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  1. 1

    Baby formula: the continuing controversy.

    Agenda. 1980 Mar; 3(2):8-11.

    Although the baby formula controversy continues, an important step toward resolving the issue was undertaken recently at an international conference of industry representatives, physicians, and nutritionalists, sponsored by WHO and UNICEF. At the conference, industry spokesmen agreed to ban all infant formula advertising which discourages breast-feeding and to ban all promotional activities in hospitals. Opponents pointed out that 1) the success of the ban is dependent on voluntary compliance and 2) the conference failed to address the issue of whether baby formulas were completely inappropriate for use in many developing countries. Conference participants also agreed 1) to stress the contraceptive value of breast-feeding; 2) to promote the use of contraceptives which do not interfere with lactation; 3) to promote nutritional education and the granting of longer maternity leaves to working women. In line with these recommendations AID has initiated a project aimed at helping countries expand and develop maternal health and nutritional program. As part of the project, AID will help the American Public Health Association develop a clearinghouse for infant and child nutritional information and will lend assistance to a number of organizations which plan to develop nutritional training programs. AID will also assist a number of organizations in their investigation of infant formula marketing practices and will help the Department of Agriculture develop and market local weaning foods.
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  2. 2

    AID research and programs in infant feeding.


    In: Raphael, D., ed. Breastfeeding and food policy in a hungry world. New York, Academic Press, 1979. p. 265-268

    USAID's Office of Nutrition supports research activity in infant weaning foods and breastfeeding at the Human Lactation Center. The project involves health and anthropological fieldwork that analyzes reasons for adverse trends in breastfeeding. Along with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Office of Nutrition supports efforts to develop low-cost nutritious food and intermediate technology for young children. A low-cost extrusion cooker for producing precooked childrens' food is being used in Central America, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines. Other research activities by the Office of Nutrition include evaluations of preschool feeding and the identification of time and technology constraints on low-income women. Breastfeeding data is also collected by the Office of Population. A combined "milk pill" and ovulation suppressant is being researched at Johns Hopkins University. The milk pill is designed to counteract the adverse effect of oral contraceptives on quantity of milk and duration of lactation.
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  3. 3

    Programming alternatives in human lactation: maternal-child-health programs of care in India.


    In: Raphael, D., ed. Breastfeeding and food policy in a hungry world. New York, Academic Press, 1979. p. 277-285

    Pregnant Indian women and nursing mothers are often deficient in absorbable iron, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin C, and calcium. These nutrients combined in an oil base with a protein fortificant could be marketed as a medicine. Project Poshak and the Kasa project are two maternal-child-health nutrition programs in which breastfeeding, solid food weaning and preschool child care were emphasized. Nontribal Hindu women have many dietary strictures during pregnancy which contribute to anemia and protein vitamin deficiency. Poshnak project influenced other projects, including national feeding programs, special nutrition programs, and take-home food and child care services. Traditional child rearing practises have outlasted modern agricultural production. The delayed introduction of supplements to the breastfeeding child and female child neglect continue despite availability of nutritional food.n unexpected result of both projects was that acceptance of birth control and family planning greatly increased.
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