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Your search found 36 Results

  1. 1
    385483

    Family planning in Latin America: The achievements of 50 years: Executive summary.

    Bertrand JT; Ward VM; Santiso-Galvez R

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr. [3] p. (FS-15-136; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    This executive summary introduces the full report (See POPLINE record 337627) examining the 50-year period starting in the mid-1960s that witnessed a dramatic decline in fertility and steady increase in contraceptive use in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region.
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  2. 2
    337685

    The roadmap for health measurement and accountability.

    World Bank; United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]; World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Washington, D,.C.], World Bank, 2015 Jun. [34] p.

    The Roadmap articulates a shared strategic approach to support effective measurement and accountability systems for a country’s health programs. The Roadmap outlines smart investments that countries can adopt to strengthen basic measurement systems and to align partners and donors around common priorities. It offers a platform for development partners, technical experts, implementers, civil society organizations, and decision makers to work together for health measurement in the post-2015 era. Using inputs and technical papers developed by experts from international and national institutions, the Roadmap was completed following a public consultation that received extensive contributions from a wide number of agencies and individuals from across the globe. (Excerpt)
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  3. 3
    337633

    Family planning in El Salvador: the achievements of 50 years.

    Santiso-Galvez R; Ward VM; Bertrand JT

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr. [22] p. (SR-15-118C; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    This publication is one of eight case studies that were developed as part of a broader review entitled Family Planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Achievements of 50 Years. As its title implies, the larger review documents and analyzes the accomplishments in the entire region since the initiation of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funding in the early 1960s. El Salvador has made enormous progress in terms of family planning over the past five decades. It has reduced fertility rates; it has developed a robust legal and regulatory framework for FP; it has allocated resources for procuring contraceptives for its population; it now offers information and contraceptive services to the entire population of the country with the active participation of civil society organizations, especially women’s organizations.
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  4. 4
    337632

    Family planning in Nicaragua: the achievements of 50 years.

    Santiso-Galvez R; Ward VM; Bertrand JT

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr. [24] p. (SR-15-118F; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    This publication is one of eight case studies that were developed as part of a broader review entitled Family Planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Achievements of 50 Years. As its title implies, the larger review documents and analyzes the accomplishments in the entire region since the initiation of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funding in the early 1960s. Nicaragua has made significant progress in improving its macro-level primary health care indicators, reducing maternal mortality and increasing contraceptive prevalence. There has also been increased participation by the Instituto Nicaragense de Seguridad Social (INSS) in providing family planning services and commodities, thus reducing the burden on health ministry facilities. The government has shown its strong commitment to comprehensive services to improve the health of the population.
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  5. 5
    337630

    Family planning in Haiti: the achievements of 50 years.

    Ward VM; Santiso-Galvez R; Bertrand JT

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr. [28] p. (SR-15-118H; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    This publication is one of eight case studies that were developed as part of a broader review entitled Family Planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Achievements of 50 Years. As its title implies, the larger review documents and analyzes the accomplishments in the entire region since the initiation of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funding in the early 1960s. The family planning movement in Haiti began in the 1960s, only a short time after family planning activities had been initiated in many other countries in the Latin American and Caribbean region. Initially, doctors and demographers worked together to encourage government policies around the issue and to begin private sector service provision programs in much the same way early family planning activities occurred elsewhere. Yet, in comparison with other countries within the region, Haiti’s progress on reproductive health has been slow.
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  6. 6
    337628

    Family planning in Colombia: the achievements of 50 years.

    Bertrand JT; Santiso-Galvez R; Ward VM

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr. [26] p. (SR-15-118A; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    This publication is one of eight case studies that were developed as part of a broader review entitled Family Planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Achievements of 50 Years. As its title implies, the larger review documents and analyzes the accomplishments in the entire region since the initiation of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funding in the early 1960s. Family planning has become so deeply entrenched as a social norm in Colombia that it no longer constitutes the special area of interest that it did in the 1960s and 1970s. Nonetheless, challenges remain.
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  7. 7
    337627

    Family planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: the achievements of 50 years.

    Bertrand JT; Ward VM; Santiso-Galvez R

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr. [128] p. (TR-15-101; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    This report examines the 50-year period starting in the mid-1960s that witnessed a dramatic decline in fertility and steady increase in contraceptive use in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region. The current contraceptive prevalence rate (all methods) of 74 percent is among the highest of any region in the developing world. Many factors have contributed to the dramatic decline in fertility in the LAC region over the past 50 years: increased educational levels, improved economic conditions, decreased infant and child mortality, rapid urbanization, political stability, and changing cultural norms, among others. While recognizing the influence of these factors on fertility, what role did use of family planning play in fertility decline in the region? What lessons can be drawn for other developing countries committed to a development path that strengthens family planning services and improves health and living standards for their people? This report examines the specific role of family planning in accelerating fertility decline in the LAC region.
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  8. 8
    080677

    Latin American and Caribbean Region health care financing activities, 1982-1988. An annotated compilation. Draft.

    John Snow [JSI]. Resources for Child Health [REACH]

    [Unpublished] 1989 Mar. [2], 87 p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)

    The Resources for Child Health Project (REACH) presents an overview of health care financing (HCF) activities in the Latin American and Caribbean regions for the period 1982-88. REACH is compiling regional health care financing initiatives, preparing detailed case studies of USAID health financing experiences in 3 countries, and developing a set of general guidelines to be used by health officers to identify opportunities for HCF activities. A draft version of the first of these components is presented and includes an updated annotated list of health finance activities, studies, and projects conducted in the region since 1982. The USAID approach to HCF as put forth in policy statements and other official documents is summarized; World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, and Pan American Health Organization viewpoints are reviewed as well as social security issues and their relationships to HCF; and country overviews are provided under Caribbean, Central America, South America, and North America subheadings. Brief overviews of HCF activities for each country are given followed by summaries of individual activities funded by USAID and other organizations. Summaries indicate whether activities are public or private sector, main areas of emphasis, and describe content. Activity costs are also given for USAID-funded initiatives.
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  9. 9
    080470

    The use of economic and financial studies for the Expanded Programme on Immunization: third international meeting proceedings, June 13 - 15, 1990, Paris, France.

    Centre International de l'Enfance; John Snow [JSI]. Resources for Child Health [REACH]

    Paris, France, Centre International de l'Enfance, 1990. [2], 22 p.

    With the financial support of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Centre International de l'Enfance (CIE), 23 meeting participants considered the extent to which financial studies of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) have been used, factors contributing to their use or nonuse, types of information which could come out of financial studies which are most important for EPI managers, and recommendations which should be made about developing and using such studies in the future. Participants included 7 nationals involved in EPI management from Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Haiti, Philippines, Sudan, and Turkey, as well as representatives from CIE, the Resources for Child Health (REACH) project, the world Health Organization (WHO), the Pan American Health Organization, the Association pour la Promotion de la Medecine Preventive, l'Organisation de Coordination et de Cooperation pour la Lutte contre les Grandes Endemies, and INSERM. Participants were introduced and presentations made on experiences with cost and cost-effectiveness studies from the perspectives of national EPI management and technical assistance/donor agencies. Participants were then divided into 2 working groups, 1 French-speaking and 1 mixed language, to consider questions about economic and financial studies, and the relevance of these studies to EPI management. Conclusions were reported in plenary sessions. The meeting closed with remarks from James Cheyne of WHO, a summary and commentary from Walter Batchelor of REACH, group recommendations for the future of EPI studies, and a summary by Dr. Pierre Claquin of REACH on participants' evaluation of the meeting and suggestions for the next meeting. Dr. Lucien Houllemare of CIE closed by stating that EPI financial management issues are broader than EPI and pertain to more general program development problems.
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  10. 10
    067565

    Trip report on Norplant meeting, Turku, Finland.

    Rimon JG 2d

    [Unpublished] 1991. [14] p.

    Jose G. Rimon, II, Project Director for the Johns Hopkins University Population Communication Services (JHU/PCS) Center for Communication Programs, visited Finland to attend a NORPLANT planning meeting. Meeting discussion focused upon issues involved in expanding NORPLANT programs from pre-introductory trials to broader national programs. Financing and maintaining quality of care were issues of central importance for the meeting. Participants included representative from NORPLANT development organizations, the U.S. Agency for International Development, the World Bank, and other donor agencies. Mr. Rimon was specifically invited to make a presentation on the role of information, education, and communication (IEC) on NORPLANT with a focus upon future IEC activities. The presentation included discussion of the need to develop a strategic position for NORPLANT among potential customers and within the service provide community, the feasibility of global strategies positioning in the context of country-specific variations, the need to identify market niches, the need for managing the image of NORPLANT, and the need to study IEC implications in terms of supply-side IEC, content/style harmonization, materials volume, and language and quality control. Participants collectively agreed to develop an informal group to address these issues, concentrating upon universal issues potentially addressed on a global scale. A meeting on strategic positioning is scheduled for August 19-20, 1991.
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  11. 11
    059851

    Health care financing in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1985-89: findings and recommendations.

    Gwynne G; Zschock DK

    Stony Brook, New York, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1989 Sep. xiv, 65 p. (Health Care Financing in Latin America and the Caribbean [HOFLAC] Research Report No. 10)

    Recently a 4 year research project was conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean on health care financing, sponsored by the US Agency for International Development. The work focused on 3 areas: health care costs, household demand for health care, and alternatives to the financing of health care from general tax funds. The work focuses on 10 countries of lower to middle income with small populations (except Peru), making them comparable. In most of these countries unfavorable economic conditions have prevented the governments from expanding primary health care, and have caused the deterioration of many health services. These conditions have stimulated private health care spending which has expanded in proportion of total health financing. Cost studies have indicated a wide variation of annual costs of primary care in the public, social security, and private sectors. In hospitals the larger facilities take a bigger share than standard accounts show. Research suggests that if user fees were charged for outpatient care in public hospitals, the overall use would stay the same, but some users would switch to private providers. Since private hospitals charge considerable more, inpatient care is more suited to public facilities. Findings here show the importance of social security in the financing of medical care, especially in these countries where 20-30% is paid from it. Recommendations from these studies include limiting personnel expenditures and cost containment in hospitals.
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  12. 12
    056564

    PRITECH process evaluation of the ORT component of the Primary Health Care Financing Project.

    Schlendorf J; Basilio J; Brown R; Chang J; Steinwand R; Tomaro JB

    Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, Technologies for Primary Health Care, 1988. 51, [43] p. (USAID Contract No. AID/DPE-5927-C-00-3083-00)

    Personal interview, site visits to Regions VII and VIII (Philippines), and record reviews were the principal methods used to evaluate the Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) component of the Primary Health Care Financing (PHCF) Project designed to increase the use of oral rehydration therapy as a primary preventive measure against diarrheal death among infants and young children. The project is designed to increase ORT utilization through a 2-pronged approach which creates demand for ORS products through training physicians, nurses, midwives, and health educators in the public and private sectors; and information, education, and communication campaigns to promote ORT among the public. The most serious concern regarding clinical training was the poor quality of case management observed in regional, provincial, and district hospitals. There seems to be no national plan or budget for the production of print materials to support IEC program activities. A wide disparity was found between projected demand and actual use of ORS, called ORESOL. The present distribution practices of the Department of Health translate to oversupply or nonavailability of ORS. Private sector pharmaceutical firms take a limited/traditional approach to product distribution, and commercial distributors capable of reaching the rural population should be identified and encouraged to market ORS.
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  13. 13
    271242

    World wide report on A.I.D. and IPPF funded population activities, FY 1987-FY 1988.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. Office of Population; John Snow [JSI]. Family Planning Logistics Management Project

    Boston, Massachusetts, John Snow, Inc., 1989 Jan. 222 p. (Population Projects Database)

    This issue of the semi-annual Population Project Database Report contains short narrative summaries describing AID-funded population and family planning subprojects primarily as a management toil for the Office of Population; however, it may be useful for the entire international population community. The introduction begins with a discussion of AID population assistance -- how the funds are administered, where the support for activities comes from, and what types of projects are supported by AID's grants and contracts. The 1987 expenditures and 1988 commitments by cooperating agencies for in-country subproject activities are presented followed by a summary of AID subproject activities. This FY1987-FY1988 report includes information on 2,070 AID subproject activities in 94 countries. Of these, 30% concentrate on family planning service delivery, 24% on training-oriented activities, and 17% emphasize research to develop improved contraceptive methods. An additional 8% focus on education, information and communications with regard to family planning, and 7% are primarily concerned with operations research aimed at developing improved ways to deliver family planning services in developing countries. The data in this report were assembled from the Population Projects Database (PPD), a computer-based information system for the Agency for international Development. The bulk of the report is presented in tables which detail AID and IPPF funded population activities in FY1987 and FY1988 by cooperating agency, country and the following regions: Africa, Asia/Near East, Latin America/Caribbean, US/Canada, Europe/Australia, and inter regional. New charts showing the number and types of subproject activities in each region are also include.
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  14. 14
    270889

    List of key issues to consider.

    Futures Group

    [Unpublished] 1988 Apr 12. Paper presented at a colloquium on U.S. International Population Assistance in the 1990s, convened by The Futures Group as part of the Project on Cooperation for International Development: U.S. Policy and Programs for the 1990s and Blueprint for the Environment, April 12, 1988, Washington, D.C. 5 p.

    A colloquium on US International Population Assistance in the 1990s was held April 12, 1988 in Washington, D.C. Key policy issues discussed included: 1) administrative restrictions on population assistance, 2) funding for UNFPA and IPPF, 3) US AID's position concerning abortion, informed consent, adolescent programs, and natural family planning, 4) the possible reduction of the US development program, 5) the US's role in and position on international population efforts, 5) whether US AID should continue to provide contraceptives, 7) how much of US AID's effort should be devoted to service delivery, 8) pushes for major reforms in the operations of the World Bank and UNFPA, 9) where and how to concentrate limited resources, and, 10) how the population programs should deal with AIDS. Program implementation issues considered included: 1) the appropriate role of Private Voluntary Organizations in US AID's population program, 2) using the private sector as a means of delivering family planning supplies and services, 3) the extent to which family planning programs should be linked to other development programs, particularly health services, and, 4) improving the quality of family planning services. Organizational issues considered included: 1) the most appropriate mix between bilateral and central funding for population activities, 2) the organization of US AID programs with a geographic or substantive focus, 3) the recruitment of new, well qualified health/population officers, and, 4) the possibility of a Population Bureau within US AID. Technology issues included: 1) possibly devising programs to make better use of present contraceptive technology, 2) US AID's role in supporting biomedical research to develop new contraceptives, 3) if US AID should press the Federal Drug Administration to approve an injectable contraceptive, and, 4) how US AID could stimulate more research and testing by other donors and the private sector.
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  15. 15
    193505

    The control of AIDS.

    Sencer D

    In: Workshop on the Integration of AIDS Related Curricula into Family Planning Training Programs, Quality Hotel, Arlington, Virginia, May 10-11, 1988. Documents, distributed by The Family Planning Management Training Project [FPMT] of Management Sciences for Health [MSI] Boston, Massachusetts, Management Sciences for Health, The Family Planning Management Training Project, 1988 May. [24] p..

    Current objectives in the fight against AIDS are focused on reducing transmission. International cooperation must be guided by principles including allowing the World Health Organization and participating governments, not donors, to determine policy; work done in developing countries must achieve the same standards as in the US; relationships between health and population programs, donor agencies and governments must be characterized by cooperation, not competition; and flexibility is necessary to respond to new information. Sensitivity is essential, as the control of AIDS involves personal issues, and the diagnosis of AIDS has profound implications. Surveillance is essential to detect and control infection and to guide public policy. As few infections currently result from medical injection, interventions have focused on the difficult problem of modifying sexual behavior, with little success. Social research is essential to determine means of behavior modification and to evaluate their efficacy. A brief history of the AIDS epidemic, as well as a summary of its epidemiology are provided. Efforts to control the spread of AIDS and to care for victims are draining the resources of basic health care programs, interfering with the delivery of primary health care. The extra demands that will be placed on family planning programs, including the shift in emphasis to barrier methods will strain these programs. WHO is currently undertaking a global effort to reduce morbidity and mortality from HIV infections and prevent transmission. Its strategies focus on preventing sexual, blood borne and perinatal transmission, therapeutic drugs against HIV, vaccine development, and helping infected people, and society, deal with the illness. Other agencies which have developed programs are USAID, the DHHS and the Centers for Disease control in the US.
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  16. 16
    041686

    The U.S. international family planning program: under siege.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America [PPFA]

    New York, New York, PPFA, 1987. 16 p.

    This brochure published by the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, (PPFA) tells the story of the dismemberment of the U.S. international family planning policy from 1961 to 1987. Official family planning policy began in the U.S. in 1961 with Kennedy's endorsement of contraceptive research. In 1968 Congress first allotted foreign aid funds for family planning. By 1973, the tide turned with Helms' amendment to the foreign assistance act prohibiting use of funds to support abortion. In 1983, USAID cut funds for the prestigious journal International Planning Perspectives, because the agency's review board chairman objected to an article on health damage of illegal abortion and mention of legal abortion. It took a court ruling to restore funds. In the same year, the Pathfinder Fund was pressured to accept the U.S. policy articulated in 1984 as the "Mexico City Policy." This ideology states that the U.S. would no longer support any program that performs, advocates, refers or counsels women about abortion, even if those activities are legal and funded by non-U.S. sources. Next, USAID pulled support from the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The U.S. has multiplied support for natural family planning 10-fold to $8 million, and permitted organizations to counsel clients in this method without offering conventional alternatives. In 1986, the U.S. dropped support for the U.N. Fund for Population Activities, claiming alleged Chinese compulsory abortions as a reason. The PPFA has sued for a reversal of the policy of withholding USAID funds from FPIA, the international division of PPFA. The main arguments are presented, along with a list of typical FPIA projects.
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  17. 17
    035703

    AID reprograms UNFPA $10 million (USAID news release, 25 September 1985).

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1986 Mar; 12(1):160-1.

    On September 25, 1985 M. Peter McPherson, administrator of the US Agency for International Development (USAID), announced that AID will reprogram $10 million originally earmarked for the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) to other family planning activities. Under recently enacted legislation, AID was required to withhold funding if UNFPA was found to "support or participate in the management of a program of coercive abortion or involuntary sterilization." McPherson concluded that sufficient evidence exists to indicate that UNFPA participates in the management of the China family planning program and also that implementation of China's 1-child per family policy has resulted in these abuses. The $10 million will be redirected to other voluntary bilateral population and family planning programs in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, Near East, and to US organizations that provide a variety of family planning services in developing countries. Reprogramming these funds reflects the Administration's policy to provide substantial support for voluntary family planning but firm opposition to abortion and coercive population control practices. AID's strategic plan includes providing 80% of the people in developing countries with access to a comprehensive range of family planning methods. AID currently spends $290 million on voluntary family planning programs in the developing world.
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  18. 18
    201211

    FPIA: 1987-1989: a strategic plan. (progress and update).

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America [PPFA]. Family Planning International Assistance [FPIA]

    New York, New York, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1988. 21 p.

    Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA), the international division of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA), was established in 1971 to respond to family planning assistance needs of non-governmental organizations and government institutions in developing nations. FPIA generally met or surpassed its planned performance in 3 key areas (number of active projects, number of countries with active projects, and number of contraceptive clients). Beginning in the spring of 1987, because of PPFA/FPIA's refusal to accept the Mexico City anti-abortion clause in a new Agency for International Development (AID) cooperative agreement, AID began delaying approvals for those projects with projected end dates beyond 31 December 1987, the end date of the current cooperative agreement. During 1987, FPIA obligated a total of $5,119,343 in subgrant funds, or 75.4% of the planned $6,706,126 objective. The 1987 planned objective was to make 72% of all subgrant obligations in 10 priority countries, but actual obligations to these countries accounted for 66.5% of all project obligations. FPIA surpassed its planned performance in 3 key areas (number of countries receiving FPIA-supplied commodities, distribution of oral contraceptives, and distribution of condoms). The strategic plan called for FPIA to provide a maximum of 1666 days of technical assistance to its subgrantees during 1987; the actual number of days totaled 2167, 30% higher than planned. Selected project development objectives for 1988 have been revised as follows: 1) number of active projects, 125; 2) number of countries with active projects, 34; 3) percentage obligated subgrant funds in 11 priority countries, 73%; and 4)percentage obligated subgrant funds in 3 priority non-bilateral countries, 20%.
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  19. 19
    040737

    Evaluation of the Resources for Awareness of Population in Development (RAPID II) Project.

    McGreevey WP; Bergman E; Godwin K; Sanderson W

    [Unpublished] 1986 Aug. 71, [45] p. (AID Contract No. DPE-3024-C-00-4063-00)

    The evaluation of the Resources for Awareness of Population in Development (RAPID II) Project was initiated on June 18, 1985, 25 months into the project operation, to determine if the results of actions undertaken thus far have been adequate to justify the time and money spent on them and to find ways to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the program efforts. The objective of the 5-year RAPIDS II project is to assist those involved in development planning to better understand the relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development and thereby increase the less developed country (LDC) commitment to efforts designed to reduce rapid rates of population increase. This evaluation report discusses the development assistance context and then focuses on the following: RAPID II operations over the 1984-85 period; policy analyses and LDC subcontracting; the RAPID model and its presentation; visits by the evaluation team to the countries of the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Cameroon, and Liberia; what works in terms of population policy development; some major problems and potential resolutions; and RAPID II activities over the 1985-88 period. US Agency for International Development (USAID) officials in Washington as well as in the field described RAPID II as being of continuing utility in helping to create a climate favorable to more effective population policies. The review of RAPID II activities was generally positive. The project was identified as useful in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Due to the evidence of satisfactory performance in the field, the evaluation focused on differences between plan and midterm results with a view toward suggesting course corrections that can improve project performance. As population policy development is an inherently ambiguous field of activity, it has not been possible to draw clear lines between specific policy development activities and policy change in particular countries. Yet, there has been an improvement in the environment for population programs in LDCs. There were significant differences between planned and actual expenditures under the several subcategories of project expenditure. RAPID II total expenditures in the first 2 years of the project equalled budgeted expenditures when the contract was signed, but the distribution of expenditures by category was substantially different from what had been anticipated. It is recommended that emphasis in the project must shift predominantly to policy analyses (80% of remaining funds) and that that RAPID-style presentation resources (20%) be used carefully for only the highest priority requests. In regard to development of LDC subcontracts for policy analysis, efficiency has been low.
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  20. 20
    270584

    A.I.D.'s experience with selected employment generation projects.

    Bowles WD

    [Washington, D.C.], U.S. Agency for International Development, 1988 Mar. xix, 90 p. (A.I.D Evaluation Special Study No. 53)

    This report is based on an examination of over 30 projects designated as "employment generation" in as many countries during the period from the early 1970s to 1982 sponsored by USAID. The focus is on the policy environment of these projects, building on a World Bank study that highlights the positive relationship between growth, equity, and an economy relatively free of distortions in foreign exchange, factor, and product pricing. 1 major conclusion must be stressed: the policy environment is the single most important determinant of project success. Although not examined directly in the study, 3 related suggestions can be gleaned from the overall economic background of the economies examined. 1) The administrative environment (contract laws, public accountancy, ease of entry into business, "honest weights and measures," and the like) can reduce the effectiveness of projects in otherwise supportive policy environments. 2) The continued provision and expansion of social overhead capital, such as education and health, is an important foundation for the expansion of the private sector. 3) The informal sector exhibits extraordinary vitality, and further attempts should be made by USAID to understand that vitality may pay large dividends in future USAID programming. Rapid population growth and policy distortions that have weakened both the formal and informal sectors of the economies of developing countries have retarded a transformation in the sectorial structure of the labor force. As a result, vast numbers of people remain in low-productivity agricultural, off-farm, and urban activities. They need to be moved into productive employment, which is the major link between growth and equity.
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  21. 21
    270580

    Worldwide reports on A.I.D. population programs, FY 1987.

    John Snow [JSI]. Family Planning Logistics Management Project

    Boston, Massachusetts, John Snow, Inc., 1988 Mar. 33 p. (Population Projects Database)

    This document contains, in looseleaf format, reports generated from the Office of Population's Population Projects Database (PPD) which is now maintained by John Snow's (JSI) Family Planning Logistics Management Project. JSI will issue "The Woldwide Report on A.I.D. and IPPF Funded Population Activities," also known as the "Subproject Activities Report," on a semi-annual basis. The fiscal year (FY) 1986 to FY 1987 is now available. Issued on an annual basis will be "The Country Funding Attribution Report"; the report for FY 1987 is included in the binder under the heading: CA Cost Report. Also provided is a list of current contracts, an acronym list, and an instruction manual for filling in the questionnaire on which the porject reports are based. A blank section is also provided for any special reports requested by the user from the Population Projects Database. Using the subproject activities report and the CA Cost Report together provides a full picture of population activities worldwide. Both reports are organized by country and both attempt to capture actual expenditures in prior years and expected expenditures in the current and future years. The reports differ in the following ways: the Subproject Activities Report focuses on in-country activities, including those carried out by A.I.D. Missions and Regional Bureaus, Cooperating Agencies and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). It includes activities covered under host country contracts, but does not include certain US-based activities of Cooperating Agencies which support the Office of Population programs or those contracts that provide support solely in the form of technical assistance. Both descriptive and financial information is provided. The CA Cost Reports covers all contracts issued directly to Cooperating Agencies by the Office of Population as well as Mission "buy-ins" to those contracts. It does not cover other activities of A.I.D. Missions and Regional Bureaus, host country contract or activities of other international agencies. It is purely a financial report and focuses on the way total contract expenditures have been allocated among various cost categories. Both reports are prepared in tabular format. The PPD, wich was started in 1983, includes information on more than 2400 population assistance project activies funded by A.I.D. in over 100 countries; it also includes 600 projects funded by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and about 100 projects fund by IPPF. Reports on specific topics can be requested from JSI.
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  22. 22
    045148

    USAID in Nepal.

    Weiss D

    FRONT LINES. 1987 Sep; 27(8):8-9, 11.

    The USAID's mission in Nepal is to assist development until the people can sustain their own needs: although the US contributes only 5% of donor aid, USAID coordinates donor efforts. The mission's theme is to emphasize agricultural productivity, conserve natural resources, promote the private sector and expand access to health, education and family planning. Nepal, a mountainous country between India and Tibet, has 16 million people growing at 2.5% annually, and a life expectancy of only 51 years. Only 20% of the land is arable, the Kathmandu valley and the Terai strip bordering India. Some of the objectives include getting new seed varieties into cultivation, using manure and compost, and building access roads into the rural areas. Rice and wheat yields have tripled in the '80s relative to the yields achieved in 1970. Other ongoing projects include reforestation, irrigation and watershed management. Integrated health and family planning clinics have been established so that more than 50% of the population is no more than a half day's walk from a health post. The Nepal Fertility Study of 1976 found that only 2.3% of married women were using modern contraceptives. Now the Contraceptive Retail Sales Private Company Ltd., a social marketing company started with USAID help, reports that the contraceptive use rate is now 15%. Some of the other health targets are control of malaria, smallpox, tuberculosis, leprosy, acute respiratory infections, and malnutrition. A related goal is raising the literacy rate for women from the current 12% level. General education goals are primary education teacher training and adult literacy. A few descriptive details about living on the Nepal mission are appended.
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  23. 23
    037788

    Politics and population. U.S. assistance for international population programs in the Reagan Administration.

    Goodman M

    [Unpublished] [1985]. [12] p.

    US support for family planning programs in developing nations has become more and more controversial as the existing consensus on the rationale for these programs has been lost. This article discusses the major issues of the current debate on international family planning assistance and some of the reasons why bipartisan support for the program has eroded in recent years. During the 1960s, 2 factors contributed to the advent of the international family planning movement: the development of modern contraceptive technology in the form of the oral contraceptive (OC) and the IUD, technologies which, it was believed, could be made readily available and used easily, even in the poorest developing countries; and the growing realization that as mortality rates were declining rapidly due to improved health care in developing countries, the rate of population growth was increasing at a pace never before achieved. After some initial reluctance, efforts to stabilize population growth rates came to be accepted as in the US national interest, and by the 1970s both Republican and Democratic administrations and bipartisan congressional coalitions supported regular increases in funding for population programs as part of the foreign aid program. The US, together with several European countries, was instrumental in the development and early support for the UN Fund for Population Activities and the nongovernmental International Planned Parenthood Federation. In general, US support for international population programs was not a controversial issue in foreign aid debates until last year. Since President Reagan took office in January 1981, both the advocates and opponents of population programs have become more active and organized. Foreign aid in general and international family planning programs in particular are a favorite target for conservative groups, which include several antiabortion groups. Consequently, early in the Reagan administration efforts were made to slash the foreign aid budget. These efforts went so far as to propose eliminating all funding for international family planning programs. These efforts failed, and the US maintained its position as preeminent donor for family planning until 1984. In its final version, the US policy paper for the 1984 Mexico City Conference made 2 important revisions regarding US international population policy: the explanation of population growth as a "neutral phenomenon," caused by counterproductive, statist economic policies in poor countries, for which the suggested remedy is free market economic reform; and the assertion that the US does not consider abortion an acceptable element of family planning programs and will not contribute to nongovernmental organizations that perform or actively promote abortion as a family planning method in other nations. How this controversy over US International population policy is resolved depends largely on how Congress defines the issue.
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  24. 24
    035699

    Statement by Rafael M. Salas, Executive Director, UNFPA, 25 September 1985.

    Salas RM

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 1986 Mar; 12(1):161-2.

    The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) is deeply distressed by the announcement made on September 25, 1985 by the administrator of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) that the US government will not pay $10 million of its 1985 pledge to the UNFPA. The announcement says "under recently enacted legislation, AID was required to withhold funding if UNFPA was found to support or participate in the management of a program of coercive abortion of involuntary sterilization." It concludes "that there is sufficient evidence to indicate that UNFPA participates in the management of the China family planning program and also that implementation of China's 1-child-per-family policy has resulted in these abuses." Executive Director, Rafael M. Salas, states that this conclusion is in error and that it is a matter of public record that these charges have been refuted by USAID itself, after careful reviews of UNFPA assistance to China, in April 1984 and March 1985. They also have been refuted by the government of the People's Republic of China. The UNFPA does not support abortion or coercion in any country. It provides support for a wide range of population programs including data collection, research and training, information, education and communication, migration and urbanization, role and status of women, and voluntary family planning in more than 140 countries around the world. By adhering to a broad definition of population activities and by supporting population programs undertaken by the governments concerned, UNFPA has ensured that population programs are responsive to varying needs and perceptions of population issues in individual countries. Its support of voluntary family planning is based on the premise that couples and individuals have the basic right to choose freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children. Its overall policies and programs are based on the World Population Plan of Action adopted at the World Population Conference and the recommendations and the Declaration adopted by the International Conference on Population. UNFPA's contribution to the program in China constitutes about 8% of its annual allocations. The AID statement indicates that it could provide assistance to the UNFPA in fiscal year 1986 under certain circumstances. UNFPA hopes that the US would contribute to UNFPA in 1986 in consonance with the stated principles and procedures of the UN in the field of population, to which the US has always been a party.
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  25. 25
    268899

    Foreign assistance legislation for fiscal years 1984-85. (Part 1) Hearings before the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-eighth Congress, first session, February 8, 15, 16, 22, 23, 24; March 24, 1983.

    United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Committee on Foreign Affairs

    Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 1984. 666 p. (Serial No. 18-1870)

    This report of hearings before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs contains reports to the full committee and subcommittees on international security and scientific affairs, Europe and the Middle East, Human Rights and International Organizations, Asian and Pacific Affairs, International Policy and Trade, Western Hemisphere Affairs, and Africa. The committee examined various witnesses on a list of topics that included developing country debt, the world food situation and the promotion of US agricultural export, the fiscal year 1984 security and development corporation program, and the executive branch request for foreign military assistance. The list continues with Peace Corps requests for 1984-85, information in a statement from the acting director of the Agency for International Development, International Monetary Fund resources, and world financial stability, and US interests (particularly regarding developing country debt). The committee examined a series of prepared statements and witnesses discussing foreign aid by type and strategy, and examined the question of "targeted aid" to the extremely poor. Cooperative development, the Peace Corps budget, the ethical issues of military versus development assistance, "food for work" program merits, disaster relief, maternal and child health programs, and finally, an examination of the problem of population. Written statements and responses to committee and witness questions were from the National Association of Manufacturers, US Department of Agriculture, Agency for International Development, Peace Corps, Department of the Treasury, Interreligious Task Force on US food Policy, American Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service, CARE, the Population Crisis Committee, and the Population Institute.
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