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The blurred line between aiding progress and sanctioning abuse: United States appropriations, the UNFPA and family planning in the P.R.C.
New York Law School Journal of Human Rights. 2000; 17(3):1063-1104.This note discusses the trend in People's Republic of China programs, international standards of human rights, legislative trends, and the United States budget for fiscal years 2000 and 2001 as they apply to family planning programs. Specifically, this discussion shows why Congress should condition funding of these programs based on assurances of compliance with human rights standards. Part I presents an overview of the P.R.C. programs. Part II reviews internationally accepted standards of human rights concerning reproduction and population control, as well as China's violations of these rights. Part III describes UNFPA funding of the P.R.C.'s programs, emphasizing their latest 4-year program. Part IV discusses the legislative trend since 1985 of limiting or halting funding to the programs, and the current state of the federal budget regarding these appropriations. Part V discusses the global gag rule and the necessity of its removal. Part VI considers recently proposed legislation regarding funding family planning. Finally, the conclusion proposes a possible solution to the family planning dilemma in the face of both the continuing need for assistance and the continued existence of human rights abuses. (excerpt)
A.I.D.'s research program to develop new and improved means of fertility control. (Statement, May 2, 1978)
In: United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Select Committee on Population. Population and development: research in population and development: needs and capacities. Vol. 3. Hearings, May 2-4, 1978. Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978. p. 287-319USAID, in attempts to develop and improve means of fertility control, spent $4.8 million on new ways to control corpus luteum function and block progestational activity, $4.4 million to develop gonadotropin releasing factors, and $6 million on prostaglandins as a means of inducing the menses or terminating pregnancy in the second trimester. Studies at Johns Hopkins University developed thyrotropin releasing hormones to ensure postpartum infertility without interfering with lactation. Research to improve current forms of birth control amounts to $16.5 million. Side effects of oral contraceptives, single aperture laparoscopic sterilization, reversible male sterilization, and tissue glues for non-surgical female sterilization are some of the new techniques being funded by USAID. $19 million has been allocated to evaluate contraceptive programs in developing countries. Funds have come from DHEW, the Ford foundation, the Population Council, pharmaceutical companies, and WHO. Although improved birth control is desireable, money is best spent supplying available methods to developing countries.