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  1. 1
    329878

    Reclaiming the ABCs: the creation and evolution of the ABC approach.

    Hardee K; Gribble J; Weber S; Manchester T; Wood M

    Washington, D.C., Population Action International, 2008. [16] p.

    This report was developed through review of the early literature on HIV/AIDS policies and programs in non-industrialized countries and of media material promoting prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV in those countries. Material from the early days of the epidemic was difficult to obtain. Most materials were long ago archived or are in personal files in "basements". While the report focuses on the experiences of three countries, it also examines the early responses of international organizations to HIV in many other developing countries. Additional data were obtained using a snowball sampling technique through which the authors contacted people who had worked in HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. The pool of respondents is not intended to be exhaustive, but the respondents provide important voices of those working in the developing world at the beginning of the epidemic.
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  2. 2
    328215

    Repositioning family planning: Guidelines for advocacy action. Le repositionnement de la planification familiale: Directives pour actions de plaidoyer.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa; Population Reference Bureau [PRB]. Bringing Information to Decisionmakers for Global Effectiveness [BRIDGE]; Academy for Educational Development [AED]. Africa's Health in 2010

    Washington, D.C., Academy for Educational Development [AED], 2008. 64 p.

    Countries throughout Africa are engaged in an important initiative to reposition family planning as a priority on their national and local agendas. Provision of family planning services in Africa is hindered by poverty, poor access to services and commodities, conflicts, poor coordination of the programmes, and dwindling donor funding. Although family planning enhances efforts to improve health and accelerate development, shifting international priorities, health sector reform, the HIV/AIDS crisis, and other factors have affected its importance in recent years. Traditional beliefs favouring high fertility, religious barriers, and lack of male involvement have weakened family planning interventions. The combination of these factors has led to low contraceptive use, high fertility rates in many countries, and high unmet needs for family planning throughout the region. Family planning advocates must take action to change this situation. Family planning, considered an essential component of primary health care and reproductive health, plays a major role in reducing maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality and transmission of HIV. It contributes to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and the targets of the Health-for-All Policy for the 21st century in the Africa Region: Agenda 2020. In recognition of its importance, the World Health Organisation Regional Office for Africa developed a framework (2005-014) for accelerated action to reposition family planning on national agendas and in reproductive health services, which was adopted by African ministers of health in 2004. The framework calls for increase in efforts to advocate for recognition of "the pivotal role of family planning" in achieving health and development objectives at all levels. This toolkit aims to help those working in family planning across Africa to effectively advocate for renewed emphasis on family planning to enhance the visibility, availability, and quality of family planning services for increased contraceptive use and healthy timing and spacing of births, and ultimately, improved quality of life across the region. It was developed in response to requests from several countries to assist them in accelerating their family planning advocacy efforts.
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  3. 3
    306783

    Toolkit to improve private provider contributions to child health: introduction and development of national and district strategies.

    Prysor-Jones S; Tawfik Y; Bery R; Wolff A; Bennett L 3d

    Washington, D.C., Academy for Educational Development [AED], Support for Analysis and Research in Africa [SARA], 2005 Jun. 50 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PN-ADF-758; USAID Contract No. AOT-C-00-99-00237-00)

    June 2002, the World Bank published a discussion paper titled Working with the Private Sector for Child Health. The paper--developed with technical assistance from the USAID Bureau for Africa, Office of Sustainable Development (AFR/SD) through the Support for Analysis and Research in Africa (SARA) project--lays out a framework for analyzing the contributions of the private sector in child heath. The framework, outlined below, is designed to serve as a basis for assessing the potential of different components of the private sector at country level. The framework identifies the following components of the private sector as being important for child health: Service providers (formal sector, other for-profit, employers, non-governmental organizations [NGOs], private voluntary organizations [PVOs], and traditional healers); Pharmaceutical companies; Pharmacies; Drug vendors and shopkeepers; Food producers; Media channels; Private suppliers of products related to child health, e.g. ITNs; Health insurance companies. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    300755

    HIV / AIDS, law and human rights: a handbook for Russian legislators.

    Narkevich MI; Polubinskaya SV

    Moscow, Russia, Transatlantic Partners Against AIDS, 2005. 52 p.

    The purpose of this Handbook is to assist members of the Federation Council and deputies of the State Duma of the Russian Federation, and other Russian officials on the federal and regional levels, in enacting appropriate legislation and legislative reform to address AIDS, whether they be initiatives prohibiting discrimination against PLWHA or members of highly vulnerable groups, laws guaranteeing reliable HIV prevention information for all Russian citizens, or other policy priorities — and ensuring adequate fiscal and other resources to support them. This Handbook provides examples of the best legislative and regulatory practices gathered from around the world. Best practices are given for each of the 12 guidelines contained in the International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights, published in 1998 by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). The Handbook also presents detailed information on the Russian AIDS epidemic with regard to the establishment and implementation of these Guidelines. Most importantly, the Handbook outlines concrete recommendations on measures that legislators can take to protect human rights and promote public health in responding to the epidemic. (author's)
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  5. 5
    276698

    Measuring the level of effort in the national and international response to HIV / AIDS: The AIDS Programme Effort Index (API). Summary report.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]; Futures Group International. POLICY Project

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, [2001]. 24 p.

    UNAIDS, USAID and the POLICY Project have developed the AIDS Programme Effort Index (API) to measure programme effort in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The index is designed to provide a profile that describes national effort and the international contribution to that effort. The API was applied to 40 countries in 2000. The results show that programme effort is relatively high in the areas of legal and regulatory environment, policy formulation and organizational structure. Political support was somewhat lower but increased the most from 1998. Monitoring and evaluation and prevention programmes scored in the middle range, about 50 out of 100 possible points. The lowest rated components were resources and care. The API also measured the availability of key prevention and care services. Overall, essential services are available to about half of the people living in urban areas but to only about one-quarter of the entire population. International efforts to assist country programmes received relatively high rating in all categories except care. The results presented here will be supplemented later in 2001 with a new component on human rights. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    181185

    Africa struggles for global attention. Concern that Iraq focus will be at continent's expense.

    Mutume G

    Africa Recovery. 2003 Jul; 17(2):10-11.

    Concern is growing among governments, policymakers and civil society groups that the international community is sidelining African priorities as it focuses on the crisis in Iraq. "My appeal to the main donors is that while they should attend to the reconstruction of Afghanistan and Iraq, Africa is also in dire need of resources to get rid of poverty, to be able to get safe water, to get education and so on;' Ugandan Finance Minister Gerald Ssendaula said during a recent visit to Washington, DC. UN Deputy Emergency Relief Coordinator Carolyn McAskie rein- forced these concerns at a New York press conference in May. Drawing attention to Africa's "forgotten emergencies," she recalled that last year international donor focus was on Afghanistan, before that Kosovo and now Iraq. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    117769
    Peer Reviewed

    Cairo dreams shattered.

    Potts M

    Lancet. 1996 Oct 12; 348(9033):976.

    In early October 1996, members of the US Congress voted for an omnibus spending bill, to take effect October 1, 1996, that provides $75 million less to population activities than the budget approved by the US Senate earlier in 1996. The budget for population matters is now set at $385 million. The US Congress has blocked any spending for population matters until March 1, 1997, effecting even more damage. It now has unprecedented controls on how USAID spends its money. The US gives less than 0.2% of its gross domestic product to foreign aid. The 1997 population budget equals the cost of one cheeseburger per US citizen. Yet, the US was the largest donor of population funds for many years. The 1993 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) stressed the need to improve reproductive health worldwide. The neediest countries can not afford to improve reproductive health on their own. ICPD identified a need for $5.7 billion annually from the donor community for family planning and reproductive health between 1993 and 2000. The US Congress' action has reduced actual funding to perhaps 20% of that target. People worldwide want smaller families. Women suffer from untreated sexually transmitted diseases and the ever-expanding HIV/AIDS epidemic. The newest cuts in population funds will make the Cairo dream a nightmare of increased expectations and declining resources.
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  8. 8
    082520

    Strategic planning for the expansion of family planning.

    Merrick TW

    Washington, D.C., Futures Group, Options for Population Policy, 1993 Feb. [2], 24 p. (Policy Paper Series No. 2)

    While in 1960, 9% of 415 million married women of reproductive age in less developed countries were using some form of fertility control, by 1990, the proportion had increased to 51% of 716 million women. Contraceptive use has expanded most in East and Southeast Asia and in Latin America. There has been also progress in South Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa. China accounts for over 40% of current users in the developing world. An approach to strategic planning at the sector level is outlined. OPTIONS for Population Policy II is a 5-year project funded by the Office of Population of the USAID. The goal of the project is to help USAID-assisted countries formulate and implement policies that address the need to mobilize and effectively allocate resources for expanding family planning (FP) services. The titles of the working papers published as part of an ongoing Policy Paper Series focusing on various aspects of operational policy in FP include: 1) Assessing Legal and Regulatory Reform in FP; 2) Strategic Planning for the Expansion of FP; 3) Policy Issues in Expanding Private Sector FP; 4) Communicating Population and FP Information: Targeting Policy Makers; and 5) Cost Recovery and User Fees in FP. Sector-level strategic planning is a 5-step process: 1) assessment of the current situation in the population/FP sector and examination of future prospects in the sector; 2) identification of the alternative program approaches that could be employed to achieve stated goals and objectives; 3) review and ranking of these programs for the selection of the one which best suits the needs and conditions of the country; 4) commitment by the decision makers to an action plan to implement the chosen program expansion strategy; and 5) agreement on arrangements for monitoring and periodic evaluations of programs.
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  9. 9
    081143

    USA President Clinton acts to ensure reproductive health.

    IPPF OPEN FILE. 1993 Feb; 1.

    In 1984, in Mexico City, the Reagan administration announced its policy prohibiting USAID from supporting any nongovernmental organization which used its own or US funds for any abortion-related activities. Even though this policy was intended to reduce the incidence of abortion, it had the opposite effect because the cut in funding left some areas of the developing world with no family planning services or information at all. Further, this policy resulted in a loss of $17 million (US) or 25% of the budget of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). On January 22, 1993, US President Clinton reversed this policy. IPPF considered President Clinton's action to be a significant event for women's health, human rights, and global development. This reversal will provide family planning services to about 300 million couples who want to practice family planning but could not do so because they did not have access to it. Shortly after President Clinton's announcement, IPPF began writing a proposal to USAID for funds to restore programs that the Mexico City policy eliminated. IPPF hoped the reversal would spark international recognition of the need for safe access to abortion. Other actions President Clinton has taken to promote reproductive health are reversing the Reagan and Bush administrations' rule prohibiting abortion counseling at federally-funded clinics, requesting that the US Food and Drug Administration study the possible marketing of RU-486, removing the ban on abortion in military hospitals, approving regulations allowing fetal tissue research, and appointing an abortion rights advocate as Surgeon General. The Catholic Church opposed all of Clinton's abortion policies. However, many congregations, priests, and Vatican officials are dissatisfied with the Pope's anticontraception position.
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  10. 10
    080662

    Vulnerability and resiliency: environmental degradation in major metropolitan areas of developing countries.

    Parker RS

    In: Environmental management and urban vulnerability, edited by Alcira Kreimer, Mohan Munasinghe. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. 107-52. (World Bank Discussion Papers 168)

    The main factors contributing to vulnerability to natural and man-made hazards and the implications of environmental degradation for large urban areas in the developing world are outlined. Many high-risk metropolitan areas in developing countries are projected to have populations of over 10 million by the year 2000; including Baghdad, Bangkok, Beijing, Bombay, Buenos Aires, Cairo, Calcutta, Dhaka, Delhi, Jakarta, Istanbul, Karachi, Manila, Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Shanghai, and Teheran. Water depletion and quality is a looming issue. In Thailand water demand for the area of Bangkok will increase from 2.8 million cubic meters per day in 1987 to 4.1 million by 1997, and to 5.2 million by 2007. Only 2% of the population of Bangkok is connected to the sewer system. In Calcutta there are 3 million people in settlements which have no systematic means of disposing human wastes. Fertilizers have had a severe negative impact on the environment. Among the cities which have polluted their coastlines are Alexandria, Dakar, Guayaquil, Karachi, Panama City, and Valparaiso. Montevideo and Rio de Janeiro have polluted beaches. The Torrey Canyon, the Exxon Valdez and the Gulf War each focused world attention on marine oil pollution that stems from tanker operations, refineries, and offshore oil wells; from the disposal of industrial and automotive oils; and from industrial and motor vehicle emissions. Because of inappropriate sitting, hundreds of people were killed by mudslides in Rio de Janeiro in 1988, in Medellin in Colombia in 1987, and in Caracas in 1989. In Guatemala, 65% of deaths in the capital following the 1976 earthquake occurred in the badly eroded ravines around the city. The production of greenhouse gases will lead to a rapid warming of the biosphere sometime in the next century, changed rainfall patterns, altered paths of ocean currents, and rising sea levels. A World Bank study recommends for country responses 1) to focus on particular environmental problems; 2) to concentrate on vulnerable populations using vulnerability analysis; and 3) to focus on government intervention strategy.
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