Important: The POPLINE website will retire on September 1, 2019. Click here to read about the transition.

Your search found 9 Results

  1. 1
    324544

    Contraceptive procurement policies, practices, and options. Paraguay.

    Quesada N; Dayaratna V; Abramson W; Gribble J; Siman Betancourt V

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], DELIVER, 2006 Nov. [25] p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00010-00)

    In light of the phaseout of donor funds for family planning in Latin America and the Caribbean, Paraguay will be facing increasing responsibility to finance and procure contraceptive commodities in the near future. The Government of Paraguay will need to look at regional and international procurement opportunities to ensure that contraceptive security is not compromised during this transition period. This report presents findings from a legal and regulatory analysis and pricing study of different procurement options to identify efficient, economical, high quality and timely distribution of contraceptives. A summary of the current country situation, procurement practices, laws, policies, and regulations is presented along with a comparison of regional contraceptive prices. Options and recommendations are presented for next steps. (author's)
    Add to my documents.
  2. 2
    324543

    Contraceptive procurement policies, practices, and options. Nicaragua.

    Agudelo J; Morales C; Quesada N; Sarley D; Abramson W

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], DELIVER, 2006 Nov. [25] p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00010-00)

    In light of the phaseout of donor funds in Latin America and the Caribbean, Nicaragua will be facing increasing responsibility to finance and procure contraceptive commodities in the near future. The Government of Nicaragua needs to look at regional and international procurement opportunities to ensure that contraceptive security is not compromised during this transition period. This report presents findings from a legal and regulatory analysis and pricing study of various procurement options to identify efficient, economical, and timely distribution of high-quality contraceptives. A summary of the current country situation, procurement practices, laws, policies, and regulations is presented along with a comparison of regional contraceptive prices. Options and recommendations are presented for next steps. (author's)
    Add to my documents.
  3. 3
    324542

    Contraceptive procurement policies, practices, and options. Dominican Republic.

    Agudelo J; Dayaratna V; Morales C; Quesada N; Sarley D

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], DELIVER, 2006 Nov. [26] p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00010-00)

    In light of the phaseout of donor funds in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Dominican Republic will be facing increasing responsibility to finance and procure contraceptive commodities in the near future. The government of the Dominican Republic needs to look at regional and international procurement opportunities to ensure that contraceptive security is not compromised during this transition period. This report presents findings from a legal and regulatory analysis and pricing study of various procurement options to identify efficient, economical, and timely distribution of high-quality contraceptives. A summary of the current country situation, procurement practices, laws, policies, and regulations is presented along with a comparison of regional contraceptive prices. Options and recommendations are presented for next steps. (author's)
    Add to my documents.
  4. 4
    324540

    Contraceptive procurement policies, practices, and options. Bolivia.

    Quesada N; Abramson W; Siman Betancourt V; Dayaratna V; Gribble J

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], DELIVER, 2006 Nov. [30] p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00010-00)

    In light of the phaseout of donor funds in Latin America and the Caribbean, Bolivia will be facing increasing responsibility to finance and procure contraceptive commodities in the near future. The Government of Bolivia needs to look at regional and international procurement opportunities to ensure contraceptive security is not compromised during this transition period. This report presents findings from a legal and regulatory analysis and pricing study of various procurement options to identify efficient, economical, and timely distribution of high-quality contraceptives. A summary of the current country situation, procurement practices, laws, policies, and regulations is presented along with a comparison of regional contraceptive prices. Options and recommendations are presented for next steps. (author's)
    Add to my documents.
  5. 5
    083041

    Condoms becoming more popular.

    Manuel J

    NETWORK. 1993 May; 13(4):22-4.

    Social marketing is a strategy which addresses a public health problem with private-sector marketing and sales techniques. In condom social marketing programs, condoms are often offered for sale to the public at low prices. 350 million condoms were sold to populations in developing countries through such programs in 1992, and another 650 million were distributed free through public clinics. The major donors of these condoms are the US Agency for International Development, the World Health Organization, the UN Population Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the World Bank, and the European Community. This marketing approach has promoted condom use as prevention against HIV transmission and has dramatically increased the number of condoms distributed and used throughout much of Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Donors are now concerned that they will not be able to provide condoms in sufficient quantities to keep pace with rapidly rising demand. Findings in selected countries, however, suggest that people seem willing to buy condoms which are well promoted and distributed. Increasing demand for condoms may therefore be readily met through greater dependence upon social marketing programs and condom sales. Researchers generally agree that a social marketing program must change for 100 condoms no more than 1% of a country's GNP in order to sell an amount of condoms equal to at least half of the adult male population. Higher prices may be charged for condoms in countries with relatively high per-capita incomes. Since prices charged tend to be too low to cover all promotional, packaging, distribution, and logistical management costs, most condom distribution programs will have to be subsidized on an ongoing basis.
    Add to my documents.
  6. 6
    031538

    SOMARC briefing book.

    Futures Group. Social Marketing for Change [SOMARC]

    Washington, D.C., SOMARC, [1985]. [58] p.

    This document contains briefing materials for the participants of an upcoming meeting of the advisory council and working groups of Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC), an organizational network, funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and composed of 5 firms which work together in helping agencies, organizations, and governments develop contraceptive social marketing programs. Social marketing is the use of commercial marketing techniques and management procedures to promote social change. The briefing materials include 3 background and 18 issue papers. The background papers provide brief summaries of USAID's population activities and of the history of social marketing programs, an overview of USAID sponsored contraceptive social marketing programs in 14 countries and of 3 major non-USAID programs, and a listing of the skills and resources needed to develop effective contraceptive social marketing programs. The issue papers provide a focus for the discussion sessions which are scheduled for SOMARC's working groups on marketing communication, management, and research. USAID's objective is to promote the development of family planning programs which are completely voluntary and which increase the reproductive freedom of couples. Contraceptive social marketing programs are consistent with this objective. USAID provides direct funding for family planning programs as well as commodity, technical, and training support. USAID's involvement in social marketing began in 1971, and USAID is currently sponsoring programs in Jamaica, Bangladesh, Nepal, El Salvador, Egypt, Honduras, Ecuador, the Caribbean Region, Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Peru. In the past, USAID provided support for programs in Mexico, Tunisia, and Ghana. The Mexican project is now functioning without USAID support, and the projects in Tunisia and Ghana are no longer operating. Major non-USAID contraceptive social marketing programs operate in India, Sri Lanka, and Colombia. These programs received only limited technical support from USAID. To ensure the success of social marketing programs, social marketers must have access to the knowledge and skills of commercial marketers in the areas of management, analysis and planning, communications, and research. Social marketers must also have expertise in social development and social research. In reference to the issue papers, the working groups and the advisory council were asked to develop suggestions for 1) overcoming social marketing program management problems, 2) motivating health professionals toward greater involvement in social marketing programs, 3) improving the media planning component of the programs, 4) improving management stability and training for management personnel, and 5) improving program evaluation. Areas addressed by the issue papers were 1) whether social marketing programs should be involved in creating a demand for contraceptives or only in meeting the existing demand, 2) the development of a methodology for assessing why some programs fail and others succeed, 3) the feasibility of using anthropological and questionnaire modules for conducting social marketing research, 4) techniques for overcoming the high level of nonsampling error characteristic of survey data collected in developing countries, 5) techniques for identifying contraceptive price elasticity, 6) the feasibility of using content analysis in social marketing communications, 7) the applicability of global marketing strategies for social marketing, and 8) how to select an an appropriate advertising agency to publicize social marketing programs.
    Add to my documents.
  7. 7
    800835

    Integrating oral rehydration therapy into community action programs: what role for private voluntary organizations?

    Centre for Population Activities [CEFPA]

    Washington, D. C., CEFPA, 1980. 42 p.

    A workshop, sponsored by the Centre for Population Activities, the National Council for International Health, and the Pan American Health Organization, meet in 1980 to discuss the use of ORT (oral rehydration therapy) in health and development programs and to determine how private and voluntary organizations could be encouraged to become involved in efforts to extend ORT availability. ORT is a technique for reducing dehydration in patients suffering from prolonged diarrhea. Diarrhea related dehydration is a serious problem among children in developing countries, especially among malnourished children. In 1975, 5 million children under 5 years of age died from diarrhea in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The therapy consists of administering a solution of sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, glucose, and water to the patient in order to balance the composition of body fluid. Initially the solution had to be administered intravenously at a treatment center; however, the solution can now be administered orally to mildly or moderately dehydrated patients by the patient's family in the home setting. The solution is given to the patient frequently and amount is determined by the patient's thirst for the solution. Packets containing enough dry ingredients to mix with 1 liter of water are now available. These packets can be centrally or locally manufactured. The solution can be mixed at health centers upon request, or the packets can be distributed directly to family members who are then taught how to mix and administer the solution. Various community action programs can incorporate an ORT component. Personnel in these community action programs, working at all organizational levels, should receive training in ORT. Community workers should receive intensive training so that they in turn can teach families in the community to use the therapy. The programs should use all available communication channels to send out accurate messages about ORT. The program should also organize the distribution of the packets and develop evaluation procedures for the ORT program component. WHO, UNICEF, USAID, and the National Council for International Health provide various forms of assistance to governments or to private and voluntary organizations interested in developing ORT programs.
    Add to my documents.
  8. 8
    755854

    Consultant report on commercial contraceptive distribution in Bangladesh.

    Markow TG; Smith RH

    Washington, D.C. American Public Health Association, 1975. 16 p. (APHA Assgn. No. 1100-020)

    A commercial contraceptive distribution program in Bangladesh, funded by USAID and contracted by Population Services International (PSI) was evaluated upon completion of the market testing phase of the operation. The evaluation team reported that the program was generally in compliance with the contract, made a number of recommendations for modifying both the program and the contractual agreement, and offered suggestions for USAID drafting of similar contracts in the future. The evaluation team recommended that the prices should not be so high as to reduce sales but high enough to permit future price setting flexibility, to inhibit smuggling, to enhance the identification of the product as a quality item, to discourage the use of the product for other purposes, and to insure the self-reliance of the program in the future. All pills should be packaged as soon as possible to insure sanitary handling. A timetable for covering the distribution network should be submitted promptly so that distribution and promotional efforts can be coordinated. Expanding the program by adding new administrative units each month was considered an inappropriate approach in a small country. Instead efforts should be made to promote national coverage within 1 year. No decision should be made at this time on whether or not a non-profit organization should be established for carrying on the program after PSI phases out. Additional funds should be allocated for market research and for promotional activities and allocations for consumer attitudinal surveys should be reduced. A foreign advisor shoud be hired to help coordinate the distribution phase since it is difficult to hire a qualified local person given governmental salary restrictions. In reference to the establishment of contract guidelines for future distribution projects in developing countries, the team recommended against the development of a uniform contract. A flexible contract tailored to the needs of the specific country was viewed as more appropriate. The development of a technical marketing plan should not be a contract requirement. USAID should determine the most appropriate form of packaging for the contraceptives and then use this form of packaging in all future distribution programs.
    Add to my documents.
  9. 9
    734701

    Costa Rican Demographic Association (Asociacion Demografica Costarricense (ADC): the coupon system controversy.

    Korten DC; Ickis V; Ickis JC

    Managua, Nicaragua, Instituto Centroamericano de Administracion de Empresas, 1973. 43 p. (INCAE Management Case No. 9-575-601)

    This case study was developed as a teaching tool for administrative family planning personnel. The Costa Rican Demographic Association (ADC) assumed responsibility for the distribution of oral contraceptives (OCs) through commerical outlets in a program started by Alberto Gonzalez. Gonzalez had organized a rural distribution system of OCs by recruiting local women to sell OCs to friends and relatives at reduced prices. The number of women involved grew so rapidly, Gonzalez, who was a founder of ADC and its first Executive Director, expanded the distribution system to urban areas. In 1964, however, stiff opposition to the distribution system was made by the College of Pharmacists, for OCs were being sold at greatly reduced prices through noncommerical outlets. After difficult negotiation, the College agreed, in 1967, to allow the ADC to import and distribute contraceptives providing a pharmacist supervised the distribution, a doctor's prescription was obtained, and the ADC disburse OCs in pharmacies. The latter provision forced ADC to abandon its highly successful system of individual distributors. Instead, a woman had to go to a clinic, obtain a doctor's prescription as well as a blue (minimal charge) or green (no charge) coupon and then find an authorized outlet to purchase the OCs at a reduced price. The pharmacist had to keep special inventories and maintain a coupon system in order to obtain credit from ADC. ADC had to make sure inventories were maintained and that proper controls were placed on the distribution process. By 1971, 233,309 cycles of OCs were distributed through the coupon system. Nonetheless, questions were raised by USAID and other organizations about control procedures and pricing. It was suggested that it might be more convenient for the patient if the clinics themselves could assume the responsibility of supplying OCs to patients.
    Add to my documents.