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Behavioral interventions for the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV. [Intervenciones conductuales para la prevención de la transmisión sexual del VIH]
Washington, D.C., Institute of Medicine, International Forum for AIDS Research, . 8 p.The fourth meeting of the International Forum for AIDS Research was organized around three overall objectives: a) to consider a model for categorizing behavioral interventions; b)to share information about current behavioral intervention programs in which IFAR members are involved; and c) to foster discussion about the adequacy of present strategies. The meeting began with an analytical phase that explored aspects of methodology, followed with presentations on selected programs, and concluded with a generic case study exercise that highlighted different social scientific perspectives on producing change in human behavior. (excerpt)
Science and Technology for Development: Prospects Entering the Twenty-First Century. A symposium in commemoration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C., June 22-23, 1987.
Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 1988. 79 p.This Symposium described and assessed the contributions of science and technology in development of less developed countries (LDCs), and focused on what science and technology can contribute in the future. Development experts have learned in the last 3 decades that transfer of available technology to LDCs alone does not bring about development. Social scientists have introduced the concepts of local participation and the need to adjust to local socioeconomic conditions. These concepts and the development of methodologies and processes that guide development agencies to prepare effective strategies for achieving goals have all improved project success rates. Agricultural scientists have contributed to the development of higher yielding, hardier food crops, especially rice, maize, and wheat. Health scientists have reduced infant and child mortalities and have increased life expectancy for those living in the LDCs. 1 significant contribution was the successful global effort to eradicate smallpox from the earth. Population experts and biological scientists have increased the range of contraceptives and the modes for delivering family planning services, both of which have contributed to the reduction of fertility rates in some LDCs. Communication experts have taken advantage of the telecommunications and information technologies to make available important information concerning health, agriculture, and education. For example, crop simulation models based on changes in temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind, solar radiation, and soil conditions have predicted outcomes of various agricultural systems. An integration of all of the above disciplines are necessary to bring about development in the LDCs.
In: RAP: Rapid Assessment Procedures. Qualitative methodologies for planning and evaluation of health related programmes, edited by Nevin S. Scrimshaw and Gary R. Gleason. Boston, Massachusetts, International Nutrition Foundation for Developing Countries, 1992. 11-23.Rapid assessment procedures (RAP) grew explosively in the 1980s in the social investigation of development work, with four main trends to be distinguished: 1) fast repertoire enrichment with new and imaginative procedures; 2) application of RAP in new sectors through content-adaptation and cross-fertilization (rapid rural appraisal by Chambers); 3) geographic broadening in both elaboration and application of RAP (from Sussex, England, to Thailand, Kenya, and India); and 4) the growing shift from technique to substance. There has been compelling demonstration of RAP's potential for changing and improving the planning of development. RAP can increase the planners' ability to put people first in the development projects. Furthermore, a decade of RAP work has launched some social sciences on a path of methodological retooling. Some major development agencies (the World Bank, USAID, ODA) have started to use RAP. The World Bank has been striving to promote the use of sociological/anthropological investigation methods for generating social information needed in projects. The RAP field work of a medical anthropologist who had received a 2-year contract from USAID to conduct research in Swaziland within a water-borne disease project illustrates the value of RAP. He questioned the lengthy sample survey and carried out an informal study of the health beliefs and behavior among traditional healers and rural health motivators. Within 6 months he collected sociocultural information and specific health-related data which led to significant improvement in the public health network via cooperation between traditional and modern health practitioners. The epistemological risks of RAPs result from the limitations intrinsic to the procedures themselves: accuracy, representativeness, cultural appropriateness, and subjectivity. The extrinsic risks are an improper contextual place or weight within the research strategy. These limitations can be overcome by professional training of RAP practitioners. Nevertheless, RAPs are not a universal cure for gaps in social information, and long-term social research is still essential.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Agency for International Development, Center for Development Information and Evaluation, Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination, 1989 Aug. vi, 7 p. (A.I.D. Evaluation Occasional Paper No. 32)A comprehensive survey of social scientists who received financial support for overseas graduate training from an International Donor Agency focussed on the contribution of such training to the national building efforts in the social science discipline. A questionnaire was mailed to 1506 participants in Asian countries, which included 562 USAID trainees. The findings suggest that 1) trainees considered the social assistance provided by the agencies to be adequate, even though difficulty was experienced in travel and immigration arrangements, 2) problems encountered on return to their countries were mainly employment-related, due to either lack of equipment, institutional interest in research, or inadequate economic rewards. In addition, non-availability of professional books, lack of opportunities to attend overseas professional meetings and difficulty in getting information on developments in their major were factors which reduced further professional development. Most participants indicated that the knowledge and skills acquired from their training proved to be valuable. Furthermore, this data does not support the hypothesis that overseas trained participants gravitate to industrialized nations. It was found that in Asia such training provided the much needed expertise to lay the foundation for empirical research. Major concerns of the participants were the 1) underepresentation of women in such training programs, 2) lack of proficiency in English of participants, and 3) loss of contacts between participants and funding agencies.
In: [Ford Foundation] Conference on Social Science Research on Population and Development, Ford Foundation, 1974. [New York, Ford Foundation], 1975. 333-54.A summary of the comments made by the representatives of funding agencies at the 1974 Ford Foundation Conference on Social Science Research on Population and Development was provided. Participants agreed: 1) that fertility reduction can be brought about only by a combined effort to promote development and to provide family planning services; and 2) that development must include more than just economic development. In reference to population policy, the participants noted the need to communicate research findings to policy makers, to conduct more country specific research, and to link research with policy. Although considerable progress was made in recent years toward increasing the research capacity of developing countries, there is a continuing need to provide funds for research institute building and for creating communication channels between social scientists working in different countries. Data collection activities still need support and the capacity of developing countries to analyze survey, census, and vital statistics data needs to be strengthened. The current level for funding macro-level projects is adequate, but more support for micro-level studies should be provided. There is a need to support research aimed at: 1) identifying social policies that significantly influence fertility; 2) improving family planning programs; and 3) identifying the determinants of fertility and the consequences of population growth. Several participants suggested that experts from the funding agencies meet periodically to continue these discussions and to consider collaborative funding of large-scale projects. Representatives from each of the funding agencies briefly described the type of activities their agencies were planning to support in the immediate future.
In: [Ford Foundation]. Conference on Social Science Research on Population and Development, Ford Foundation, 1974. [New York, Ford Foundation], 1975. 283-310.This paper presents a statement of research issues and questions to which USAID intends to give major program support over the next 2 or 3 years. 2 central questions needing further research are socioeconomic correlates and determinants of fertility, and the demographic impact of family planning programs. Historically USAID has been more interested in applied than in basic research and in research where fertility is the central demographic variable. Short-term rather than long-term benefits were the results. Social science research is not oriented toward the less developed countries, especially those experiencing the most rapid rates of population growth. "A Strategy for A.I.D. Support of Social Research on Determinants of Fertility," is an attachment to the paper and outlines abstract issues and the partiuclar circumstances of each country where they may be applied in terms of a research strategy. A hierarchy of questions is presented. The first question asks how, holding all other variables constant, much of the observed variation in fertility can be dirctly attributed to family planning programs and how much can be attributed to variables other than family planning. Many writings suggest that 1 of the most powerful determinants of societal fertility is income. Other writings claim that changes in individual perceptions of the future accompanying modernization are more important factors in family planning decisions.