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Washington, D.C., U.S. Office of International Health, Division of Planning and Evaluation, 1976. 144 p. (Syncrisis: the dynamics of health, XIX)This report uses available statistics to examine health conditions in Senegal and their interaction with socioeconomic development. Background data are presented, after which population, health status, nutrition, environmental health, health infrastructure, facilities, services and manpower, national health policy and planning, international organizations, and the Sahel are discussed. Diseases such as malaria, measles, tuberculosis, trachoma and venereal diseases are endemic in Senegal, and high levels of infant and childhood mortality exist throughout the country but especially in rural areas. Diarrhea, respiratory infections, and neonatal tetanus contribute to this mortality and are evidence of the poor health environment, and lack of basic services including nutrition assistance, health education, and potable water. Nutrition in Senegal appears to be good in general, but seasonal and local variations sometimes produce malnutrition. Lowered fertility rates would reduce infant and maternal mortality and morbidity and might slow the present decline in per capita food intake. At present the government of Senegal has no population policy and almost no provisions for family planning services. Health services are inadequate and inefficient, with shortages of all levels of health manpower, poor planning, and overemphasis on curative services.
Washington, D.C., May 1975. (Sector Policy Paper) 74pHousing is important to development in both economic and welfare terms. For all but the wealthy, it is generally the major objective of family saving efforts. Housing has substantial social benefits, incluidng the welfore effects of shelter from the elements, sanitation facilities, and access to health and education services. A positive housing policy can thus make a substantial contribution to economic development and social welfare. Many of the early efforts to provide international assistance for housing problems that prevented most governments from dealing with them effectively. The finanacial assistance provided often went to lower middle- and middle-income groups, rather than to lower-income groups; the bulk of the population in urban areas was not affected. The World Bank Groups entered this field in the 1970s. Bank Group operations in housing thus far have taken the form oflending for serviced sites, on which occupants contribute to the construction of their own homes, and, increasingly, lending for the upgrading of squatter settlements. The essence of quatter housing upgrading is to conserve the exiting low-income housingstock, particularly in serviceable, relatively central locations; and to improve this housing by including additions and improvements to services and facilities within the entire neighborhood. So far, the World Bank Group has approved assistance for 10 urban development projects. Bank Group Assistance for housing is limited to countries and cities broadly committed to alleviating the housing conditions of the poor as part of efficient and equitable urban development. In this context, the following recommendaitons are made: 1) squatter upgrading and sites and services projects should continue to be the pimre instruments for improving the housing conditions of the urban poor; 2) in some cities, the appropriate response to hosuing for the poor involves conventional construction; and 3) the Bank Group has a particular role to play in responding to requests for assistance in building housing finance institutions.