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Your search found 22 Results

  1. 1
    385483

    Family planning in Latin America: The achievements of 50 years: Executive summary.

    Bertrand JT; Ward VM; Santiso-Galvez R

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr. [3] p. (FS-15-136; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    This executive summary introduces the full report (See POPLINE record 337627) examining the 50-year period starting in the mid-1960s that witnessed a dramatic decline in fertility and steady increase in contraceptive use in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region.
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  2. 2
    337633

    Family planning in El Salvador: the achievements of 50 years.

    Santiso-Galvez R; Ward VM; Bertrand JT

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr. [22] p. (SR-15-118C; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    This publication is one of eight case studies that were developed as part of a broader review entitled Family Planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Achievements of 50 Years. As its title implies, the larger review documents and analyzes the accomplishments in the entire region since the initiation of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funding in the early 1960s. El Salvador has made enormous progress in terms of family planning over the past five decades. It has reduced fertility rates; it has developed a robust legal and regulatory framework for FP; it has allocated resources for procuring contraceptives for its population; it now offers information and contraceptive services to the entire population of the country with the active participation of civil society organizations, especially women’s organizations.
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  3. 3
    337632

    Family planning in Nicaragua: the achievements of 50 years.

    Santiso-Galvez R; Ward VM; Bertrand JT

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr. [24] p. (SR-15-118F; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    This publication is one of eight case studies that were developed as part of a broader review entitled Family Planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Achievements of 50 Years. As its title implies, the larger review documents and analyzes the accomplishments in the entire region since the initiation of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funding in the early 1960s. Nicaragua has made significant progress in improving its macro-level primary health care indicators, reducing maternal mortality and increasing contraceptive prevalence. There has also been increased participation by the Instituto Nicaragense de Seguridad Social (INSS) in providing family planning services and commodities, thus reducing the burden on health ministry facilities. The government has shown its strong commitment to comprehensive services to improve the health of the population.
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  4. 4
    337628

    Family planning in Colombia: the achievements of 50 years.

    Bertrand JT; Santiso-Galvez R; Ward VM

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr. [26] p. (SR-15-118A; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    This publication is one of eight case studies that were developed as part of a broader review entitled Family Planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Achievements of 50 Years. As its title implies, the larger review documents and analyzes the accomplishments in the entire region since the initiation of U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funding in the early 1960s. Family planning has become so deeply entrenched as a social norm in Colombia that it no longer constitutes the special area of interest that it did in the 1960s and 1970s. Nonetheless, challenges remain.
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  5. 5
    337627

    Family planning in Latin America and the Caribbean: the achievements of 50 years.

    Bertrand JT; Ward VM; Santiso-Galvez R

    Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2015 Apr. [128] p. (TR-15-101; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)

    This report examines the 50-year period starting in the mid-1960s that witnessed a dramatic decline in fertility and steady increase in contraceptive use in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region. The current contraceptive prevalence rate (all methods) of 74 percent is among the highest of any region in the developing world. Many factors have contributed to the dramatic decline in fertility in the LAC region over the past 50 years: increased educational levels, improved economic conditions, decreased infant and child mortality, rapid urbanization, political stability, and changing cultural norms, among others. While recognizing the influence of these factors on fertility, what role did use of family planning play in fertility decline in the region? What lessons can be drawn for other developing countries committed to a development path that strengthens family planning services and improves health and living standards for their people? This report examines the specific role of family planning in accelerating fertility decline in the LAC region.
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  6. 6
    326278

    Using national resources to finance contraceptive procurement. Policy brief.

    John Snow [JSI]. DELIVER

    Arlington, Virginia, JSI, DELIVER, [2008]. [9] p. (Policy Brief)

    Driven by the increasing demand for and popularity of family planning, increasing population size, and changing demographics with more couples entering their fertile years, the financing requirement for contraceptives has become increasingly onerous. Strategies to finance contraceptives include expansion of the donor base; increased use of cost recovery, including revolving drug funds; greater use of the private sector; and direct government financing of contraceptive procurement. None of these is mutually exclusive, and to ensure contraceptive security, most countries are likely to use some or all of these approaches, and many others. Evidence suggests that many governments are beginning to finance contraceptive procurement using national resources, but limited data are publicly available regarding the global extent of this financing. This brief details the findings of a survey of the extent to which national governments of developing countries are using national resources to finance contraceptive procurement. The brief examines the different types of financing used, some of the benefits of this type of financing, and some of the issues it raises. Hopefully, this study can be repeated to track spending and will spur more rigorous efforts to measure this practice. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    325152

    Achieving contraceptive security in El Salvador.

    John Snow [JSI]. DELIVER

    Arlington, Virginia, JSI, DELIVER, 2004 Nov. [4] p. (On Track)

    El Salvador has already reached several important milestones in its efforts to achieve contraceptive security-the guarantee that all people who wish to use contraceptives can choose, obtain, and use them at all times. With support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the Salvadoran Ministry of Health (MOH) has recently worked to expand people's access to contraceptives, particularly through community-based distribution. It has also helped to improve product management in health facilities by training service providers and by implementing a contraceptive logistics management information system. El Salvador's next challenge on the pathway to contraceptive security is to become financially self-sufficient in procuring reproductive health commodities. USAID is progressively phasing out its contraceptive donations to the country, and is providing technical assistance to guarantee that the MOH will be able to accurately forecast contraceptive demand and manage its own budget for meeting that demand. (author's)
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  8. 8
    324544

    Contraceptive procurement policies, practices, and options. Paraguay.

    Quesada N; Dayaratna V; Abramson W; Gribble J; Siman Betancourt V

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], DELIVER, 2006 Nov. [25] p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00010-00)

    In light of the phaseout of donor funds for family planning in Latin America and the Caribbean, Paraguay will be facing increasing responsibility to finance and procure contraceptive commodities in the near future. The Government of Paraguay will need to look at regional and international procurement opportunities to ensure that contraceptive security is not compromised during this transition period. This report presents findings from a legal and regulatory analysis and pricing study of different procurement options to identify efficient, economical, high quality and timely distribution of contraceptives. A summary of the current country situation, procurement practices, laws, policies, and regulations is presented along with a comparison of regional contraceptive prices. Options and recommendations are presented for next steps. (author's)
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  9. 9
    324543

    Contraceptive procurement policies, practices, and options. Nicaragua.

    Agudelo J; Morales C; Quesada N; Sarley D; Abramson W

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], DELIVER, 2006 Nov. [25] p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00010-00)

    In light of the phaseout of donor funds in Latin America and the Caribbean, Nicaragua will be facing increasing responsibility to finance and procure contraceptive commodities in the near future. The Government of Nicaragua needs to look at regional and international procurement opportunities to ensure that contraceptive security is not compromised during this transition period. This report presents findings from a legal and regulatory analysis and pricing study of various procurement options to identify efficient, economical, and timely distribution of high-quality contraceptives. A summary of the current country situation, procurement practices, laws, policies, and regulations is presented along with a comparison of regional contraceptive prices. Options and recommendations are presented for next steps. (author's)
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  10. 10
    324542

    Contraceptive procurement policies, practices, and options. Dominican Republic.

    Agudelo J; Dayaratna V; Morales C; Quesada N; Sarley D

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], DELIVER, 2006 Nov. [26] p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00010-00)

    In light of the phaseout of donor funds in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Dominican Republic will be facing increasing responsibility to finance and procure contraceptive commodities in the near future. The government of the Dominican Republic needs to look at regional and international procurement opportunities to ensure that contraceptive security is not compromised during this transition period. This report presents findings from a legal and regulatory analysis and pricing study of various procurement options to identify efficient, economical, and timely distribution of high-quality contraceptives. A summary of the current country situation, procurement practices, laws, policies, and regulations is presented along with a comparison of regional contraceptive prices. Options and recommendations are presented for next steps. (author's)
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  11. 11
    324540

    Contraceptive procurement policies, practices, and options. Bolivia.

    Quesada N; Abramson W; Siman Betancourt V; Dayaratna V; Gribble J

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], DELIVER, 2006 Nov. [30] p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00010-00)

    In light of the phaseout of donor funds in Latin America and the Caribbean, Bolivia will be facing increasing responsibility to finance and procure contraceptive commodities in the near future. The Government of Bolivia needs to look at regional and international procurement opportunities to ensure contraceptive security is not compromised during this transition period. This report presents findings from a legal and regulatory analysis and pricing study of various procurement options to identify efficient, economical, and timely distribution of high-quality contraceptives. A summary of the current country situation, procurement practices, laws, policies, and regulations is presented along with a comparison of regional contraceptive prices. Options and recommendations are presented for next steps. (author's)
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  12. 12
    094440

    SOMARC's condom projects in Morocco and Turkey achieve complete self-sufficiency.

    Futures Group. Social Marketing for Change [SOMARC]

    SOMARC III HIGHLIGHTS. 1994 Mar; (10):1-2.

    Morocco's Protex condom project was introduced in September, 1989, by Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC). Since September, 1993, when Protex became self-sufficient, the local distributor, Moussahama, has maintained strong sales, with 1993 fourth quarter sales 18 percent higher than they were the year before. Moussahama is purchasing the condoms directly through the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Moussahama continues to expand distribution to non-traditional outlets. Condom sales are projected to reach three million units in 1994, nearly 40 percent higher than in 1993. An important component of SOMARC's project was a media campaign designed to improve attitudes toward condom use. A recent study measuring the impact of the campaign documented that current condom use of any brand among married men has increase from 3% in 1989 to 20% in 1993; 93% of all married men interviewed were aware of Protex, and nine out of ten condom users said they use Protex most often. The Okey condom in Turkey became self-sufficient in December, 1993, attributed chiefly to SOMARC's having obtained from Eczacibasi, the Turkish distributor, a commitment to directly purchase all condoms to be sold in the social marketing project. Eczacibasi has covered all commodity as well as management and distribution costs of the product since its initial launch. During this time, USAID saved over US $700,000 which it would otherwise have spent providing condoms to the project. Sales of Okey have increased rapidly since the condom's introduction in June, 1991, and are expected to exceed seven million units 1994. Eczacibasi budgeted over US $450,000 in 1994 for advertising and promotion for the Okey brand. A recent study evaluating the impact of SOMARC's condom social marketing in Turkey has increased by a dramatic 124 percent. The success of the Okey condom has encouraged the London Rubber Co. to take a more active role in marketing condoms in Turkey.
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  13. 13
    083041

    Condoms becoming more popular.

    Manuel J

    NETWORK. 1993 May; 13(4):22-4.

    Social marketing is a strategy which addresses a public health problem with private-sector marketing and sales techniques. In condom social marketing programs, condoms are often offered for sale to the public at low prices. 350 million condoms were sold to populations in developing countries through such programs in 1992, and another 650 million were distributed free through public clinics. The major donors of these condoms are the US Agency for International Development, the World Health Organization, the UN Population Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the World Bank, and the European Community. This marketing approach has promoted condom use as prevention against HIV transmission and has dramatically increased the number of condoms distributed and used throughout much of Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Donors are now concerned that they will not be able to provide condoms in sufficient quantities to keep pace with rapidly rising demand. Findings in selected countries, however, suggest that people seem willing to buy condoms which are well promoted and distributed. Increasing demand for condoms may therefore be readily met through greater dependence upon social marketing programs and condom sales. Researchers generally agree that a social marketing program must change for 100 condoms no more than 1% of a country's GNP in order to sell an amount of condoms equal to at least half of the adult male population. Higher prices may be charged for condoms in countries with relatively high per-capita incomes. Since prices charged tend to be too low to cover all promotional, packaging, distribution, and logistical management costs, most condom distribution programs will have to be subsidized on an ongoing basis.
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  14. 14
    070425

    As AID condom prices climb, so do calls for more condom sources.

    FAMILY PLANNING WORLD. 1992 Jan-Feb; 2(1):6, 20.

    USAID is the world's largest distributer of condoms with over 800 million condoms distributed in 1990, the most recent year figures are available. However, this year's order is 300 million smaller because AID will no longer be supplying Bangladesh or Pakistan. This, combined with inflation has caused the price to rise 16% or from $4.51/100-$5.35/100. Bangladesh will not longer be supplied because the European Community will provide condoms as part of a new 5 year plan from the World Bank. Pakistan will no longer be supplied because US law forbids foreign aid to countries that refuse to sign the United Nations Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. The UNFPA distributed 98.5 million condoms last year. The WHO Global Program on AIDS supplied 140 million in 1989 and 30 million in 1990. The International Planned Parenthood Federation distributed 15 million condoms in 1990. Unlike AID, the other organizations can buy their condoms from any manufacture that meets the new international condom standard set up with the help of the WHO. AID must buy condoms manufactured in the US in accordance with US law. AID does however get a much better price for IUDs, oral contraceptive and Norplant. As a result AID is trying to work with other organizations in an attempt to maximize the amount of contraceptives available world wide for family planning. Since other groups are not restricted by the same rules, they could provide condoms, while AID could use its price advantage to supply other methods.
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  15. 15
    059872

    Private sector joins family planning effort.

    FRONT LINES. 1989 Dec; 6, 13.

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from the Dominican Republic, Liberia and Ecuador. These projects have increased private sector involvement in family planning, thereby promoting service expansion at lower public sector cost.
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  16. 16
    069634

    Trip report, Geneva, Switzerland.

    Wharton C

    [Unpublished] 1990. [6], 3, [26] p.

    In February 1990, a writer for the international publication Population Reports attended the WHO Interagency Consultation to Discuss Strategies for Coordinating and Improving Global Condom Supply in Geneva, Switzerland to garner the most recent facts about the international supply of condoms and their distribution to be incorporated in an upcoming issue. The WHO/Global Programme on AIDS (WHO/GPA) expanded its role recently to become a major procurer of condoms. Its traditional role remained as coordinating agency of condom strategies against AIDS. The writer recommended that the issue on condoms include a short box featuring WHO/GPA condom activities. Participants agreed that national AIDS programs should focus more on condom services. This could include formation of a condom subcommittee, involvement of a condom programming specialist in drafting medium term national plans, and incorporation of condom distributor experiences in planning. Further they emphasized the need to recognize and consider family planning program experience in supplying and distributing condoms. Participants also conceded the need to no longer differentiate between condom use for AIDS prevention and for family planning. Several agencies including WHO/GPA and USAID addressed the need for quality control including increased emphasis on logistics and distribution channels. They did acknowledge, however, that implementation of quality assurance measures in many countries would be hard and time-consuming. 1 item that received considerable discussion was a generic condom which USAID intended to purchase under its next contract. USAID also planned on switching its focus from quantity to condom distribution and quality control. UNFPA adopted the new WHO Specifications and Guidelines for Condom Procurement. IPPF considered doing so also.
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  17. 17
    066480

    U.S. population assistance: issues for the 1990s.

    Conly SR; Speidel JJ; Camp SL

    Washington, D.C., Population Crisis Committee, 1991. 52 p.

    Noting that US population assistance programs have suffered from ideological controversies and increasing bureaucratization, this publication outlines the actions needed to reinvigorate and redirect US population assistance programs, including the Agency for International Development (AIDS), the largest financial assistance provider and condom supplier to developing countries. The extent of family planning during the 1990s will have a definite impact on the years to come, since this decade represents the last opportunity to prevent the doubling of the world's population before it stabilizes during the 21st century. An example of the ideological controversies, the Reagan administration, prompted by anti-abortion groups, withdrew support from the UNFPA and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The publication makes recommendations at 3 levels -- for the President and Congress, for AID, and for the Office of Population. Recommendations for the President and Congress include: reasserting White House leadership on world population issues; increasing population assistance to $1.2 billion by the year 2000; resuming funding to the UNFPA and IPPF; and eliminating statutory restrictions relating to abortion. Concerning AID, the publication urges: broadening its birth control approach to include injectable contraceptives, safe abortion services, and adolescent and female education programs; increasing contraceptive distribution; improving quality of services; etc. Recommendation for the Office of Population include: taking responsibility for providing technical support to AID's country level population programs; coordinating the activities of private institutions and AID activities; and stressing long-term institution building needs of family planning programs.
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  18. 18
    029085

    Sex education and family planning services for adolescents in Latin America: the example of El Camino in Guatemala.

    Andrade SJ

    [Unpublished] 1984. ix, 54, [10] p.

    This report examines the organizational development of Centro del Adolescente "El Camino," an adolescent multipurpose center which offers sex education and family planning services in Guatemala City. The project is funded by the Pathfinder Fund through a US Agency for International Development (USAID) population grant from 1979 through 1984. Information about the need for adolescent services in Guatemala is summarized, as is the organizational history of El Camino and the characteristics of youngg people who came there, as well as other program models and philosophies of sex education in Guatemala City. Centro del Adolescente "El Camino" represents the efforts of a private family planning organization to develop a balanced approach to serving adolescents: providing effective education and contraceptives but also recognizing that Guatemalan teenagers have other equally pressing needs, including counseling, health care, recreation and vocational training. The major administrative issue faced by El Camino was the concern of its external funding sources that an adolescent multipurpose center was too expensive a mechanism for contraceptive distribution purposes. A series of institutional relationships was negotiated. Professionals, university students, and younger secondary students were involved. Issues of fiscal accountability, or the cost-effectiveness of such multipurpose adolescent centers, require consideration of the goals of international funding agencies in relation to those of the society in question. Recommendations depend on whether the goal is that of a short-term contraception distribution program with specific measurable objectives, or that of a long-range investment in changing a society's attitudes about sex education for children and youth and the and the provision of appropriate contraceptive services to sexually active adolescents. Appendixes are attached. (author's modified)
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  19. 19
    017688

    [Introduction of the CPS (Contraceptive Prevalence Survey) by USAID. Some perspectives on the Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys and on the future of survey research] Introduccion de la EPA por USAID. Algunas perspectivas sobre las encuestas de prevalencia del uso de anticonceptivos y sobre el porvenir de las investigaciones por medio de encuestas.

    Lawson JE Jr

    In: Westinghouse Health Systems. America Latina. Seminario Regional sobre las Encuestas de Prevalencia del Uso de Anticonceptivos. Actas. Noviembre 8-13 de 1981. Columbia, Maryland, Westinghouse Health Systems, 1981. 17-8. (Las Encuestas de Prevalencia del Uso de Anticonceptivos II)

    US Agency for International Development assistance to contraceptive prevalence survey (CPS) programs represents an extension of earlier American government assistance with health, census, and other statistical work carried out throughout the world since before World War II. Such aid is based on the beliefs that planners and administrators need accurate and up-to-date information on which to base their decisions, that rapid population growth has a significant impact on social and economic conditions, and that each couple has the right to determine the number and spacing of children. The number of developing countries offering family planning services has increased from 6 before 1965 to around 70 at present, and indications are that contraceptive usage is increasing. Also affecting the development of CPS programs are the increasing range of contraceptive distribution programs within countries, which lessen the relevance of statistics derived solely from government family planning clinics; the difficulty of relating family planning activities to changes in fertility rates; and technological improvements in survey methodology. Future challenges in the use of such surveys will involve funding cutbacks, difficulties of retaining qualified personnel in statistical departments given the low salaries offered by public agencies, the development of close and cooperative relationships between the gatherers of CPS data and the functionaries who use it, and the problem of providing truly timely data. The luxury of carrying out surveys 1 at a time is no longer practical, and should be replaced by an assembly line process offering a continuous program of collecting, analyzing, and processing data. A normalization and unification of procedures, training programs, and questionnaire preparation should be sought to reduce the time needed for these necessary preliminary steps. Automated technology is needed for collecting, processing, and analyzing data.
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  20. 20
    002586

    Neo Sampoon: evaluating a spermicide.

    Chen KH

    Intercom. 1981 Jun; 9(6):12.

    Neo Sampoon is a spermicidal tablet developed and marketed worldwide by Eisai Ltd of Japan and used by the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) in a major spermicidal distribution program since 1978. Bangladesh, Ghana, and Egypt are the largest recipient countries with over 5 million tablets. Thailand, Sri Lanka and Brazil have more than 1 million tablets each. The tablets are used in subsidized Contraceptive Retail Sales programs and Community-Based Distribution programs. Spermicides may become the contraceptive of choice for lactating mothers, mothers with infrequent coitus, couples who dislike condoms, and women who dislike or experience side effects from oral pills. In developing countries, these women represent about 1/5 of all married women of reproductive ages. Of many vaginal spermicides considered by USAID for its distribution program, Neo Sampoon appears to be the best in terms of product safety and effectiveness. Menfegol (TS-88) is a non-ionic surface active spermicidal ingredient in the Neo Sampoon tablet. The Pearl Index (number of pregnancies per 100 women-years of use) for Neo Sampoon tablets reported in 10 clinical studies involving 4 countries ranged from 2.3 to 20.2. However, these pregnancy rates should be interpreted with caution, since the subjects in some of these studies were selected for high motivation, good education, or prior experience with coital-related contraceptive methods. There have been no reported side effects associated with use of Neo Sampoon tablets as yet. Increase of vaginal discharge and subjective sensation of warmth in the vagina (signaling dissolution of tablet) are the most common reported side effects. Further research on the culture perception of frequently reported side effects should be done prior to mass marketing/community distribution of Neo Sampoon.
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  21. 21
    803375

    Developing contraceptives.

    Hanlon J

    New Scientist. 1980 Sep 25; 87(1220):945-6.

    Women in Bangladesh are under pressure to participate in a mass program that uses injectable contraceptives. The reason is that the big aid donors, particularly the World Bank, are pressuring Bangladesh to show quick results in its family planning program. In many areas of Bangladesh, the women who are sterilized or on injectables receive 6 kg of wheat a month, plus oil, powdered milk, and fish meal. These incentives are taken from the United Nations World Food Program. United States law bars the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) from supplying Depo-Provera because it has been banned in the United States as it causes cancer in animals. As there are no restrictions preventing United Nations agencies from supplying potentially dangerous drugs, the United Nations Fund for Population Activities provides Depo-Provera to Bangladesh. 1/3 of the women suffer unacceptable side effects from the Depo-Provera, particularly irregular menstruation. 5% have serious bleeding. With Depo-Provera, women cannot stop and permit the side effects to go away; they have the unexpected problems for the 3-month duration of the shots.
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  22. 22
    796496

    Condoms: manufacturing perspectives and use.

    Quinn J

    In: Zatuchni GI, Sobrero AJ, Speidel JJ, Sciarra JJ, ed. Vaginal contraception: new developments. Hagerstown, Md., Harper and Row, 1979. 66-81.

    Although condoms are still produced from a variety of materials, the popularity of the condom increased mainly after the dipped latex process was developed in the 1930s. Condoms went with US troops all over the world during World War Two. It is only in recent years that strict quality standards were established. Many countries, including the US, measure quality in the number of pinholes acceptable per unit, the number of acceptable holes varying considerably between countries. Japan has made a standard based on leakage as measured by sodium ion concentration. Various types, colors, names, and sizes of condoms are popular in different countries. Large scale distribution in recent years has raised the question of shelf life. It is generally thought that a condom kept in a sealed tinfoil package will stay good indefinitely. Nonetheless, for management as well as safety purposes smaller shipments are preferred over large shipments in mass distribution programs. Condom popularity is partly associated with the number and accessibility of distribution points; therefore, it has become more prevalent to use both government units and regular commercial distribution points for popularizing the condom, and there is reason to believe that this type of program will grow. In light of the current interest in integration of contraceptive programs with health care and development efforts, population specialists should look closely at the condom and the commercial resources available for its distribution. A series of tables gives gross numbers of condoms supplied by international donor agencies in the developing countries, 1975-78.
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