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Moscow, Russia, Transatlantic Partners Against AIDS, 2005. 52 p.The purpose of this Handbook is to assist members of the Federation Council and deputies of the State Duma of the Russian Federation, and other Russian officials on the federal and regional levels, in enacting appropriate legislation and legislative reform to address AIDS, whether they be initiatives prohibiting discrimination against PLWHA or members of highly vulnerable groups, laws guaranteeing reliable HIV prevention information for all Russian citizens, or other policy priorities — and ensuring adequate fiscal and other resources to support them. This Handbook provides examples of the best legislative and regulatory practices gathered from around the world. Best practices are given for each of the 12 guidelines contained in the International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights, published in 1998 by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). The Handbook also presents detailed information on the Russian AIDS epidemic with regard to the establishment and implementation of these Guidelines. Most importantly, the Handbook outlines concrete recommendations on measures that legislators can take to protect human rights and promote public health in responding to the epidemic. (author's)
The safety and feasibility of female condom reuse: report of a WHO consultation, 28-29 January 2002, Geneva.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2002. , 15 p.According to the recommendations of the first consultation, this second meeting (January 2002) was planned to review the resulting data and to develop further guidance on the safety of reuse of the female condom. The specific objectives and anticipated outcomes of this second consultation were to: Review the results and evaluate the implications of the recently completed microbiology and structural integrity experiments and the human use study; Develop a protocol or set of instructions for disinfecting and cleaning used female condoms safely; Outline future research areas and related issues for programme managers to consider when determining the balance of risks and benefits of female condom reuse in various contexts and settings. (excerpt)
Guidelines require comprehensive steps. Effective use of national family planning guidelines includes dissemination and regular updating.
Network. 1998 Fall; 19(1):6 p..Nearly 50 developing countries have begun developing new or revised national guidelines on family planning (FP) services. This is a collaborative process, involving providers, government officials, technical experts, and others. In developing guidelines for contraception, many national health officials have relied on recommendations developed by the WHO and US Agency for International Development. These recommendations are designed to make services more accessible, more uniform, and of higher quality. Studies also indicate that guidelines affect provider practices. However, effective use of FP guidelines includes dissemination and regular updating. It is noted that significant improvement in the process of care has been found after the introduction of guidelines. Nevertheless, successful introduction of clinical guidelines is dependent on many factors, including the methods of developing, disseminating and implementing these guidelines. Despite the challenges faced in the effective use of national FP guidelines, progress has been made in standardizing national policies that have the potential to improve access and quality.
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1995. , 10,  p. (BASICS Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 HT 51 012; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)In March 1995, a BASICS (Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival) Project technical officer participated in a World Health Organization (WHO) Global Programme on Vaccines and Immunization (GPV) meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, about introduction of vaccine vial monitors (VVMs). VVMs constitute color-coded labels that can be affixed to vials of vaccines which, when exposed to heat over time, change irreversibly. In 1994, WHO and UNICEF requested that, starting in January 1996, VVMs be affixed on all UNICEF-purchased vials of oral polio vaccine. Yet, UNICEF does not require vaccine manufacturers to include VVMs in their vaccine labels. USAID has supported much of the development and field testing of VVMs since 1987. Participants discussed status of interactions between UNICEF and vaccine manufacturers, issues and means related to introducing VVMs worldwide, and the prospect for conducting a study or studies on the initial effect of VVMs on vaccine-handling practices. They also heard an update on the pilot introduction of VVMs in some countries. BASICS could contribute to the development of a plan for global VVM introduction, since time constraints and heavy workloads face WHO/GPV leaders. UNICEF and GPV staff suggested that other VVM products from different manufacturers also be sold to avoid a monopoly. Participants considered issues of global introduction and resolution of issues with manufacturers of VVMs and vaccines to be high priority issues. WHO and UNICEF asked BASICS to draft general training materials for staff at the central, provincial, district, and periphery levels, focusing on actions that each level should take as a result of VVM use. They also asked BASICS to develop a quick-reference sheet for policy makers.
[Unpublished] 1990. , 3,  p.In February 1990, a writer for the international publication Population Reports attended the WHO Interagency Consultation to Discuss Strategies for Coordinating and Improving Global Condom Supply in Geneva, Switzerland to garner the most recent facts about the international supply of condoms and their distribution to be incorporated in an upcoming issue. The WHO/Global Programme on AIDS (WHO/GPA) expanded its role recently to become a major procurer of condoms. Its traditional role remained as coordinating agency of condom strategies against AIDS. The writer recommended that the issue on condoms include a short box featuring WHO/GPA condom activities. Participants agreed that national AIDS programs should focus more on condom services. This could include formation of a condom subcommittee, involvement of a condom programming specialist in drafting medium term national plans, and incorporation of condom distributor experiences in planning. Further they emphasized the need to recognize and consider family planning program experience in supplying and distributing condoms. Participants also conceded the need to no longer differentiate between condom use for AIDS prevention and for family planning. Several agencies including WHO/GPA and USAID addressed the need for quality control including increased emphasis on logistics and distribution channels. They did acknowledge, however, that implementation of quality assurance measures in many countries would be hard and time-consuming. 1 item that received considerable discussion was a generic condom which USAID intended to purchase under its next contract. USAID also planned on switching its focus from quantity to condom distribution and quality control. UNFPA adopted the new WHO Specifications and Guidelines for Condom Procurement. IPPF considered doing so also.
[Unpublished] 1984. v, 25 p.This meeting was sponsored by the World Health Organization (WHO) with Dr. Wayne S. Stinson participating at WHOs request. The objectives of the informal consultation were: 1) to strengthen national capabilities for undertaking the costing of preimary health care and for the utilization of results for development and management; 2) to exchange experiences on the costing of PHC in different countries; 3) to discuss methodologies used for data collection at the PHC center; and 4) to make recommendations for future work. This consultation is one in a series of costing and financing meetings held by WHO since 1970. The most recent meeting prior to 1983 was an interregional workshop on the cost and financing of primary health care, held in Geneva in December 1980. Papers distributed at that meeting (which have not yet been published) suggest a need for greater understanding of costing principles and technical refinement of methodologies. Judging by the papers presented at the Nazareth workshop, costing efforts have greatly improved since 1980. Representatives from the following countries participated in the Nazareth workshop: Argentina, Botswana, Columbia, Thiopia, Gambia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, and Zambia. Some of these reported costing studies. This report consists of a narrative description of the meeting itself followed by a commentary on some of the issues raised. There is then a discussion of Arssi Province and Ethiopia as a whole based on a 1-day field trip. Finally recommendations are given regarding the United States Agency for International Development's (AID's) further PHC costing efforts.
In: Zatuchni GI, Sobrero AJ, Speidel JJ, Sciarra JJ, ed. Vaginal contraception: new developments. Hagerstown, Md., Harper and Row, 1979. 66-81.Although condoms are still produced from a variety of materials, the popularity of the condom increased mainly after the dipped latex process was developed in the 1930s. Condoms went with US troops all over the world during World War Two. It is only in recent years that strict quality standards were established. Many countries, including the US, measure quality in the number of pinholes acceptable per unit, the number of acceptable holes varying considerably between countries. Japan has made a standard based on leakage as measured by sodium ion concentration. Various types, colors, names, and sizes of condoms are popular in different countries. Large scale distribution in recent years has raised the question of shelf life. It is generally thought that a condom kept in a sealed tinfoil package will stay good indefinitely. Nonetheless, for management as well as safety purposes smaller shipments are preferred over large shipments in mass distribution programs. Condom popularity is partly associated with the number and accessibility of distribution points; therefore, it has become more prevalent to use both government units and regular commercial distribution points for popularizing the condom, and there is reason to believe that this type of program will grow. In light of the current interest in integration of contraceptive programs with health care and development efforts, population specialists should look closely at the condom and the commercial resources available for its distribution. A series of tables gives gross numbers of condoms supplied by international donor agencies in the developing countries, 1975-78.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GYNAECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS. 1979; 17(2):102-4.A brief summary of the historical development of the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) and a review of the organization's recent activities was presented. Efforts to develop an international association of midwives began in 1922. The 1st World Congress of Midwives was held in 1954 and since that time the Congress has met once every 3 years. National midwife associations from 51 countries belong to the ICM. The goals of the organization are 1) to improve the knowledge, training, and professional status of midwives; 2) to promote improved maternal and child care in member countries; and 3) to further information exchange. Since 1961 the ICM and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics have cooperated in a joint study of midwife training and practice. In 1966 the study group completed its 1st report on the status of maternal care around the world and made a number of recommendations for improving the training of midwives and for establishing uniform licensing requirements. It soon became apparent that these problems could not be dealt with on a worldwide basis, and 12 working parties in different regions were established to investigate the problem at the local level and also to make recommendation in regard to providing family planning services in the context of maternal and child health programs. Each working party has a Field Director who seeks to implement the recommendations of the group. Field Directors have also arranged seminars in reproductive health for rural health workers and especially for traditional birth attendants. The ICM also works in cooperation with the European Economic Community, WHO, IPPF, and several other international agencies. The activities of the working parties have received financial support from USAID.