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AFRICA HEALTH. 1990 Jul; 12(5):18-9.In comparison with the commercially available ELISA test for HIV, new more appropriate tests for use in African locales are being supported by USAID, PATH, the International Development Research Center of Canada and the Rockefeller Foundation. ELISA tests are suited for high volume, high technology, automation, data management, accuracy, and cost about US$1 per test. In contrast, tests for African laboratories must be inexpensive, suitable for small numbers of tests, possibly no refrigeration or electricity, and unsophisticated technicians. a series of 5 prototype tests designed for african laboratories been evaluated at the Mama Yemo Hospital, Kinshasa, Zaire, under the auspices of Diagnostic Technology for Community Health (USAID-funded) and managed by PATH. Results comparable to those with ELISA could be achieved with duplicate testing, but the cost remained about the same. to lower final costs, development and overhead for the supplier must be carried by donor funds. With there criteria in mind, PATH is working on a public sector HIV test taking <30 minutes, costingAdd to my documents.2031538
Washington, D.C., SOMARC, .  p.This document contains briefing materials for the participants of an upcoming meeting of the advisory council and working groups of Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC), an organizational network, funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and composed of 5 firms which work together in helping agencies, organizations, and governments develop contraceptive social marketing programs. Social marketing is the use of commercial marketing techniques and management procedures to promote social change. The briefing materials include 3 background and 18 issue papers. The background papers provide brief summaries of USAID's population activities and of the history of social marketing programs, an overview of USAID sponsored contraceptive social marketing programs in 14 countries and of 3 major non-USAID programs, and a listing of the skills and resources needed to develop effective contraceptive social marketing programs. The issue papers provide a focus for the discussion sessions which are scheduled for SOMARC's working groups on marketing communication, management, and research. USAID's objective is to promote the development of family planning programs which are completely voluntary and which increase the reproductive freedom of couples. Contraceptive social marketing programs are consistent with this objective. USAID provides direct funding for family planning programs as well as commodity, technical, and training support. USAID's involvement in social marketing began in 1971, and USAID is currently sponsoring programs in Jamaica, Bangladesh, Nepal, El Salvador, Egypt, Honduras, Ecuador, the Caribbean Region, Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Peru. In the past, USAID provided support for programs in Mexico, Tunisia, and Ghana. The Mexican project is now functioning without USAID support, and the projects in Tunisia and Ghana are no longer operating. Major non-USAID contraceptive social marketing programs operate in India, Sri Lanka, and Colombia. These programs received only limited technical support from USAID. To ensure the success of social marketing programs, social marketers must have access to the knowledge and skills of commercial marketers in the areas of management, analysis and planning, communications, and research. Social marketers must also have expertise in social development and social research. In reference to the issue papers, the working groups and the advisory council were asked to develop suggestions for 1) overcoming social marketing program management problems, 2) motivating health professionals toward greater involvement in social marketing programs, 3) improving the media planning component of the programs, 4) improving management stability and training for management personnel, and 5) improving program evaluation. Areas addressed by the issue papers were 1) whether social marketing programs should be involved in creating a demand for contraceptives or only in meeting the existing demand, 2) the development of a methodology for assessing why some programs fail and others succeed, 3) the feasibility of using anthropological and questionnaire modules for conducting social marketing research, 4) techniques for overcoming the high level of nonsampling error characteristic of survey data collected in developing countries, 5) techniques for identifying contraceptive price elasticity, 6) the feasibility of using content analysis in social marketing communications, 7) the applicability of global marketing strategies for social marketing, and 8) how to select an an appropriate advertising agency to publicize social marketing programs.3792245
Population and Development Review. 1979 Sep; 5(3):387-403.4 types of data are commonly presented in estimates of population size and trends: population size, crude birth rates, changes in crude birth rates, and measures of rates of population growth. World population sizes range from 3920 million by the Worldwatch Institute to 4147 million by the Environmental Fund. Crude birth rate estimates range from a low of 26.6/1000 (AID) to 33.7/1000 (Environmental Fund). With China the range for developing countries is from 30.8 to 40.2/1000. The world crude birth rate dropped by 12% between 1950-55 and 1970-75. Mauldin and Berelson postulate that the birth rate in the developing world declined from 41 to 35.5/1000 between 1965-75. Declines in the birth rate have exceeded those in the death rate. The United Nations (UN) data, above all others, has seniority in authority and experience in collecting and evaluating national data. The UN is less concerned with day to day changes and takes a longer, broader perspective. The Bureau of the Census is the next most reliable authority for data. Their compendium presents basic demographic data from every country in the world. The Bureau is very conservative about accepting new sources of data. The Population Reference Bureau is an intermediate source which provides as early warning system for AID in contraceptive use and fertility data.