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Washington, D.C., LTG Associates, Monitoring, Evaluation and Design Support Project, 2002 Mar.  p. (PD-ABW-468; USAID Contract No. HRN-I-00-99-00002-00)The Nutrition Results Package is a ten-year program framework authorized in 1998. Under this authorization, The Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance (FANTA) project was awarded competitively in September 1998 to the Academy for Educational Development (AED) as the prime contractor, with Cornell University and Tufts University as subcontractors. The FANTA proposal included a memorandum of understanding with Food Aid Management (FAM), a consortium of Private Voluntary Organizations (PVOs), referred to as Cooperating Sponsors (CS), implementing Title II food aid development and emergency programs. The overall purpose of FANTA is "improved food and nutrition policy, strategy, and program development". Three Intermediate Results (IRs) were identified to achieve this purpose: USAID's and Cooperating Sponsors' nutrition and food security-related program development, analysis, monitoring, and evaluation improved, USAID, host country governments, and Cooperating Sponsors establish improved, integrated nutrition and food security-related strategies and policies, and Best practices and acceptable standards in nutrition and food security-related policy and programming adopted by USAID, Cooperating Sponsors, and other key stakeholders. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., Academy for Educational Development [AED], Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project, 2003 Feb. 32 p. (Occasional Paper No. 1)This paper, commissioned to support the development of the Office of Food for Peace's new Strategic Plan, analyzes the implications of these trends in poverty and malnutrition for USAID food security programming. The paper argues for a conceptual shift that explicitly acknowledges the risks that constrain progress towards enhanced food security, and addresses directly the vulnerability of food insecure households and communities. Enhancing peoples' resiliency to overcome shocks, building people's capacity to transcend food insecurity with a more durable and diverse livelihood base, and increasing human capital will result in long-term sustainable improvements in food security. (excerpt)
In: To cure all hunger. Food policy and food security in Sudan, edited by Simon Maxwell. London, England, Intermediate Technology Publications, 1991. 191-206.Targeting on grounds of equity, cost, or minimizing interference fails to consider whether targeting is politically possible. In the case of the USAID-sponsored famine-relief and emergency food aid operation in Darfur, western Sudan, in 1985, the expressed intention of target this relief was not fulfilled. The target group received inadequate amounts of relief grain owing to the lack of targeting by area councils within Darfur, and the lack of targeting within area councils. After severe rainfall failures in 1982, 1983 and 1984, large numbers of people in western Sudan faced severe food shortage, abnormal migrations, and increased risk of destitution. USAID, the principal donor for relief operations to western Sudan in 1984-85, approved 82,000 metric tons (mt) of relief grain for western Sudan in September 1984, and then a further 250,000 mt in late 1984 and early 1985. The target population for the first 41,000 mt of relief sorghum was the neediest one-fourth later, the neediest one-third. A USAID document provided estimates of people and the way the area councils conceived sheltering throngs of the target group. There was 153,141 seriously affected in Kutum area council, 102,907 in Mellit, and 507,348 in Geneina representing around 25% of Darfur's population, the size of the target group envisaged for the first 41,000 mt of relief grain. USAID made concessions to the Darfur regional government allowing South Darfur a higher proportion of early allocations than need dictated. Save the Children Fund experienced serious difficulties with the local contractor to distribute food from area-council level. Aid agencies and donors need to consider how targeting is to be accomplished and how to confront influential local players with interests contrary to such targeting. Allocations of relief grain could be made on the assumption that targeting will be only partially achieved; and through alternative forms of relief.
U.S. international population policy, second annual report of the NSC Ad Hoc Group on Population Policy, January 1978.
[Unpublished] 1978 Jun. 45 p.Noting the devastating effects of uncontrolled population growth, this 1978 annual report reviews population problems, primarily in 13 developing countries, and focuses on program development, broadly and by specific countries. It acknowledges mounting international attention to the problem, adoption of more government-sponsored population programs, and increasing assistance from international and private donors, as well as government agencies. Urgently needed, however, is a broader, more concerted effort, along with implementation of the multi-year program plans of several organizations, particularly the Agency for International Development (AID). Strengthening family planning programs in village and community organizations, improving the status of women, intensifying fertility research, motivating smaller families, lessening the gap between food production and population, the legal reform are central tenets of AID programs. Some evidence of declining birth rates in developing countries is indicated, but projections are that for every decade of delay in achieving replacement-level fertility rates, world population will increase by 15%.
AID/UN collaboration in social sector activities in Asia (trip report of a visit to the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Bangladesh and India--Summer, 1977).
[Unpublished] Nov. 1977. 33 p.A trip was undertaken subsequent to and in conjunction with the 1977 UNICEF Executive Board Meeting in Manila. It included visits to and consultations with AID missions in 4 countries. The focus is primarily on coordination between AID and UN programs in the social sectors. In general, relations between AID and UN development agencies are good, but lack of coordination exists. There are many urban problems in the Philippines. The government's main focus is "Project Compassion,"--an attempt to reach rural population with interrelated services involving food production, nutrition, population, and environment. Indonesia has a large number of externally supported projects in AID priority areas, and many domestic agencies responsible for them. There are nutrition programs and a village water supply program. In Thailand, WHO, UNICEF, and AID all have a similar outlook on health and population matters. There are 4 priorities: 1) population/family planning; 2) water and food-borne diseases; 3) respiratory diseases; and 4) vector-borne diseases, especially malaria. Primary health care has been introduced into the provinces. A community school in a slum was visited. The Economic Commisision for South Asia and the Pacific has established a rural development task force, and would like to establish additional task forces to bring together UN agencies. This does not appear to be very successful. At the UNESCO regional office for education, social science research was discussed, as was the effectiveness of the International Bureau for Education International Educational Reporting Service project. The goal of the AID program in Bangladesh is to help achieve food grain self sufficiency by 1985. AID and UN agency interests coincide in the food-for-work programs of the World Food Program, and to a smaller extent in UNICEF's child feeding program. Indian programs are also discussed.
Population and Development Review. 1982 Jun; 8(2):423-34.Since the mid-1960s, the US government has played a major role in influencing population policies worldwide through its assistance programs and through its activities on international forums discussing population matters. The 2 memoranda excerpted below represent probably the clearest and most authoritative articulation by the Executive Branch of the US government international population policy now on public record. (These memoranda were recently declassified officially since they were originally issued as confidential documents.) The 1st document reproduced is the Executive Summary of the U.S. National Security Council Memorandum (NSSM 200), issued on December 10, 1974 under the title "Implications of worldwide poulation growth for U.S. security and overseas interests." The 2nd document, a follow-up to the 1st item, is National Security Decision Memorandum 314, issued on November 26, 1975, by Brent Scowcroft, then President Gerald Ford's Assistant for National Security Affairs, to the Secretaries of State, Treasury, Defense, Agriculture, Health, Education, and Welfare, and to the Administrator of the Agency for International Development. (author's modified)
Summary report of the FAO Regional Population Workshop for Latin America, Santiago, Chile, 26 October-1 November 1974.
Rome, Italy, FAO, 1975. 40 p. (Mr/H5397/E12.75/1/800)Objectives of this FAO workshop for Latin America were to develop a common understanding of FAO's policies, to update FAO staff on the current demographic situation, to provide an opportunity to exchange ideas, and to acquaint FAO staff with program activities supported by FAO, with FAO and UNFPA (United Nations Fund for Population Activities) guidelines and procedures. The workshop reviewed problems related to food supply and agricultural development with particular reference to the demographic situation and to food production, trade, and nutrition problems in Latin America. FAO's population programs include research advisory services, training, fellowships and publications in population aspects of agricultural development planning, promotion of the collection of population-related statistics, projections of agricultural labor force, activities in agricultural education and training, and other rural development programs. The workshop reviewed programs and activities with population components in different Latin American countries. The operation principles of UNFPA, its policies, major areas of activity, and the related regional activities of other UN agencies, such as the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America, the Organization of American States, and the Pan American Health Organization were addressed. Activities undertaken by UNFPA and by specialized agencies of the UN include seminars of employers on population and family planning, production of educational films, workshops for trade union education officers, curricula and teaching aids development, the assignment of family education experts to regional centers for functional literacy education, training courses in population education, and seminars on occupational health and welfare. Assistance to FAO programs comes from several governmental sources, such as USAID and the Canadian International Development Research Center, and from private organizations, such as the Church World Service, the Ford Foundation, and IPPF, the National Academy of Science, the Population Council, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Tinker Foundation. This report contains a list of workshop participants, an organizational chart showing FAO's units concerned with population activities, and a list of Latin American organizations which include studies of population in their programs.
New York, Foreign Policy Association, 1980 Oct. 80 p. (Headline Series 251)World population will be facing serious problems in the 1980s and 1990s as a result of 2 population trends which are presently dominating the demographic scene. The number of young people aged 15-30 in developing countries is increasing rapidly and they will be soon asserting themselves politically, economically, and socially. The 2nd trend which exists is the disparity between high population growth in the impoverished developing countries and the lower rates in the affluent industrial countries. This century's population growth has occurred primarily in the developing world and is the result of lower death rates rather than higher birthrates. The situation is attributable to demographic transition; however, the major demographic questions of how quickly birthrates will fall and how wide the gap will be before birthrates follow the classic transition remain unanswered. 3 approaches to help answer these and other demographic questions are: 1) demographic approach; 2) historical approach; and 3) observation of recent events. These various approaches are given attention in this monograph. The consequences of too rapid population growth can be seen in the low food supplies which exist leaving many in developing countries undernourished, in a decline in the quality of life, in the reduction of the potential capacity to produce what is necessary (diminished land resources, pollution of water and air), in the increases in the price of energy and natural resources, in the difficulties in acquiring employment opportunities, and in burgeoning urban growth (which puts a serious strain on housing, transportation, etc.). Family planning was adopted in various countries in the world despite government policies to counter this. While there is recognition of the need for measures to be taken to reduce fertility, the question of how to accomplish this still remains. A brief overview of developing country adoption of family policies is included. What become clear is that family planning programs do make a difference in birthrate reduction and in population growth control. An effective, extensive family planning/population program exists in the People's Republic of China; Indonesia, Colombia, Tunisia, and Mauritius are other countries with successful programs. Various socioeconomic factors influence fertility and they include: literacy and education, urbanization, improvement in the status of women, health, family or community structure, development (modernization), and even the lack of development. Population and development will be greatly affected in the future by the quality and depth of leadership. Government leadership and the private sector, donor agencies, as well as international leadership, especially that of the UNFPA, will be critical. Also included here are discussion questions and reading references for those who are interested.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Office of International Health, Division of Planning and Evaluation, 1976. 144 p. (Syncrisis: the dynamics of health, XIX)This report uses available statistics to examine health conditions in Senegal and their interaction with socioeconomic development. Background data are presented, after which population, health status, nutrition, environmental health, health infrastructure, facilities, services and manpower, national health policy and planning, international organizations, and the Sahel are discussed. Diseases such as malaria, measles, tuberculosis, trachoma and venereal diseases are endemic in Senegal, and high levels of infant and childhood mortality exist throughout the country but especially in rural areas. Diarrhea, respiratory infections, and neonatal tetanus contribute to this mortality and are evidence of the poor health environment, and lack of basic services including nutrition assistance, health education, and potable water. Nutrition in Senegal appears to be good in general, but seasonal and local variations sometimes produce malnutrition. Lowered fertility rates would reduce infant and maternal mortality and morbidity and might slow the present decline in per capita food intake. At present the government of Senegal has no population policy and almost no provisions for family planning services. Health services are inadequate and inefficient, with shortages of all levels of health manpower, poor planning, and overemphasis on curative services.
Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development, 1982 May. 8 p. (A.I.D. Policy Paper)The Task Force of the US Agency for International Development (US AID) sets forth the overall objectives, policy decisions, and programming implications for food and agricultural assistance funded from Development Assistance, Economic Support Fund, and PL 480 budgets. The objective of US food and agricultural assistance is to enable developing countries to become self-reliant in food through increased agricultural production and greater economic efficiency in marketing and distribution of food products. Improved food consumption is gained through expanded employment to increase purchasing power, increased awareness of sound nutritional principles, and direct distribution of food from domestic or external sources to those facing severe malnutrition and food shortages. Policy elements to accomplish these objectives include 1) improving country policies to remove constraints on food production; 2) developing human resources and institutional capabilities, including research on food and agriculture problems; 3) expanding the role of private sectors in developing countries and private sector in agricultural development; and 4) employing available assistance instruments and technologies in an integrated and efficient manner. A sound country policy framework is fundamental for agricultural growth and should 1) rely on free markets, product incentives, and equitable access to resources; 2) give priority to complementary public sector investments that complement and encourage rather than compete with private sector growth. Private and voluntary organizations (PVOs) can also offer low-cost approaches to agricultural development that take local attitudes and conditions into account. Under appropriate conditions, US AID will finance a share of recurrent costs of food and agricultural research, education, extension or related institutions, provided that policy and institution frameworks assure effective utilization and the country is making maximum and/or increasing domestic resource mobilization efforts.
Washington, D.C., U.S. Agency for International Development, May 1982. 12 p. (A.I.D. Policy Paper)Estimates indicate that 600 million people in less developed countries (LDCs) are in danger of not getting enough to eat. This policy paper reviews the justifications for US investment in improving nutrition in LDCs and sets out some policy guidelines for USAID programs. The objective of the nutrition policy is to maximize the nutritional impact of USAID's economic assistance. The policy recommendations are to place the highest priority on alleviating undernutrition through sectoral programs which incorporate nutrition as a factor in decision making. This can be effected through identifying projects based upon analysis of food consumption problems; this is especially appropriate in formulating country development strategies, especially in the areas of agriculture, rural development, education and health. USAID will give increasing attention, through research, analysis, experimental projects, and programs, to improve the ability to utilize the private sector whenever feasible to implement the policy, and to target projects to at-risk groups with the design of overcoming or minimizing constraints to meeting their nutritional needs. It will also monitor the impacts of development projects and strengthen the capacity of indigenous organizations to analyze and overcome nutrition problems.