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  1. 1

    World population growth and response: 1965-1975. A decade of global action.

    Population Reference Bureau [PRB]

    Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau, 1976 Apr. 271 p.

    An overview of major population developments between 1965-1975 occurring worldwide, regionally and within countries is presented. The world population situation is discussed with reference to declining birthrates, but increasing population size which fostered the historic spread of population action during the decade, particularly multilateral and bilateral support for population programs of developing countries. The 1974 World Population Conference in Bucarest highlighted the controversy surrounding the causes and solutions of population related problems. The relationship between population and development, specifically the choice between implementing socioeconomic development programs or population/family planning programs formed the basis of the controversy. The population related problems and actions discussed include: health care system, family planning and service delivery, food, urbanization, and international migration. The interrelationships between women's rights, women's status, and fertility and the significance of induced abortion are also discussed. The specific population situation of 143 countries within 8 world regions are reviewed. The discussion highlights population policies, family planning services, and the projects supported by external aid. The activities of the UN system of agencies assisting countries with population programs are described. USAID has been the foremost supporter of global action and supports the following types of activities: demographic data collection and analysis, population policy development, biomedical and operational research, development and strengthening of family planning services, communication, and manpower, and institutional development. The activities of 43 private organizations are also reviewed. The 1965 and 1975 estimates of basic demographic data, i.e., birthrate, death rate, rate of natural increase, time to double population, and per capita gross national product, for each region and country conclude the report.
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  2. 2


    Menes RJ

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Office of International Health, Division of Planning and Evaluation, 1976. 144 p. (Syncrisis: the dynamics of health, XIX)

    This report uses available statistics to examine health conditions in Senegal and their interaction with socioeconomic development. Background data are presented, after which population, health status, nutrition, environmental health, health infrastructure, facilities, services and manpower, national health policy and planning, international organizations, and the Sahel are discussed. Diseases such as malaria, measles, tuberculosis, trachoma and venereal diseases are endemic in Senegal, and high levels of infant and childhood mortality exist throughout the country but especially in rural areas. Diarrhea, respiratory infections, and neonatal tetanus contribute to this mortality and are evidence of the poor health environment, and lack of basic services including nutrition assistance, health education, and potable water. Nutrition in Senegal appears to be good in general, but seasonal and local variations sometimes produce malnutrition. Lowered fertility rates would reduce infant and maternal mortality and morbidity and might slow the present decline in per capita food intake. At present the government of Senegal has no population policy and almost no provisions for family planning services. Health services are inadequate and inefficient, with shortages of all levels of health manpower, poor planning, and overemphasis on curative services.
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  3. 3


    Loomis SA

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Office of International Health, Division of Planning and Evaluation, 1976. 92 p. (Syncrisis: the dynamics of health, XVII)

    This article uses available statistics to analyze health conditions in Bangladesh and their impact on the country's socioeconomic development. Background information on the country is first given, after which population characteristics, health status, nutrition, national health policy and adminstration, health services and programs, population programs, environmental sanitation, health sector resources, financing of health care and donor assistance are examined. Bangladesh's 3% annual population increase is expected to increase already great population pressure and to have a negative impact on the health status of the population. Although reliable health statistics are lacking, infant mortality is estimated at 140 per 1000, 40% of all deaths occur in the 0-4 age group, and maternal mortality is high. Infectious diseases exacerbated by malnutrition are the main causes of death. 4 key factors are responsible for the general malnutrition: 1) rapidly growing population, 2) low per capita income, 3) high incidence of diarrheal diseases, and 4) dietary practices that restrict nutrient intake. Most of the population has access only to traditional health services, and medical education is hospital oriental and curative, with minimal emphasis on public health. The level of environmental sanitation is extremely low.
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  4. 4

    World Fertility Survey (five-year extension).

    International Statistical Institute [ISI]

    Proposal submitted to Research Division, Office of Population, Agency for International Development, Wash., D.C., Feb. 1976. 60 p

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  5. 5

    Population programs.


    In: International Population Conference of the World Population Society, Wash., D.C., 1975. Wash., D.C., World Population Society, 1976. pp. 143-147

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  6. 6

    Country paper-Philippines

    Philippines. Commission on Population

    In: Inter-Governmental Coordinating Committee (IGCC) and The Population Commission of the Philippines. Financial management of population/family planning programmes. (A Report of the IGCC Regional Workshop/Seminar on the Financial Management of Population/Family Planning Programmes, Manila, Philippines, March 15-17, 1976). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, IGCC, [1976]. 139-56.

    The Philippine government indicated its support for family planning as an organized policy in 1968. Since that time, the program has received financial support from the government and from various international organizations, most notably USAID and UNFPA. The Philippine national program has experimented with certain incentive policies to influence family size. The Commission on Population is the governmental central policy-making, planning, and funding agency for population concerns. The Commission's approach is noncoercive. It stresses clinic service, training, information/education/communication, and research. Funding and financial management for the program are discussed. There is a need to increase the program's outreach to rural communities. Planning must originate from provincial and regional levels, not from central administration. Experiments have been done to involve rural workers and to treat family planning as an integral part of the national development program. Recommendations are made for ways in which to improve existing service and extend it into other areas of planning and research.
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  7. 7

    Country paper-Nepal.

    Nepal. National Family Planning Project

    In: Inter-governmental Coordinating Committee (IGCC) and The Population Commission of the Philippines. Financial management of population/family planning programmes. (A Report of the IGCC Regional Workshop/Seminar on the Financial Management of Population/Family Planning Programmes, Manila, Philippines, March 15-17, 1976). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, IGCC, [1976]. 132-8.

    The population of Nepal has nearly doubled in the years 1941-1971, from more than 6 million to almost 12 million. This equals a growth rate of 2.07% annually. The population density per square kilometer is 81 and the average family size is 5.5. Based on past growth rate trends, population is estimated to be 16 million by 1986. The seriousness of the population problem is heightened by the prevailing early marriage system among the rural population and the very low level of literacy in the country. Family planning services have been provided by the private sector, in the form of Family Planning Association of Nepal, and by the government since 1968. The organizational set-up of the Family Planning and Maternal and Child Health Project of the government is diagrammed. This program provides free services at 265 clinics throughout the country. Special attention is given to prenatal, postnatal, immunization, and nutrition education care to combat the extremely high infant mortality rate in Nepal. Charts present family planning and maternal and child health achievements in the last several years. Funding and financial management are discussed. Foreign assistance is badly needed by the program.
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  8. 8

    U.S. development aid programs in West Africa. (Committee Print)

    United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Committee on International Relations

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, March 22, 1976. 56 p

    A report of the staff survey team of the Committee on International Relations, whose review had the objectives of assessing the opportunities, challenges and obstacles to the introduction of effective family planning programs and population control programs into the West African environment, evaluates several aspects of U.S. development assistance programs in West Africa including: 1) population/family planning programs; 2) the Senegal River Basin project; and 3) reimbursable development programs in Nigeria. Population planning activities are reviewed for Nigeria; Ghana; Sierra Leone; Ivory Coast; Upper Volta; Senegal; and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). It is concluded that despite the clear requirement for most nations in West Africa to curb high population growth rates if economic development is to be facilitated, little or nothing is being done in the countries visited. Information is provided for each country on family planning and population projects and organizations; sources of aid and funding; and health services available, concluding with a summary and comment. The Senegal River Basin project is reviewed, concluding that alternate strategies of fulfilling the U.S. pledge to the long-term development of the Sahel be thoroughly explored. Information provided on reimbursable development programs in Nigeria includes: 1) summary of findings; 2) program background; 3) Nigeria as an AID "graduate"; 4) Nigerian economic planning; 6) reimbursable development programs; and 7) staffing.
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  9. 9

    Challenge of world population explosion: to slow growth rates while improving quality of life: report to the Congress.

    United States. Comptroller General

    Washington, D.C., U.S. General Accounting Office, November 9, 1976. (ID-76-68) 74 p

    The world population is 4 billion, double what it was 45 years ago. Population growth burdens food production, health care and education facilities, cities, natural resources, and increases unemployment. A proposed goal is to stabilize world population at 8.4 billion by the end of the 21st century. Since about 1/2 the population in developing countries is under age 19, growth will continue into the 21st century. The GAO (General Accounting Office) supports the philosophy that population planning be integrated with social and economic development programs. The UN, the US, and others in the international community have spent large amounts on population and development programs in developing countries. The Agency for International Development's population assistance amounted to $732 million through a 10 year period ending June, 1975. The GAO expects to investigate the practicality of interrelating USAID population and development programs.
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  10. 10

    World population plan of action. (Adopted by the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974).

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]

    Washington, D.C., USAID, August 1976. 44 p

    Since 1950 world population growth has risen to 2% a year, projecting a doubling of population within 35 years. Declines in mortality have been unevenly distributed: life expectancy in Latin America is 63 years, 57 in Asia, 46 in Africa. Countries with the highest mortality levels should aim at a life expectancy of at least 50 and an infant mortality rate of 120/1000 by 1985. Developing nations' growth rates are expected to decline from 2.4% to 2% by 1985. Health and nutrition programs will be integrated within the development plan and supported by social policies. Special efforts to manage services so they reach rural, remote and underprivileged people are needed. Womens' contributions in households and farms should be recognized and encouraged. Countries receiving migrant workers should be responsible for their proper treatment and physical safety. Technologies which reduce the need for manpower should be evaluated on the basis of available human resources and chosen to suit the needs of the working population. Plans for economic and social development should emphasize health and education. A population census should be taken by each country between 1975-85. Household sample surveys and demographic statistics relate closely to standards of living. All countries are encouraged to participate in the World Fertility Survey. Management training in population matters should be both national and regional and extend to labor, community leaders and government officials. The United Nations should monitor population trends and policies of the Plan of Action.
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  11. 11

    Health Program to benefit Africans.

    African Population Newsletter. 1976 Jun; (21):10-11.

    A new 7-year program -- Strengthening Health Delivery Systems -- has been launched to provide better health care for 20 central and West African countries. The program is funded by the Agency for International Development (AID) and draws on advice provided by the World Health Organization and regional governments and health ministries. Patterned after earlier AID-sponsored smallpox, measles control, and vaccination programs, this program aims to improve local health delivery systems, ease the shortage of trained health personnel, provide maternal and child health care, and expand health, nutrition, and immunization services to rural areas.
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  12. 12

    The historical background.


    In: Greep, R.O., Koblinsky, M.A., and Jaffe, F.S. Reproduction and human welfare: a challenge to research. Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press, 1976. p. 367-392

    Prior to World War 2, financing for scientific research ahd largely been the province of industry, universities, and private philanthropy. Governments made few efforts in basic scientific research except where related to agriculture or the military. The history of support for research in the reproductive sciences in the U.S. is traced from the 1920s. Following World War 2, the U.S. government took the lead in supporting fundamental research, especially medical research through the National Institutes of Health. This branch of government was prohibited from research connected with birth control until 1959. The history of the development of the oral contraceptive, through industry support and private philanthropy, is traced. The Population Council, with Rockefeller support, was started in 1952 to engage in reproductive research. With the backing of President Johnson and establishment of an explicit Agency for International Development program in population, government support for reproductive research increased substantially in 1965. Historic taboos in this field also delayed population research programs on the international level until the late 1960s. 3 developed countries besides the U.N. - Britain, Germany, and France - and 1 developing country - India - also support programs in basic reproductive research.
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  13. 13

    Contraceptive development in industry and the public sector.


    In: Greep, R.O., Koblinsky, M.A., and Jaffe, F.S. Reproduction and human welfare: a challenge to research. Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press, 1976. p. 326-346

    To trace industry's past efforts and future plans in contraceptive development, information was collected from 44 U.S. industrial and nonprofit research organizations. Comparable information was sought from pharmaceutical firms outside the U. S. but with limited success. 15 pharmaceutical firms reported expenditures for contraceptive development, 7 reported expenditures of $1 million or more in at least 1 year since 1965, but only 5 reported expenditures of that level in 1974 and only 4 predicted increased expenditures by 1980. Industry tends to rely almost exclusively upon its own funds but 2 had accepted NIH and WHO grants, amounting to about 5% of expenditures. Contraception is only a minor effort. Even firms spending $1 million devoted less than 10% to contraception. Although full figures were not available, a similar pattern was found for firms outside the U.S. Comments by industry leaders all confirm that research in the area is dropping because of high costs, more stringent regulations, greater possibility for product liability, and dropping profits. They suggested nonrestrictive government support of basic metabolic, toxicologic, and clinical evaluation of drug candidates, identification of suitable animal models, more use of subhuman primates, relaxation of cumbersome federal drug regulation procedures, means to rapidly assess developments, objective cross-cultural assessment of deficiencies of present products, reassessment by the medical and scientific community of the risk: benefit ratio of current methods, and development of a more favorable posture of courts and media toward product liability claims. Extended patent life was also suggested. The work of nonprofit research organizations is summarized. Descriptions are given of the International Committee for Contraception Research of the Population Council, WHO programs, the Center for Population Research of the National Institutes of Health and Human Development, the world's single largest source of funding for reproductive science and contraceptive development, Agency for International Development, and related efforts. Because of their nonprofit nature public sector agencies have significant advantages in the fields of contraceptive research. Their relationship to industry is explored.
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  14. 14

    Agency funding data.


    In: Greep, R.O., Koblinsky, M.A., and Jaffe, F.S. Reproduction and human welfare: a challenge to research. Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press, 1976. p. 535-551

    Expenditures for the reproductive sciences and contraceptive development, by funding agency and location of research are presented in current and constant U.S. dollars (1970 = 100), based on consumer price index values for nations in which the research was conducted during 1965 and from 1969 to 1974. Included are the Agency for International Development, Atomic Energy Commission, Center for Population Research, National Institute of Mental Health, National Science Foundation, U.S. Fund for Population Activities, World Health Organization, Ford Foundation, Population Council, Rockefeller Foundation, and Scaife Family Charitable Trusts.
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  15. 15

    Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

    Furnia AH

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1976. (Syncrisis, The Dynamics of Health No. 18) 149 p

    There is no sector of Pakistani life which more graphically reflects the great sacrifice it took to make Pakistan a viable state than the health sector. Malaria, tuberculosis, and cholera continue to constitute threats to health. Gastrointestinal, infectious, and other parasitic diseases continue to contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality. These diseases are exacerbated by extremely primitive water supplies and waste disposal, bad housing, nutritional problems, and an increasingly heavy population growth. Public health resources to cope with these conditions have not previously been available. Pakistan's poor helth environment appears to result from widespread infectious and communicable diseases, poverty, and sociocultural attitudes which inhibit improving the environment, and ineffective policies administered by limited numbers of inadequately trained health workers, affecting both the urban poor and the rural population. In the latest 5-year plan, the 5th, 1975-1980, there is increasing attention to health. Regarding family planning, it has been suggested that the government has finally begun to recognize that urgent and dramatic steps are necessary to reduce Pakistan's population growth rate. The government has adopted a policy of using conventional contraceptives as the most acceptable method of contraception in Pakistan. A program of distributing the oral contraceptive without medical or paramedical constraints had been instituted, and the government has undertaken to subsidize the distribution of th oral contraceptive and the condom through some 50,000 outlets at 2.5 cents per monthly supply.
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  16. 16


    Population Reference Bureau [PRB]

    In: Population Reference Bureau (PRB). World population growth and response: 1965-1975 a decade of global action. Washington, D.C., PRB, April 1976. p. 27-64

    Following a brief overall summary of the population characteristics for Africa as a whole, short summaries are presented for each country, territory, colony, or trusteeship on or near the continent. Each summary includes: 1) vital statistics (population, growth rate, birthrate, death rate, and natural increase); 2) a statement of official government policy relevant to population control; 3) internal family planning programs, if any; and 4) a review of external assistance, if any.
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  17. 17

    U.S. development aid programs in West Africa. 1. Population planning activities. 2. The Senegal river basin project. 3. Reimbursable development in Nigeria.

    Sullivan JH; Chester JC

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, March 22, 1976. 56 p

    Prepared for the Committee on International Relations, the report's purpose is to evaluate the following aspects of U.S. development assistance programs in West Africa: 1) population family planning programs; 2) the Senegal River basin project; and 3) reimbursable development programs in Nigeria. The sites visited from November 28 to December 18, 1975 were Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta, Ghana, Ni geria, and Senegal. Regarding population and family planning activities, it was learned that 1) little or nothing is being done in the countries visited; 2) the main block to population planning efforts is the lack of interest or hostility on the part of government leaders; 3) population growth rates appear to be increasing in most of these coun tries as infant mortality declines; 4) the integration of family planning with health services, particularly maternal and child health, is a requirement for progress in the African context; 5) attitudes of West African political leaders toward population planning efforts might be changed if local communities responded enthusiastically and such a reaction might be created by integration of family planning into maternal and child health services; 6) data gathered in Ghana shows that contraceptive continuation rates are highest when family planning is integrated into health programs; 7) improved mother and child health and nutrition are essential to fertility control; and 8) better monitoring by Aid to International Development of International Planned Parenthood Federation's use of funds is needed in view of management difficulties and possible violations of restrictions of the Foreign Assistance Act. A review of each area visited is given.
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  18. 18

    Latin America.

    Population Reference Bureau [PRB]

    In: Population Reference Bureau (PRB). World population growth and response: 1965-1975 a decade of global action. Washington, D.C., PRB, April 1976. p. 129-166

    In the 1965-1975 period, population growth in Latin America was the highest in the world. Decreases in the rate of growth in Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, and Venezuela were couneracted by increased rates in Argentina, Mexico, and Peru. Outmigration in large numbers has not helped the problem. This large growth, causing particular problems in urban areas and a high dependency ratio, has hindered efforts at economic and social development. Lack of available family planning supplies results in a high incidence of illegal abortion and maternal illness and death. There is growing awareness of the need for family planning programs. In the 1965-1975 period, family planning programs were established in most Latin American Countries, with notable success in Mexico. There is now increased government support for family planning and increased availability of contraceptive supplies. In the early 1970s, there were shifts to greater usage of paramedical personnel and to distribution of oral contraceptives without prescription. There has been increased attention to training in the field and to information programs. Sources of external family planning aid to latin America are outlined. The demographic situation in each country is described.
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  19. 19

    Aid to developing countries.

    Population Reference Bureau [PRB]

    In: Population Reference Bureau (PRB). World population growth and response: 1965-1975 a decade of global action. Washington, D.C., PRB, April 1976. p. 197-263

    A rundown of organizations - and their activities - which provide ai d to developing countries in their fight to slow population growth is provided under 3 headings: multilateral agencies, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and private organizations. The bulk of the descriptions concern the activities of USAID. Organizations discussed under multilateral agencies are the U.N., U.N. Fund for Population Activities, U.N. Development Program, U.N. Children's Fund, I nternational Labour Organisation, Food and Agriculture Organization, U.N . Educational Scientific, and Cultural Organization, World Health Organization, World Bank, and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Among the 42 private organizations discussed are Airlie Foundation, American Public Health Association, Association for Voluntary Sterilization, East-West Communications Institute, Ford Foundation, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Milbank Memorial Fund, Pathfinder Fund, Population Council, Population Crisis Committee, Population Institute, Population Reference Bureau, Population Services International, Rockefeller Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution.
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  20. 20

    Guide to sources of international population assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1976. (Population Programmes and Projects, Vol. 1) 319 p

    This is the 1st of 2 volumes giving a comprehensive worldwide listin g of available population resources. (The 2nd volume is an inventory of population projects in developing countries around the world, issued annually.) It contains 171 agencies and organizations offering either financial or technical assistance: multilateral agencies, regional agencies, bilateral agencies, nongovernmental organizations, university centers, research institutions, and training organizations. A brief summary of the organization's work is given along with assistance requirements or help offered and an address. An appendix lists publications in the population field. It is indexed.
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