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  1. 1
    047734

    Making do with less: the 1990 round of censuses in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Crowley JG; Hardee-Cleaveland K

    [Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 21-23, 1988. [3], 23, [3] p.

    For sub-Saharan countries, population censuses are crucial in obtaining data about local areas, sociodemographic characteristics, and input for development and policy making. Most sub-Saharan countries cannot afford to fund censuses, and external assistance has been provided by UNFPA, the US, the United Kingdom, and France. The World Bank has recently become involved in supporting census work, and coordination between all these groups is critical. 5 critical areas for making effective use of scarce resources are: country commitment; improved donor coordination; management and planning; institutionalization of census capabilities; and improvement of production, dissemination, and use of census data. Country commitment is affected by fund shortages, and political sensitivities. Census work should depend on agricultural seasons, the school year, and migratory movements. Donor coordination in the areas of funding, data analysis, and technical assistance is important. Planning for future censuses should begin 2-3 years before the actual census date, and management of the census should include short-term training and technical assistance from donor countries. The institutionalization of census activities should address the weakest link in census work--data processing. Lengthy delays in processing data because of nonstandardized equipment, limited access, and lack of skilled personnel have hampered census efforts. A fully configured microcomputer system would also address this problem. Publication and dissemination of census data, sometimes delayed as much as 8 years, could be improved by the use of timely microcomputer reports of preliminary results. Attention to these 5 key areas will improve the 1990 round of censuses, and efficiently use the limited resources available.
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  2. 2
    040610

    Population/family health overview: Madagascar.

    Ferguson-Bisson D; Lecomte J

    Washington, D.C., International Science and Technology Institute, Population Technical Assistance Project, 1985 Aug 8. v, 7, [4] p. (Report No. 85-48-018; Contract No. DPE-3024-C-00-4063-00)

    The objectives of the consultation in Madagascar were to review existing policies and programs in population and family health, to assess government and nongovernment plans and capabilities to program implementation, to review other donor activities, to identify constraints impeding population and family planning activities, and to prepare recommendations for the US Agency for International Development (USAID) assistance to Madagascar. Although the government has no officially proclaimed population policy, there is increasing direct support of family planning. The private family planning association, Fianakaviana Sambatra (FISA) was officially recognized in 1967 and is permitted to import and distribute contraceptives. Sale of contraceptives in private pharmacies also is permitted. The major organization providing family planning services is FISA. The Ministry of Health (MOH) system does not include contraceptive services as part of its health care services, but at the request of MOH physicians, FISA provides services in 40 MOH facilities. Private pharmacies account for most of the contraceptive distribution, with oral contraceptives (OCs) being sold by prescriptions written by private physicians or, on occasion, by public health physicians. Contraceptive services also are provided in the medical centers of at least 3 organizations: JIRAMA, the water and electricity parastatal; SOLIMA, the petroleum parastatal; and OSTIE, a group of private enterprises that has its own health care system. A Catholic organization, FTK (Natural Family Planning Association) provides education and training in natural family planning. Demographic research has not been accorded a high priority in Madagascar. Consequently, the country's capabilities in the area are relatively limited. At this time, demographic research is carried out within several institutional structures. The major donor in the area of population/family planning is UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Activities of the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) in the area of health are relevant to the planned USAID assistance. For several years, USAID has provided population assistance to Madagascar through its centrally funded projects. Recommendations are presented in order of descending importance according to priorities determined by the consultation team: population policy; training/sensitization of the medical community; support to existing private voluntary organizations; demographic statistics and research; information, education, and communication; and collection and reinforcement of health statistics. In regard to population policy, assistance should be directed to 2 general objectives: providing guidance to the government in deciding which stance it ultimately wishes to adopt officially with regard to population; and encouraging the systematic incorporation of demographic factors into sectoral development planning.
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