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  1. 1

    Fording the stream.

    Otero M

    World Education Reports. 1985 Nov; (24):15-7.

    In the last decade we have come to radically redefine our understanding of how women fit into the socioeconomic fabric of developing countries. At least 2 factors have contributed to this realignment in our thinking. 1st, events around the UN Decade for Women dramatized women's invisibility in development planning, and mobilized human and financial resources around the issue. 2nd, the process of modernization underway in all developing countries has dramatically changed how women live and what they do. In the last decade, more and more women have become the sole providers and caretakers of the household, and have been forced to find ways to earn income to feed and clothe their families. Like many other organizations, USAID, in its current policy, emphasizes the need to integrate women as contributors to and beneficiaries of all projects, rather than to design projects specifically geared to women. Integrating women into income generation projects requires building into every step of a project--its design, implementation and evaluation--mechanisms to assure that women are not left out. The integration of women into all income generating projects is still difficult to implement. 4 reasons are suggested here: 1) resistance on the part of planners and practitioners who are still not convinced that women contribute substantially to a family's income; 2) few professionals have the expertise necessary to address the gender issue; 3) reaching women may require a larger initial investment of project funds; and 4) reaching women may require experimenting with approaches that will fit into their village or urban reality.
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  2. 2

    Population and development policy.


    [Unpublished] 1977 Jun. 169 p.

    Population and development policy decisions must be based on accurate demographic data in order to correctly formulate priorities in budgets and expenditures. Family planning as a public policy cannot be imposed upon private citizens; it must be freely chosen. The question remains: what determines fertility in the private sector and what can government do to align policy with performance? Research and analysis is needed to develop policy in keeping with local customs, standards, and individual sensibilities. Should more money be spent on education, health care, or development? Research from poor countries is spotty and disorganized. More money is spent on reduction of infant mortality than on family planning. Fertility control is still a controversial subject. Funds supplied for population and health are barely matched by many developing countries whose priorities lean toward agriculture and nutrition. In Haiti the 5-year development plan ignores the interactions between population growth and economic development. If the current level of fertility continues, it will act as a deterrent to development. A population impact analysis of El Salvador examines the effect AID policies and programs have on fertility control. Implementation of a policy in its first stages is described for Guatemala. Family models and global models show touchpoints where public policy might interface with private practice. Rural development implies increased production, equal opportunities, and a low fertility rate. All 3 are interrelated and affected by demographic events. Rising incomes, below a threshold level, has increased the fertility rate among the very poor.
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  3. 3


    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., May 1975. (Sector Policy Paper) 74p

    Housing is important to development in both economic and welfare terms. For all but the wealthy, it is generally the major objective of family saving efforts. Housing has substantial social benefits, incluidng the welfore effects of shelter from the elements, sanitation facilities, and access to health and education services. A positive housing policy can thus make a substantial contribution to economic development and social welfare. Many of the early efforts to provide international assistance for housing problems that prevented most governments from dealing with them effectively. The finanacial assistance provided often went to lower middle- and middle-income groups, rather than to lower-income groups; the bulk of the population in urban areas was not affected. The World Bank Groups entered this field in the 1970s. Bank Group operations in housing thus far have taken the form oflending for serviced sites, on which occupants contribute to the construction of their own homes, and, increasingly, lending for the upgrading of squatter settlements. The essence of quatter housing upgrading is to conserve the exiting low-income housingstock, particularly in serviceable, relatively central locations; and to improve this housing by including additions and improvements to services and facilities within the entire neighborhood. So far, the World Bank Group has approved assistance for 10 urban development projects. Bank Group Assistance for housing is limited to countries and cities broadly committed to alleviating the housing conditions of the poor as part of efficient and equitable urban development. In this context, the following recommendaitons are made: 1) squatter upgrading and sites and services projects should continue to be the pimre instruments for improving the housing conditions of the urban poor; 2) in some cities, the appropriate response to hosuing for the poor involves conventional construction; and 3) the Bank Group has a particular role to play in responding to requests for assistance in building housing finance institutions.
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  4. 4

    [Panorama of Costa Rica, 1973. Demographic and social aspects] Panorama de Costa Rica, 1973. Aspectos demograficos y sociales.

    Bermudez MV; Gomez BM

    Centro de Estudios Sociales y de Poblacion (CESPO), Departamento de Investigacion, Universidad de Costa Rica, 1974. 37 p

    A broad synthesis of some socioeconomic and demographic aspects of the population of Costa Rica at the end of 1973 is presented. It covers population size, number of households, marital status of women of reproductive age, age at marriage, population growth, age structure and distribution, ethnic and religious elements, educational level, economic activity, future tendencies, population growth and economic development, historical aspects of the population problem, and the national family planning program. Costa Rica had an annual growth rate of 3.8% in the period 1950-1960; by 1972 the rate was 2.5%. The drop did not seem to be due to the family planning program, though the program's existence may have accelerated the process. Because of the high growth rates, the population is young and dependency rates are high. However, the drop in the birthrate will significantly alter the population structure by the year 2000 such that only 34.1% will be under 15 and 4.4% will be over 65. That fact together with the economic prospects of the country should result in a significantly higher standard of living for the populous in the next decade. The role of the family planning program will become increasingly important as modernization succeeds in lowering mortality rates and increasing longevity.
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  5. 5

    Assistance for family planning programs in developing countries.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. Office of Population

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Agency for International Development, Population Branch, January 1967. 80 p

    Data are given on the population growth, the status of population programs, and the help being provided such programs by USAID and other agencies for 52 developing countries and territories on a country and regional basis. The principles behind AID involvement are outlined and a brief background on the world population situation provided. The detailed tabular information given covers 1965-1967 AID expenditures for population assistance work, including 1967 projects. Summary sheets showing contracts and grants to educational and related institutions for training and research for support of family planning accompany the tables. Information given for each country includes: date of last national census, an estimate of the population in 1965, crude birthrate, crude death rate, infant mortality, annual rate of population increase, number of years required to double the population at the current growth rate, per capita GNP, family planning and population activities, and level of AID and other assistance.
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  6. 6

    Iran (Profile).

    Friesen JK; Moore RV

    Country Profiles. 1972 Oct; 19.

    The estimated population of Iran in 1972 was 31,000,000, with an estimated rate of natural increase of 3.2% per year. In 1966 61% of the population lived in rural areas, male literacy was 41% and female literacy 18%. Coitus interruptus is the most common form of contraception used in Iran, followed by condoms. Because of the rapid rate of population growth, the government has taken a strong stand in support of family planning. The Ministry of Health coordinates family planning activities through the Family Planning Division. Contraceptive supplies are delivered free of charge through clinics. The national family planning program also is involved in postpartum programs, training of auxiliary personnel, communication and motivation for family planning population education, evaluation and research. The overall goal of the program is to reduce the growth rate of 2.4% by 1978, and to 1% by 1990.
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  7. 7


    Gaisie SK; Jones SB

    Country Profiles. 1970 Oct; 1-12.

    The report gives population trends and the status of family planning projects in Ghana. A general background account of Ghana's demographics (size and growth patterns, redistribution trends, urban/rural distribution, religious and ethnic composition, economic status, literacy, future trends, and social/economic groups and attitudes) is discussed. The relationships of national income, size and quality of the labor force, agricultural labor and productivity, public education, and health to the population's growth is summarized. Development of a population policy is described along with major recommendations for a national policy. The organization and structure of the national family planning program is set forth along with a table of "planning targets for increasing the use of contraceptives". Current practices of birth control are reviewed; supportive state and international agencies' roles are discussed; a prognosis of population planning efforts concludes the report.
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  8. 8

    Women and development. Women and politics data bases.

    Jaquette JS

    In: Staudt KA, Jaquette JS. Women in developing countries: a policy focus. New York, Haworth Press, 1983. 125-8.

    Increasingly the UN Statistical Office and the UN agencies are becoming more aware of the need to collect and analyze their data by sex and to seek out new ways to collect data which will more fully reflect women's labor force participation and women's role in the houshold economy. At this time there are few databases in existence at the macro level for the primary purpose of studying the role and status of women. This report reviews databases and projects based on collection and analysis of census and special survey data under the auspices of the UN or the US Census Bureau in cooperation with the Women in Development Office of the US Agency for International Development (USAID). The information was compiled at a workshop on the collection and use of macrodata of women in development held at the Population Council in New York in May 1981. The Center for Population Research has a tape designed to correlate trends on women's labor force participation with other economic development indicators over time (using data from 1960, 1970, and 1975). The purpose of the USAID and US Bureau of the Census Project was to collect disaggregated data for use in development planning. The 1st stage compiled census data from the most recent censuses for the 69 countries which are recipients of funds from USAID. 31 tables of demographic, economic, and educational data on men and women, are broken down where available and appropriate by urban and rural residenc. The 2nd stage of this project will compile data for all countries with populations over 5 million (130 countries) for use in aggregate analysis. The project will eventually produce regional handbooks with hard copy printouts of the tables and regional analyses. A list of data reports and statistical publications is available from the UN Statistical Office. A number of UN agencies offer technical assistance to countries on request of increase their household survey capacities. A number of countries have specifically requested assistance to improve their women in development data, which should produce better national data and eventually have an impact on standard census items. Most unive*rsity libraries hold human relations area files. Additional resources are listed.
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