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[New York, New York], Population Council, Frontiers in Reproductive Health, 2007 Jul. 117 p.Population Council approached by Head and Deputy Head of OB/GYN Dept at Dantec Hospital and Burkina Maternity Hospital in Senegal and Burkina Faso, respectively. Study designed by Population Council, CRESAR, CEFOREP, MoH in both countries. Ethical standards assessed by ethical review committee in each country followed by Population Council's Internal Review Board. Operations research to introduce and test improved model of PAC. Research team included representatives from CRESAR/CEFOREP, MoH, donors, other stakeholders and service providers. (excerpt)
The level of effort in the national response to HIV / AIDS: the AIDS Program Effort Index (API), 2003 round.
Washington, D.C., USAID, 2003 Dec.  p.The success of HIV/AIDS programs can be affected by many factors, including political commitment, program effort, socio-cultural context, political systems, economic development, extent and duration of the epidemic , and resources available. Many programs track low-level inputs (e.g., training workshops conducted, condoms distributed) or outcomes (e.g., percentage of acts protected by condom use). Measures of program effort are generally confined to the existence or lack of major program elements (e.g., condom social marketing, counseling and testing). To assist countries in such evaluation efforts, several guides have been developed by the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and other organizations (see, for example, “Meeting the Behavioural Data Collection Needs of National HIV/AIDS and STD Programmes” and “National AIDS Programs: A Guide to Monitoring and Evaluation of HIV/AIDS Programs”). However, information about the policy environment, level of political support, and other contextual issues affecting the success and failure of national AIDS programs has not been addressed previously. (excerpt)
In: To cure all hunger. Food policy and food security in Sudan, edited by Simon Maxwell. London, England, Intermediate Technology Publications, 1991. 191-206.Targeting on grounds of equity, cost, or minimizing interference fails to consider whether targeting is politically possible. In the case of the USAID-sponsored famine-relief and emergency food aid operation in Darfur, western Sudan, in 1985, the expressed intention of target this relief was not fulfilled. The target group received inadequate amounts of relief grain owing to the lack of targeting by area councils within Darfur, and the lack of targeting within area councils. After severe rainfall failures in 1982, 1983 and 1984, large numbers of people in western Sudan faced severe food shortage, abnormal migrations, and increased risk of destitution. USAID, the principal donor for relief operations to western Sudan in 1984-85, approved 82,000 metric tons (mt) of relief grain for western Sudan in September 1984, and then a further 250,000 mt in late 1984 and early 1985. The target population for the first 41,000 mt of relief sorghum was the neediest one-fourth later, the neediest one-third. A USAID document provided estimates of people and the way the area councils conceived sheltering throngs of the target group. There was 153,141 seriously affected in Kutum area council, 102,907 in Mellit, and 507,348 in Geneina representing around 25% of Darfur's population, the size of the target group envisaged for the first 41,000 mt of relief grain. USAID made concessions to the Darfur regional government allowing South Darfur a higher proportion of early allocations than need dictated. Save the Children Fund experienced serious difficulties with the local contractor to distribute food from area-council level. Aid agencies and donors need to consider how targeting is to be accomplished and how to confront influential local players with interests contrary to such targeting. Allocations of relief grain could be made on the assumption that targeting will be only partially achieved; and through alternative forms of relief.
FRONT LINES. 1991 Nov; 16.Indonesia's success in reaching World Health Organization (WHO) universal immunization coverage standards is described as the result of a strong national program with timely, targeted donor support. USAID/Indonesia's Expanded Program for Immunization (EPI) and other USAID bilateral cooperation helped the government of Indonesia in its goal to immunize children against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, and measles by age 1. The initial project was to identify target areas and deliver vaccines against the diseases, strengthen the national immunization organization and infrastructure, and develop the Ministry of Health's capacity to conduct studies and development activities. This EPI project spanned the period 1979-90, and set the stage for continued expansion of Indonesia's immunization program to comply with the full international schedule and range of immunizations of 3 DPT, 3 polio, 1 BCG, and 1 measles inoculation. The number of immunization sites has increased from 55 to include over 5,000 health centers in all provinces, with additional services provided by visiting vaccinators and nurses in most of the 215,000 community-supported integrated health posts. While other contributory factors were at play, program success is at least partially responsible for the 1990 infant mortality rate of 58/1,000 live births compared to 72/1,000 in 1985. Strong national leadership, dedicated health workers and volunteers, and cooperation and funding from UNICEF, the World Bank, Rotary International, and WHO also played crucially positive roles in improving immunization practice in Indonesia.
Evaluation of Matching Grant II to International Planned Parenthood Federation / Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) (1987-1992).
Arlington, Virginia, DUAL and Associates, Population Technical Assistance Project [POPTECH], 1991 Jul 26. xii, 48,  p. (Report No. 90-078-116; USAID Contract No. DPE-3043-G-SS-7062-00)This is a mid-term review of a matching grant given to the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) by USAID's Office of Population for 1987-1991. The grant covers projects in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and 9 smaller countries, and 4 regional activities, commodities, technical assistance, management information systems (MIS), and evaluation support. The goal of the grant was to reach new acceptors with quality services, to exert leadership of public sector providers, and to improve internal management. The goals in the 3 large nations are to focus on pockets of need or inadequate service or method mix. The goals of attracting 2.8 million new acceptors, improving services, making detailed plans and keeping strict financial reports have been met. The most serious problem was the lack of a regional evaluation of goal evaluation, the real cost of contraception, and impediments to contraceptive use. There were also difficulties in forwarding funds at the beginning of the FPA's year, and in sending in agency workplans on time. Better communication structures could probably remedy this. It is recommended that the matching grant be renewed in 1992.
[Unpublished] 1991.  p.Jose G. Rimon, II, Project Director for the Johns Hopkins University Population Communication Services (JHU/PCS) Center for Communication Programs, visited Finland to attend a NORPLANT planning meeting. Meeting discussion focused upon issues involved in expanding NORPLANT programs from pre-introductory trials to broader national programs. Financing and maintaining quality of care were issues of central importance for the meeting. Participants included representative from NORPLANT development organizations, the U.S. Agency for International Development, the World Bank, and other donor agencies. Mr. Rimon was specifically invited to make a presentation on the role of information, education, and communication (IEC) on NORPLANT with a focus upon future IEC activities. The presentation included discussion of the need to develop a strategic position for NORPLANT among potential customers and within the service provide community, the feasibility of global strategies positioning in the context of country-specific variations, the need to identify market niches, the need for managing the image of NORPLANT, and the need to study IEC implications in terms of supply-side IEC, content/style harmonization, materials volume, and language and quality control. Participants collectively agreed to develop an informal group to address these issues, concentrating upon universal issues potentially addressed on a global scale. A meeting on strategic positioning is scheduled for August 19-20, 1991.