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  1. 1

    Final technical report to the United States Agency for International Development (USAID): Strengthening Nutrition Management in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Grant No. 294-G-00-04-00208-00.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2006. 6 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PD-ACH-528; USAID Grant No. 294-G-00-04-00208-00)

    The general objective of the project is to strengthen the MoH Nutrition Department (ND) in order to achieve an effective, sustainable and functioning body in the area of nutrition. The Nutrition Department will be in charge of policy, planning, monitoring, evaluation and coordination, considering both short-term emergency interventions and long-term activities related to nutrition. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Evaluation of Matching Grant II to International Planned Parenthood Federation / Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) (1987-1992).

    Wickham R; Miller R; Rizo A; Wexler DB

    Arlington, Virginia, DUAL and Associates, Population Technical Assistance Project [POPTECH], 1991 Jul 26. xii, 48, [25] p. (Report No. 90-078-116; USAID Contract No. DPE-3043-G-SS-7062-00)

    This is a mid-term review of a matching grant given to the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR) by USAID's Office of Population for 1987-1991. The grant covers projects in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and 9 smaller countries, and 4 regional activities, commodities, technical assistance, management information systems (MIS), and evaluation support. The goal of the grant was to reach new acceptors with quality services, to exert leadership of public sector providers, and to improve internal management. The goals in the 3 large nations are to focus on pockets of need or inadequate service or method mix. The goals of attracting 2.8 million new acceptors, improving services, making detailed plans and keeping strict financial reports have been met. The most serious problem was the lack of a regional evaluation of goal evaluation, the real cost of contraception, and impediments to contraceptive use. There were also difficulties in forwarding funds at the beginning of the FPA's year, and in sending in agency workplans on time. Better communication structures could probably remedy this. It is recommended that the matching grant be renewed in 1992.
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  3. 3

    The search for an appropriate, affordable HIV test for Africa.

    Tam M

    AFRICA HEALTH. 1990 Jul; 12(5):18-9.

    In comparison with the commercially available ELISA test for HIV, new more appropriate tests for use in African locales are being supported by USAID, PATH, the International Development Research Center of Canada and the Rockefeller Foundation. ELISA tests are suited for high volume, high technology, automation, data management, accuracy, and cost about US$1 per test. In contrast, tests for African laboratories must be inexpensive, suitable for small numbers of tests, possibly no refrigeration or electricity, and unsophisticated technicians. a series of 5 prototype tests designed for african laboratories been evaluated at the Mama Yemo Hospital, Kinshasa, Zaire, under the auspices of Diagnostic Technology for Community Health (USAID-funded) and managed by PATH. Results comparable to those with ELISA could be achieved with duplicate testing, but the cost remained about the same. to lower final costs, development and overhead for the supplier must be carried by donor funds. With there criteria in mind, PATH is working on a public sector HIV test taking <30 minutes, costing
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  4. 4

    Family planning program funds: sources, levels, and trends.

    Nortman DL

    New York, New York, Population Council, Center for Poplicy Studies, 1985 Aug. 42 p. (Center for Policy Studies Working Papers No. 113)

    This analysis of family planning program funding suggests that current funding levels may be inadequate to meet projected contraceptive and demographic goals. Expenditures on organized family planning in less developed countries (excluding China) totaled about US$1 billion in 1982--about $2/year/married woman of reproductive age. Cross-sectional analysis indicates that foreign support as a proportion of total expenditures decreases with program duration. Donor support to family planning in less developed countries has generally declined from levels in the late 1970s. This is attributable both to positive factors such as program success and increased domestic government support as well as requirements for better management of funds and the worldwide economic recession. Foreign assistance seems to have a catalytic effect on contraceptive use only when the absorptive capacity of family planning programs--their ability to make productive use of resources--is favorable. The lower the stage of economic development, the less visible is the impact of contraceptive use or fertility per investment dollar. On the other hand, resources that do not immediately yield returns in contraceptive use may be laying the foundation for later gains, making increased funding of family planning programs an economically justifiable investment. The World Bank has estimated that an additional US$1 billion in public spending would be required to fulfill the unmet need for contraception. To increase the contraceptive prevalence rate in developing countries to 58% (to achieve a total fertility rate of 3.3 children) in the year 2000 would require a public expenditure on population programs of US$5.6 billion, or an increase in real terms of 5%/year. Improved donor-host relations and coordination are important requirements for enhancing absorptive capacity and program performance. A growing willingness on the part of donors to allow countries to specify and run population projects has been noted.
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  5. 5

    AID investment of $1 billion in family planning/population is resulting in sharp birthrate declines.

    International Family Planning Perspectives and Digest. 1978 Winter; 4(4):127-128.

    This article is derived from testimony by Reimert T. Ravenholt, Director of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) Office of Population before the Select Committee on Population in the U.S. House of Representatives. The testimony dealt with the disbursement of the $1 billion in AID funds for the promotion of family planning in underdeveloped countries. A table gives the total, broken down into the various categories of aid: $345 million for international agencies, $261 million in bilateral assistance, $162 million for contraceptives, $102 million for demographic and fertility research, $55 million for improvement of contraceptive technology, $34 million for administration, $49 million for support of institutions training 3d World people for research in population related fields. The article also reports on the success in slowing population growth in many of the countries to which AID funds have been sent, particularly in Colombia, Thailand, Korea and Indonesia. Dr. Ravenholt stated that he feels the AID's investment has been instrumental in lowering birthrates, and that continued tenacity and effort will result in more successes.
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  6. 6

    Recurrent costs: problems in less developed countries.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination

    Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development, 1982 May. 24 p. (A.I.D. Policy Paper)

    Inadequate budgeting for recurrent costs is a serious problems in many less developed countries (LDC). The problem is defined and analyzed and recommendations are made in reference to the way US Agency for International Development (USAID) Missions should respond to the problem. Recurrent costs are costs that recur throughout the lifetime of a project, e.g., road maintenance costs, teacher's salaries, and medical supplies for clinics. If a project such, as a road, generates sufficient money, or output, it is usually more profitable for a country to budget for the recurring costs of maintaing the road rather than to use the money for investing in a new project with initial costs, i.e., high investment and fixed costs. The output from the road would probably be greater than the output from the new project because of these high initial costs. When a country does not allocate money for recurring costs for existing projects, which have potentially high outputs, the country is defined as having a recurring cost problem. Many LDCs recipients are experiencing serious economic crises due to adverse international market conditions Thes countries will find it increasingly difficult to allocate money to cover the cost of maintaining USAID projects. There are 3 major reasons why LDCs have recurring cost problems. 1st, donor policies often contribute to the problem because the generally restrict funding to capital investment and refuse to cover recurring costs in the mistaken belief that it is better to use funds for growth rather than consumption, that it promotes self-reliance on the part of the recipient country, and that the recipient country will be more committed to the project if they have to maintain it. 2nd, policies in recipient countries are sometimes responsible for recurring cost problems because 1) the countries fail to raise adequate revenues, 2) they misallocate funds for political reasons or for services they cannot afford to provide, and 3) they are straddled with poorly designed projects that have high recurring costs but small outputs. Procedures are suggested for determining whether a country currrently has a recurrent cost problem and for assessing whether a country will develop a recurrent cost problem in the near future. Solutions to the problem are 1) allocation of a greater proportion of the countries revenues to recurrent costs, 2) reducing investment in new projects, 3) increasing revenues, and 4) ensuring that recurrent costs are kept to a minimun in any new projects. Appropriate USAID responses depend on the cause, USAID Missions should persuade the country to undertake reforms. If a LDC refuses to modify its poliies, USAID should consider reducing the level of assistance to that country. If the LDC's policies are appropriate but there is still a recurrent cost problem, USAID Missions should consider funding some of the recurrent costs.
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