. Nontribal Hindu women have many dietary strictures during pregnancy which contribute to anemia and protein vitamin deficiency. Poshnak project influenced other projects, including national feeding programs, special nutrition programs, and take-home food and child care services. Traditional child rearing practises have outlasted modern agricultural production. The delayed introduction of supplements to the breastfeeding child and female child neglect continue despite availability of nutritional food.n unexpected result of both projects was that acceptance of birth control and family planning greatly increased.
Speech delivered at the Harvard Institute for International Development, March 19, 1979.. 10.Overly optimistic reports of fertility decline overlook problems still to be faced and slow the momentum of population programs. Many developing countries which have enjoyed success in lowering birth rates have also lowered the priority of family planning programs. The U.S. Census Bureau predicts world population will reach between 5.9 and 6.8 billion by 2000. The decision to have a child is a complex one not totally understood by the scientific community. Family planning programs that succeed in one area, fail in another. Expensive programs fail while inexpensive ones succeed. Finding the right program for the right situation in the right country is a challenge still to be met.
People. 1979; 6(2):11-13.The World Population Conference at Bucharest held in 1974 resulted in population assistance agencies revising their approaches to population activities. The agencies adhere to a new criteria for selecting programme countries, although priorities are still being given to countries where population activities will have the greatest impact. With respect to the manner of delivery of services, the agencies use imaginative approaches which require a great deal of flexibility, particularly when such approaches are being applied in the area of social development, where results are difficult to quantify. Many agencies are also in agreement that it is best to leave the responsibility of defining the problems and recommending strategies to the governments concerned. A problem frequently encountered by aid projects is translating the integrated concept of development and population into actual operational program. Another problem is the tendency of many agencies to restrict population funds to population activities, leaving population-related, socioeconomic activities (e.g., status of women, old-age security) to be funded by other development projects. As funding of population activities represent only a tiny fraction of total aid funds, new approaches remain to be discovered to solve population problems.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of State, January 1979. 35 pIn this 3rd annual report of the NSC Ad Hoc Group on Population Policy, world population trends as assessed in 1978 are reviewed, the continuing efforts of developing countries and donor organizations to curtail excessive population growth are described; and courses of action that are likely to prove effective are discussed. Focus is exclusively on the population problems of developing countries, for it is in these countries that population growth rates are highest and are a major contributing factor to the problems of malnutrition, unemployment and underemployment, urban overcrowding, deteriorating habitat, and environmental degration. The report's 5 main sections - all emphasizing 1978 developments and their implications for the future - deal with the following: 1) general demographic trends and program developments; 2) U.S. government developments relating to individual population issues; 3) developments in U.S. population assistance programs; 4) developments in population assistance of other donors; and 5) conclusions as to overall strategy, program emphasis, and long-range prospects. Events over the past year and the reports and analyses of missions in developing countries have confirmed the belief that the most successful population programs usually involve the following key elements: 1) leadership commitment; 2) rooting family planning in community life; 3) advancing the legal, social, and economic status of women; 4) expanded use of paramedics and provision of personalized family planning advice and support at the village level; 5) broader population education and awareness and emphasis on population goals in economic development; 6) biomedical research and the development of better means of contraception; 7) raising the age of marriage, particularly for women; and 8) improved organization, management, and administration of population programs.
AID investment of $1 billion in family planning/population is resulting in sharp birthrate declines.
Family Planning Perspectives. January-February 1979; 11(1):45-46.The U.S. Agency for International Development spent approximately $1 billion on family planning/population assistance and related research in the years 1965-1977. 1/3 of this total was channelled to a variety of international agencies for use in family planning program activities, training, and education efforts in many countries. AID funds were also spent in the following areas in this order of support: 1) bilateral assistance; 2) contraceptive supplies; 3) demographic and fertility research; 4) administration of programs; and 5) support for institutions. This funding is tabulated. Donations from other sources for family planning efforts during this period are tabulated. The effects are finally showing; birth rates have fallen sharply in recent years in such countries as Korea, Colombia, Indonesia, and Thailand.