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AID/UN collaboration in social sector activities in Asia (trip report of a visit to the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Bangladesh and India--Summer, 1977).
[Unpublished] Nov. 1977. 33 p.A trip was undertaken subsequent to and in conjunction with the 1977 UNICEF Executive Board Meeting in Manila. It included visits to and consultations with AID missions in 4 countries. The focus is primarily on coordination between AID and UN programs in the social sectors. In general, relations between AID and UN development agencies are good, but lack of coordination exists. There are many urban problems in the Philippines. The government's main focus is "Project Compassion,"--an attempt to reach rural population with interrelated services involving food production, nutrition, population, and environment. Indonesia has a large number of externally supported projects in AID priority areas, and many domestic agencies responsible for them. There are nutrition programs and a village water supply program. In Thailand, WHO, UNICEF, and AID all have a similar outlook on health and population matters. There are 4 priorities: 1) population/family planning; 2) water and food-borne diseases; 3) respiratory diseases; and 4) vector-borne diseases, especially malaria. Primary health care has been introduced into the provinces. A community school in a slum was visited. The Economic Commisision for South Asia and the Pacific has established a rural development task force, and would like to establish additional task forces to bring together UN agencies. This does not appear to be very successful. At the UNESCO regional office for education, social science research was discussed, as was the effectiveness of the International Bureau for Education International Educational Reporting Service project. The goal of the AID program in Bangladesh is to help achieve food grain self sufficiency by 1985. AID and UN agency interests coincide in the food-for-work programs of the World Food Program, and to a smaller extent in UNICEF's child feeding program. Indian programs are also discussed.
[Unpublished] 1977. 99 p.This report was prepared in response to a request from the Asian Bureau of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) that all USAID missions in Asia develop national profiles on the status of women in their countries. The 1st section of the report, "Women's Legal and Social Status," is based on the 1974 Bangladesh Population Census and presents information on the laws and customs related to women's property and inheritance rights, marriage, and divorce. The 2nd section, "The Rural Woman," provides information on the role of women in rural society. Although 90% of the 76.2 women in Bangladesh are rural, data in this area are limited. Statistics on Bangladeshi women are presented in an Appendix. These data reveal the subordinate position of women in Bangladesh society. Females account for only 0.9 million of the 20.5 million population in the labor force. Of the 7.8 million primary school graduates, 2.7 million are female; of the 4.0 million secondary school graduates, 0.7 million are female. Women constitute 0.07 million of the 0.7 million college graduates. An average number of 6 children/family is reported, and 0.8 million (4.7% of eligible couples) females practice family planning. Recognition of the contributions being made by women to Bangladesh society and development of these activities through additional training and support is urged. Greater participation of women in agriculture and other development activities should be encouraged. Recent indicators of the changing status of women in Bangladesh include the creation of a Women's Affairs Division within the President's Secretariat. In addition, 10% of public sector jobs are being reserved for women.
Impact of population assistance to an African country: Department of State, Agency for International Development. Report to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States
U.S. General Accounting Office. Comptroller General, Washington, D.C., United States, 1977. (ID-77-3) v, 65 p.Add to my documents.
Washington, D.C., Family Health Care, Inc., May 31, 1977. 132 p.Current demographic characteristics for SAHEL countries are presented along with a health delivery strategy based on a distributive philosophy and linking health activities with other development efforts. Resource allocation is proposed within a village-based system, integrating the following components: 1) nutrition; 2) village water; 3) environmental sanitation; and 4) communicable disease control. Investment in a health services infrastructure is anticipated to be a factor in socioeconomic development. Improved health should stimulate labor productivity, enhance the role of women, and increase survival, hence population growth and development. Health services at the village level will be divided into 4 levels: arrondissement, cercle, regional, and national. Specific action recommendations proposed are: 1) organization of a permanent health group to investigate and disseminate information to member countries of SAHEL and to examine experiences in other countries; 2) sponsorship of a ministry-level conference to implement health strategy recommendations; 3) enhancement of health policy, planning, and resource allocation capabilities by development of policy and planning infrastructures by donor organizations, which would also provide training; and 4) incorporation in the next 3- or 5-year plan of SAHEL countries village-based health systems.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Accounting Office, July 12, 1977. (ID-77-10) 66 p.This report focuses on the population situation in Pakistan, interrelationships in that country between socioeconomic development and population growth, and the effectiveness of U.S. AID-funded population-related activities. The population-connected program since 1973 has emphasized continuous motivation through fieldworkers, innundation of contraceptives, and a national policy of incentives to promote smaller families. None of these 3 areas has succeeded as planned and hoped. Although family planning efforts focused on provision of information, motivation, and delivery of services, the efforts fell short of targets. Reasons for this failure are: 1) social, economic, and cultural factors; 2) civil strife; 3) administrative problems; and 4) lack of a pro-family planning government policy. AID experience in Pakistan illustrates the need for proper evaluation data and a program which sets family planning programs within the larger context of socioeconomic development. It is recommended that AID no longer fund programs in countries where the atmosphere is not pro-family planning.
.. Washington, D.C., U.S. General Accounting Office, June 23, 1977 65 p. (ID-77-3)Although the population policy of Ghana stresses integration of population control with national development policy, little actual integration has occurred. Development efforts encouraging small families will be more actively supported by USAID in the future. Ghana's high birth rate (3%) impedes social and economic development. As the mortality rate falls, the growth rate rises. The results of population growth include increased food imports, crowded health facilities, and a smaller number of eligible students in school. More than 70% of the people live in rural areas; 60% employment is in agriculture. Experience in the Danfa project showed family planning was more acceptable to rural people when integrated with other medical services.
London, England, IPPF, 1977. 428 p.This report describes IPPF's world-wide program from 1975-77. Financial and statistical statements are accompanied by narrative texts. In 1975 the number of family planning acceptors increased by about 5% or 1.8 million reached directly by IPPF-funded service programs. Between 1971 and 1974 the overall acceptance rate for organized family planning programs in countries with government programs was about 35/1000 women aged 15-44. The acceptance rate of IPPF-supported programs increased from 2.1 to 2.7/1000. IPPF's contribution was about 8% of the 1974 total. As a distributing and purchasing agency for contraceptive supplies and medical equipment, IPPF purchased $8.5 million worth of commodities in 1975, $7.5 million in 1976, and $7 million in 1977. About 2/3 represent oral contraceptives and condoms. The world summary of projected expenditures, 1977, includes 20.7%/information and education, 21.6%/medical and clinical, 20.4%/administration, 14.2%/commodities, 7.6%/community-based distribution, 6.2%/training, 3.2%/evaluation, and 1.6%/fund raising. Regional reports include a program description of the regional office, financial statements, clinic service statements, program descriptions of grant receiving associations, and a brief summary of expenditure.
[Unpublished] 1977 Jun. 169 p.Population and development policy decisions must be based on accurate demographic data in order to correctly formulate priorities in budgets and expenditures. Family planning as a public policy cannot be imposed upon private citizens; it must be freely chosen. The question remains: what determines fertility in the private sector and what can government do to align policy with performance? Research and analysis is needed to develop policy in keeping with local customs, standards, and individual sensibilities. Should more money be spent on education, health care, or development? Research from poor countries is spotty and disorganized. More money is spent on reduction of infant mortality than on family planning. Fertility control is still a controversial subject. Funds supplied for population and health are barely matched by many developing countries whose priorities lean toward agriculture and nutrition. In Haiti the 5-year development plan ignores the interactions between population growth and economic development. If the current level of fertility continues, it will act as a deterrent to development. A population impact analysis of El Salvador examines the effect AID policies and programs have on fertility control. Implementation of a policy in its first stages is described for Guatemala. Family models and global models show touchpoints where public policy might interface with private practice. Rural development implies increased production, equal opportunities, and a low fertility rate. All 3 are interrelated and affected by demographic events. Rising incomes, below a threshold level, has increased the fertility rate among the very poor.
In: Watson, W.B., ed. Family planning in the developing world: a review of programs. New York, Population Council, 1977. p. 54-55The government of Honduras included a population policy in its National Development Plan for the period 1974-1979. This policy will be implemented by providing information regarding responsible parenthood, by using natural and technical resources to produce a well-nourished and creative population, and by applying the principles of voluntary participation in family planning programs. The 2 family planning programs in Honduras are the government maternal and child health program and the Family Planning Association of Honduras program. The government program, initiated in 1968, operates 34 clinics which offer family planning along with prenatal and postnatal care, child care, and nutrition education services. The Family Planning Association, established in 1961, operates 2 clinics and served 42,000 people during 1975. 9000 of this group were 1st acceptors. Oral contraceptives were chosen by 80% of the new acceptors; 13% chose IUDs and 5% chose injectables. The Association's information and education activities included conferences, talks, courses, seminars, and home visits. Additionally, the Association is operating a demonstration community-based distribution program with financial assistance from the International Planned Parenthood Federation. 40 workers in each of 2 cities provide contraceptives in their own neighborhoods.
Planned Parenthood-World Population Washington Memo W-5. 1977 Mar 25; 4.When questioned about his plans and personal views on the administration of AID family planning/population aid, new AID Administrator-designate John J. Gilligan replied that the family planning policies would not be changed. Congressmen Solarz and Beilenson supported whatever funding necessary for an effective international family planning program. Gilligan assured that the President and Secretary of State consider the population problem very important and that they support the search for effective responses to it.
Reproductive science and contraceptive development: recommendations to international assistance agencies.
In: Rockefeller Foundation. Bellagio 4 population conference. A conference sponsored by The Rockefeller Foundation, Ulvshale, Denmark, June 7-9, 1977. New York, Rockefeller Foundation, November 1977. p. 63-77Focus is on the findings of a 2-year study of reproduction science and contraceptive development that are of particular relevance to the work of international asssitance agencies. The first 3 of 20 recommendations made in the Report's Summary of Findings and Recommendations are especially important. The recommendations are: 1) a variety of safe and effective methods of fertility regulation beyond those now available is urgently needed, and there must be increased efforts ranging from fundamental research on the reproductive processes to targeted activities in contraceptive development; 2) more attention must be given to studies of intermediate and long-term safety of methods yet to be developed; and 3) by 1980, allocations for research in the reproductive sciences related to contraceptive development and evaluation by governmental agencies should comprise substantially higher proportions of total expenditures for medical research and development assistance than is now the case. Worldwide expenditures for the reproductive sciences and contraceptive development reached a peak in 1974 and have since decreased in 1975 and 1976. Clearly, the amount of relevant research being supported throughout the world has declined at a time when the promise of major new developments is extremely high and when bringing new products to market calls for large expenditures of funds to assure their efficacy and safety. Additional focus is given to institutional and human resources, contraceptive development in the public sector, regulation and ethics of human experimentation, the special conference on contraceptive development in the public sector that was held April 27-29, 1977, rationale for support of reproductive science and contraceptive research, institutional arrangements for research in reproduction and contraceptive development, financial requirements, and new funding mechanisms.
Honolulu, Hawaii, East-West Communication Institute, May 1977. (A synthesis of Population Communication Experience Paper No. 3) 84 pThe extent to which conferences and meetings have been involved in the development of the meetings have been involved in the development of the population/family planning field and particularly in the development of communication as a component of population/family planning programs is examined. Significant international, regional, and problem-oriented meetings that have taken place during the last decade are reviewed in terms of their purpose, subject matter, sponsorship, and impact on world awareness and national policies and programs. Topics covered include the roles of various agencies and organizations which organize fund conferences related to population communication, conferences with and for the mass media, conferences and meetings as components of specific projects, and the development of meetings on the national level. A detailed case study of a conference is presented to show how conferences are planned, conducted, and evaluated, and to identify desirable and undesirable aspects of conference management. An overall look at conferences and identification of their positive elements and their major shortcomings, by presenting guidelines for conference planners and managers, and by assessing trends and alternatives for population/family planning conferences in the future, is included.(AUTHORS', MODIFIED)
Subcommittee on Foreign Operations and Related Agencies, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. House of Representatives, March 15, 1977.. 11.The U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) had provided 1 billion dollars of population program assistance worldwide in the decade since 1965. A summary of the AID population program during the decade is provided. In addition to providing family planning aid to many countries on a bilateral basis, AID has funded research, program administration, and data collection. Demographic results in the 10-year period are tabulated. Particular attention is paid to family planning achievements in India and China. In countries with vigorous family planning programs, especially recipients of large-scale AID funding, fertility decreases have been effected. Technology has been developed. The AID program has shown that the majority of women in underdeveloped countries want and will try to control their fertility.
Family Planning Perspectives. November-December 1977; 9(6):286-292.When Margaret Sanger initiated the American birth control movement in the early twentieth century, she stressed female and sexual liberation. Victorian views on morality have since combined with the compromises necessitated to achieve legitimacy for the movement to lead to a desexualization of the birth control movement. The movement's communication now concentrates on reproduction and ignores sex; it emphasizes family planning and population control but does not mention sexual pleasure. Taboos against publicity concerning contraceptives are more powerful even than laws restricting the sale or distribution of contraceptives themselves in many countries. The movement must recover its earlier revolutionary stance.
A guide to sources of family planning program assistance. Guide des sources d'assistance dans le domaine dia planning familial.
Population Reports. Series J: Family Planning Programs. 1977 Mar; (15): p.This edition on Population Reports is intended to serve family planning administrators as a general guide to the major sources of assistance for ongoing program activities. Others seeking assistance for new programs may also find it useful. This guide also describes the major components of effective family planning services, indicates some of the sources that provide funds for each of them, and describes briefly the objectives and funding priorities of major assistance agencies. (excerpt)
Front Lines 15(11): 2. March 31, 1977.An AID plan to focus on the interrelationship of family planning and development is described. Research into such areas as the relationship of fertility to women's status and opportunity, health, and changing pattern of income distribution will be undertaken. Encouraging indications in controlling the population growth of developing countries include the involvement of government recognition of the relationship of family planning and development and declining birthrates. Programs need to be locally developed, attuned to the needs of the people to achieve success. Major population planning activities of the 1978 budget include family planning delivery services ($53 million), manpower and institutional development ($22.2 million), education and information ($18.4 million), fertility control techniques and operations research ($15.6 million), demographic data collection and analysis ($14.2 million), population policy ($13.1 million), and U.N. Fund for Population Activities ($28 million).