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[Lessons learned concerning water, health and sanitation. Thirteen years of experience in developing countries. Updated edition. Lecciones aprendidas en materia de agua, salud y saneamiento. Trece anos de experiencia en países en desarrollo. Edicion actualizada.
Arlington, Virginia, WASH, 1993.  p. (USAID Contract No. 5973-Z-00-8081-00)As this latest edition of "Lessons Learned" informs us, sustainable development in the water and sanitation sector is not just the construction of an installation or the installation of a hand pump, but the way in which these interventions help people improve their quality of life. More importantly, we see that sustainable development promotes change: change in the way in which power is distributed and technologies are spread. The issue of participation is explored in this report through an analysis of associations of donors, governments, non-governmental organizations, and private for-profit companies. The notion of the association imposes certain responsibilities on the beneficiary governments and their communities. (excerpt)
Intermediating development assistance in health: prospects for organizing a public/private investment portfolio.
Washington, D.C., Family Health, 1980 July 23. 162 p.The objective of this study is to identify and assess the potential role of intermediary organizations in furthering AID health assistance objectives. The 1st section of this report is an introduction to the potential roles of intermediaries through health assistance via the private voluntary community. A background of the private voluntary organizations is discussed along with some of the constraints that may impede their activity, such as competing interests, values and priorities. The following section defines what is and should be an intermediary organization along with examples of certain functions involved; a discussion of the experience of AID in the utilization of intermediaries follows. 3 models of utilization of intermediaries are analyzed according to the rationale involved, strategy, advantages and constraints. The 3rd section attempts to define and identify AID's needs for programming its health assistance in regard to primary health care, water and sanitation, disease control and health planning. A detailed analysis of the potential roles of intermediary organizations is discussed in reference to policy development, project development and design, project implementation, research, training and evaluation. The 4th section identifies the programming strengths and interests among listed private voluntary organizations in the US. The 5th section discusses the potential of intermediaries in health assistance in reference to the options for funding them in health and the constraints to direct AID funding of intermediary organizations. The last section discusses a series of recommendations made in regard to the development and funding of an international effort to marshall private resources in support of health assistance. Problems and constraints, as well as resources and opportunities, for the development of this international effort are further discussed.
Vulnerability and resiliency: environmental degradation in major metropolitan areas of developing countries.
In: Environmental management and urban vulnerability, edited by Alcira Kreimer, Mohan Munasinghe. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. 107-52. (World Bank Discussion Papers 168)The main factors contributing to vulnerability to natural and man-made hazards and the implications of environmental degradation for large urban areas in the developing world are outlined. Many high-risk metropolitan areas in developing countries are projected to have populations of over 10 million by the year 2000; including Baghdad, Bangkok, Beijing, Bombay, Buenos Aires, Cairo, Calcutta, Dhaka, Delhi, Jakarta, Istanbul, Karachi, Manila, Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Shanghai, and Teheran. Water depletion and quality is a looming issue. In Thailand water demand for the area of Bangkok will increase from 2.8 million cubic meters per day in 1987 to 4.1 million by 1997, and to 5.2 million by 2007. Only 2% of the population of Bangkok is connected to the sewer system. In Calcutta there are 3 million people in settlements which have no systematic means of disposing human wastes. Fertilizers have had a severe negative impact on the environment. Among the cities which have polluted their coastlines are Alexandria, Dakar, Guayaquil, Karachi, Panama City, and Valparaiso. Montevideo and Rio de Janeiro have polluted beaches. The Torrey Canyon, the Exxon Valdez and the Gulf War each focused world attention on marine oil pollution that stems from tanker operations, refineries, and offshore oil wells; from the disposal of industrial and automotive oils; and from industrial and motor vehicle emissions. Because of inappropriate sitting, hundreds of people were killed by mudslides in Rio de Janeiro in 1988, in Medellin in Colombia in 1987, and in Caracas in 1989. In Guatemala, 65% of deaths in the capital following the 1976 earthquake occurred in the badly eroded ravines around the city. The production of greenhouse gases will lead to a rapid warming of the biosphere sometime in the next century, changed rainfall patterns, altered paths of ocean currents, and rising sea levels. A World Bank study recommends for country responses 1) to focus on particular environmental problems; 2) to concentrate on vulnerable populations using vulnerability analysis; and 3) to focus on government intervention strategy.
EARTHWATCH. 1991; (41):15.The National Audubon Society began a population program in 1979, set up a 5-year plan of public education, advocacy and coalition-building in 1985, and joined a broad-based coalition of the Sierra Club, the National Wildlife Federation, the Population Crisis Committee and the Planned Parenthood Federation of America in 1990. The 1985 impetus resulted in production of teaching materials and staging of focus groups across the U.S. The 1990 coalition has directed funds to the USAID Office of Population. Another project is the International Environment/Population Network, which organizes letter-writing, media programs and town meetings for ordinary citizens to press for sustainable development. Many of the Audubon's 510 local chapters have partnerships with similar groups in other countries, as do 8 wildlife sanctuaries have links to sanctuaries abroad. An example is the Indus River in Pakistan visited by the manager of Audubon's Platte River Sanctuary in Nebraska. The 2 rivers share the problem of reduced flow and vegetation overgrowth as a result of engineering projects upstream.
[Washington, D.C.], U.S. Agency for International Development, 1980 May. 19 p. (A.I.D. Project Impact Evaluation Report No. 5)Since 1970, the Government of Kenya has been involved in a program to bring water to all its population. Although the investment has been high, the results have been disappointing. The government is still committed to the long term goal of universal supply, but recognizes that competing demands may now require a review of the long term objectives for water development. The lessons learned from past efforts are important for AID as it assists water supply projects in other countries. Kenya's national rural water program differs from that in most other countries in the size of the project and method of supplying water. The typical Kenyan water system is large. The aim of most systems is to supply water to individual families through metered private connections; because Kenyan communities are dispersed, long distribution lines are used. These complex systems are impeded by problems of design, construction and maintenance, making them unreliable. Maintenance problems are mainly due to low government funding levels. The government discourages the use of communal facilities by locating them inconveniently. AID has provided funding to self-help systems through CARE-Kenya. Recommendations include: insuring adequate funding for operation of systems, selecting technology from the full range of options available, and involving the community in the process of providing supplies. System reliability should be a primary concern. Rural water projects require varying amounts of institutional support based on the technology used.
[Washington, D.C.], U.S. Agency for International Development, Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination, 1979 Apr. 43 p. (A.I.D. Program Evaluation Discussion Paper No. 4)The current state of knowledge on design, installation and maintenance of rural water supply systems is surveyed. Present statistics suggest that it may be possible to provide safe water for everyone during the 1980-1990 period designated as the International Drinking Water Decade. The results on a regional basis are uneven. Africa is making rapid progress in providing rural water supply and may equal Latin America, which had been far ahead. Southeast Asia, however, represents a major problem. More than 60% of the world's population without reasonable access to water is in this area. There are a number of evaluations underway, including studies by OECD, UNICF-WHO, IBRD, International Research Center, and a number of bilateral agencies like AID. All these evaluations have a non-hardware component of rural water programs in common. Maintaining the system once it is installed is one of the key elements in the long term success or failure of rural water schemes. There are 3 reasons for failure: 1) the technology; 2) the capability; and 3) the motivation. In many cases, lack of spare parts and motivation are to blame for system failure. There remains a need to strengthen the capacity of national water programs. Unless this takes place, there will be no sustained progress. Commitment on all levels will help insure continual success of rural water efforts. Successful programs will also require balance between hardware, community involvement, and repair and maintenence. One useful approach would be to fund programs, not projects. There are 2 activities that AID should consider: rehabilitation of existing systems and development of methodologies to measure consumer satisfaction with water systems. A need to: 1) keep abreast of technological development; 2) assess the need for manpower training; 3) encurage local manufacturers; 4) evaluate and strengthen the ability of national organizations and programs; 5) provide materials for health community involvement guidelines; and 6) collabotate and coordinate with other agencies exists.
[Unpublished] 1984 May 3. Presented at the 1984 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Minneapolis, Minnesota, May 3-5, 1984. 26 p.The paper summarizes the health strategy of the US Agency for International Development (AID). The goal of the strategy is to assist developing countries to 1) reduce mortality among infants and young children, and 2) to reduce disease and disability among selected population groups. The main strategy elements include: 1) improved and expanded use of available technologies; 2) development of new and improved technologies; and 3) strengthening human resource and institutional capability. A more in-depth look is taken at how AID implements its strategy in Asia emphasizing the primary goal of infant mortality reduction. The paper provides a demographic overview of the 9 AID-assisted Asian countries. A summary of AID's program support in Asia showing levels and trends by subcategory is provided. Particular attention is paid to projects supporting selective primary care. Finally, the paper discusses the difficulties of implementing the strategy in Asia and speculates on the chances for success. (author's)
AID/UN collaboration in social sector activities in Asia (trip report of a visit to the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Bangladesh and India--Summer, 1977).
[Unpublished] Nov. 1977. 33 p.A trip was undertaken subsequent to and in conjunction with the 1977 UNICEF Executive Board Meeting in Manila. It included visits to and consultations with AID missions in 4 countries. The focus is primarily on coordination between AID and UN programs in the social sectors. In general, relations between AID and UN development agencies are good, but lack of coordination exists. There are many urban problems in the Philippines. The government's main focus is "Project Compassion,"--an attempt to reach rural population with interrelated services involving food production, nutrition, population, and environment. Indonesia has a large number of externally supported projects in AID priority areas, and many domestic agencies responsible for them. There are nutrition programs and a village water supply program. In Thailand, WHO, UNICEF, and AID all have a similar outlook on health and population matters. There are 4 priorities: 1) population/family planning; 2) water and food-borne diseases; 3) respiratory diseases; and 4) vector-borne diseases, especially malaria. Primary health care has been introduced into the provinces. A community school in a slum was visited. The Economic Commisision for South Asia and the Pacific has established a rural development task force, and would like to establish additional task forces to bring together UN agencies. This does not appear to be very successful. At the UNESCO regional office for education, social science research was discussed, as was the effectiveness of the International Bureau for Education International Educational Reporting Service project. The goal of the AID program in Bangladesh is to help achieve food grain self sufficiency by 1985. AID and UN agency interests coincide in the food-for-work programs of the World Food Program, and to a smaller extent in UNICEF's child feeding program. Indian programs are also discussed.
American Universities Field Staff Reports. African Series. 1981; No. 2:1-10.Bilharzia, or schistosomiasis, ranks 2nd to malaria as the major health hazard of the tropics. It is generally associated with hot, humid climates and rural poverty. There is as yet no means of vaccination or inoculation against bilharzia. In fact, some of the development activity in these areas, e.g., dam construction and irrigation projects, has actually helped the spread of the disease. Because it can thrive in a variety of ecological conditions, the control meansures must be site-specific. The UN has funded a pilot project in Swaziland, involving personnel from 3 of its international agencies, to aid in bilharzia control. A complementary program has been funded by USAID (Agency for International Development) for a 5-year period. Both try to avoid the pitfalls of earlier chemical, biological, and mechanical schemes. And both avoid high capital investment. The UN project is attempting to provide clean water to rural inhabitants. This project, in addition to its health and social aspects, also improves the life of women in the area by decreasing the water-carrying work. It has facilitated interbureaucratic cooperation. The US project focusses on safe water provision and sanitation education for the local communities.