Important: The POPLINE website will retire on September 1, 2019. Click here to read about the transition.

Your search found 23 Results

  1. 1
    045148

    USAID in Nepal.

    Weiss D

    FRONT LINES. 1987 Sep; 27(8):8-9, 11.

    The USAID's mission in Nepal is to assist development until the people can sustain their own needs: although the US contributes only 5% of donor aid, USAID coordinates donor efforts. The mission's theme is to emphasize agricultural productivity, conserve natural resources, promote the private sector and expand access to health, education and family planning. Nepal, a mountainous country between India and Tibet, has 16 million people growing at 2.5% annually, and a life expectancy of only 51 years. Only 20% of the land is arable, the Kathmandu valley and the Terai strip bordering India. Some of the objectives include getting new seed varieties into cultivation, using manure and compost, and building access roads into the rural areas. Rice and wheat yields have tripled in the '80s relative to the yields achieved in 1970. Other ongoing projects include reforestation, irrigation and watershed management. Integrated health and family planning clinics have been established so that more than 50% of the population is no more than a half day's walk from a health post. The Nepal Fertility Study of 1976 found that only 2.3% of married women were using modern contraceptives. Now the Contraceptive Retail Sales Private Company Ltd., a social marketing company started with USAID help, reports that the contraceptive use rate is now 15%. Some of the other health targets are control of malaria, smallpox, tuberculosis, leprosy, acute respiratory infections, and malnutrition. A related goal is raising the literacy rate for women from the current 12% level. General education goals are primary education teacher training and adult literacy. A few descriptive details about living on the Nepal mission are appended.
    Add to my documents.
  2. 2
    042230

    Population: AIDS: availability of condoms [memorandum]

    United States. Department of State

    [Unpublished] 1987 Jun. 2 p.

    The provision of condoms is an integral part of the strategy for control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) being developed by the US Agency for International Development (AID) in conjunction with the World Health Organization (WHO). Condoms are now available from USAID for AIDS prevention activities, and data are being collected to help prioritize condom requests and maximize effective distribution on a worldwide basis. It is expected that condom distribution will be most effective in cases where condoms are provided to those at highest risk of AIDS transmission through an effective service delivery system with adequate storage and logistical support. AIDS prevention efforts should be coordinated with WHO efforts whenever possible. Logistical support is especially important since AIDS is prevalent in many countries with weak public health infrastructures and limited experience in providing condoms. An AIDS technical support program now being developed by USAID will assist in this area. Further analysis is required to determine whether a distinction should be made at the programmatic level between distribution of condoms for AIDS prevention and for family planning; it may be that combination of these 2 aims will have a synergistic effect. Information is requested from countries on the number of condoms desired, the proposed distribution system, the logistical capacity available, and the strategy for reaching individuals at risk of AIDS infection.
    Add to my documents.
  3. 3
    026795

    Sri Lanka drops leading condom.

    Social Marketing Forum. 1984 Summer; 1(4):1,5.

    Sri Lanka's Family Planning Association has stopped selling its Preethi Regular condom, the backbone of its social marketing program for nearly a decade. Last year nearly 7 times as many Preethi condoms were sold as all other brands combined. The decision was reported to be caused by budget constraints following the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) new policy of limiting the number of Preethi Regular condoms supplied to Sri Lanka. IPPF's Asian Regional Officer reported that the Preethi condom is a costly product, and that as many as needed of a US Agency for International Development (USAID) supplied product will be sent to Sri Lanka. The Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) program has devised a new sales strategy, based partly on the introduction of a high-priced condom to fill the gap left by the discontinuation of the Preethi Regular. The new Preethi Gold condom is expected to help the project become more financially self-reliant while taing advantage of Preethi's marketplace popularity. Preethi Gold is manufactured by the Malaysia Rubber Company and costs the project US $4.85/gross. It is sold for US $.14 for 3, about 3 times the price of a Preethi Regular. The project is also pushing the Panther condom, donated to IPPF by USAID. 2 Panther condoms sell for about 3.6U, about the cost of Preethi Regulars. The project also sells Moonbeam, Rough Rider, and Stimula condoms, the latter 2 at full commercial prices. A smooth transfer of demand from Preethi to Panther had been desired, but by the end of 1983 some retailers were hesitating to make the product switch because some Preethi Regulars were still available. Total condom sales in 1983 were down by nearly 590,000 from the approximately 6,860,000 sold in 1982. Total condom sales for the 1st quarter of 1984 were slightly over 1,218,000 pieces, compared to about 1,547,000 for the same quarter in 1983, a decline of 21%. The Family Planning Association is gearing up to reverse the downward trend. Panther sales increased from, 38,000 condoms in the 1st quarter of 1983 to 462,000 in the same period of 1984. The project is intensifying its market coverage by increasing the number of sales divisions from 5 to 7 to help maintain sales momentum for the new product.
    Add to my documents.
  4. 4
    264061

    Impact of population assistance to an African country: Department of State, Agency for International Development. Report to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States

    United States. Comptroller General

    U.S. General Accounting Office. Comptroller General, Washington, D.C., United States, 1977. (ID-77-3) v, 65 p.

    Add to my documents.
  5. 5
    736207

    Methodological issues in population and politics: a comment.

    Ness GD

    In: Clinton RL, ed. Population and politics: new directions in political science research. Lexington, Massachusetts, Lexington Books, 1973. 145-50.

    Population is interrelated with resources, technology, and ecological organization. The recent development of noncoital specific contraceptive methods has made direct-action programs for fertility control economically feasible with strong implications for population dynamics. It is argued that USAID's large investment in contraceptive technology reflects a basically conservative approach to population policy. USAID's noncontraceptive research budget is used for descriptive demography which avoids confronting more fundamental issues of the relation between population and social structure. A discussion of the merits of the case-study approach versus the aggregate-data analysis approach to population policy research points out the substitution of indirect measures of behavior for actual observation of behavior. The debate between methods of research stems from the use of the research and origins of its perspective. Donor countries interested in a subtle set of obligations are concerned with programs best suited to the existing conditions. Case-studies and direct observation are useful under those conditions. Nation-states are most often used as units of analysis which overlook strong regional units and intrusions of nation-states across boundaries into other areas. The analysis of population policy is best understood as a dynamic process rather than a strict methodology.
    Add to my documents.
  6. 6
    796496

    Condoms: manufacturing perspectives and use.

    Quinn J

    In: Zatuchni GI, Sobrero AJ, Speidel JJ, Sciarra JJ, ed. Vaginal contraception: new developments. Hagerstown, Md., Harper and Row, 1979. 66-81.

    Although condoms are still produced from a variety of materials, the popularity of the condom increased mainly after the dipped latex process was developed in the 1930s. Condoms went with US troops all over the world during World War Two. It is only in recent years that strict quality standards were established. Many countries, including the US, measure quality in the number of pinholes acceptable per unit, the number of acceptable holes varying considerably between countries. Japan has made a standard based on leakage as measured by sodium ion concentration. Various types, colors, names, and sizes of condoms are popular in different countries. Large scale distribution in recent years has raised the question of shelf life. It is generally thought that a condom kept in a sealed tinfoil package will stay good indefinitely. Nonetheless, for management as well as safety purposes smaller shipments are preferred over large shipments in mass distribution programs. Condom popularity is partly associated with the number and accessibility of distribution points; therefore, it has become more prevalent to use both government units and regular commercial distribution points for popularizing the condom, and there is reason to believe that this type of program will grow. In light of the current interest in integration of contraceptive programs with health care and development efforts, population specialists should look closely at the condom and the commercial resources available for its distribution. A series of tables gives gross numbers of condoms supplied by international donor agencies in the developing countries, 1975-78.
    Add to my documents.
  7. 7
    775945

    Report to donors: October 1976.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, IPPF, 1977. 428 p.

    This report describes IPPF's world-wide program from 1975-77. Financial and statistical statements are accompanied by narrative texts. In 1975 the number of family planning acceptors increased by about 5% or 1.8 million reached directly by IPPF-funded service programs. Between 1971 and 1974 the overall acceptance rate for organized family planning programs in countries with government programs was about 35/1000 women aged 15-44. The acceptance rate of IPPF-supported programs increased from 2.1 to 2.7/1000. IPPF's contribution was about 8% of the 1974 total. As a distributing and purchasing agency for contraceptive supplies and medical equipment, IPPF purchased $8.5 million worth of commodities in 1975, $7.5 million in 1976, and $7 million in 1977. About 2/3 represent oral contraceptives and condoms. The world summary of projected expenditures, 1977, includes 20.7%/information and education, 21.6%/medical and clinical, 20.4%/administration, 14.2%/commodities, 7.6%/community-based distribution, 6.2%/training, 3.2%/evaluation, and 1.6%/fund raising. Regional reports include a program description of the regional office, financial statements, clinic service statements, program descriptions of grant receiving associations, and a brief summary of expenditure.
    Add to my documents.
  8. 8
    781219

    Population research funding declines.

    Planned Parenthood-World Population Washington Memo, No. W-21. 1978 Dec 15; 4.

    Inflation and pharmaceutical companies' unwillingness to absorb the high cost of new contraceptive development have combined to reduce population research funding. It now takes 10-15 years and $15-45 million to develop and test a new contraceptive drug. $125.8 million spent worldwide during 1976 is equivalent to $82.1 million 1970 dollars. In 1969, 58% was spent worldwide on basic reproductive research and 30% on new contraceptive development. In 1976, over 69% was spent on basic research and 19% on new contraceptive development. The National Science Foundation is the only other agency spending more than a million dollars, $1.9. Congress has appropriated $105, $120.8, and $138.9 million for fiscal years 1979, 1980, and 1981, respectively.
    Add to my documents.
  9. 9
    774468

    Reproductive science and contraceptive development: recommendations to international assistance agencies.

    HARKAVY O

    In: Rockefeller Foundation. Bellagio 4 population conference. A conference sponsored by The Rockefeller Foundation, Ulvshale, Denmark, June 7-9, 1977. New York, Rockefeller Foundation, November 1977. p. 63-77

    Focus is on the findings of a 2-year study of reproduction science and contraceptive development that are of particular relevance to the work of international asssitance agencies. The first 3 of 20 recommendations made in the Report's Summary of Findings and Recommendations are especially important. The recommendations are: 1) a variety of safe and effective methods of fertility regulation beyond those now available is urgently needed, and there must be increased efforts ranging from fundamental research on the reproductive processes to targeted activities in contraceptive development; 2) more attention must be given to studies of intermediate and long-term safety of methods yet to be developed; and 3) by 1980, allocations for research in the reproductive sciences related to contraceptive development and evaluation by governmental agencies should comprise substantially higher proportions of total expenditures for medical research and development assistance than is now the case. Worldwide expenditures for the reproductive sciences and contraceptive development reached a peak in 1974 and have since decreased in 1975 and 1976. Clearly, the amount of relevant research being supported throughout the world has declined at a time when the promise of major new developments is extremely high and when bringing new products to market calls for large expenditures of funds to assure their efficacy and safety. Additional focus is given to institutional and human resources, contraceptive development in the public sector, regulation and ethics of human experimentation, the special conference on contraceptive development in the public sector that was held April 27-29, 1977, rationale for support of reproductive science and contraceptive research, institutional arrangements for research in reproduction and contraceptive development, financial requirements, and new funding mechanisms.
    Add to my documents.
  10. 10
    773446

    Desexing birth control.

    STYCOS JM

    Family Planning Perspectives. November-December 1977; 9(6):286-292.

    When Margaret Sanger initiated the American birth control movement in the early twentieth century, she stressed female and sexual liberation. Victorian views on morality have since combined with the compromises necessitated to achieve legitimacy for the movement to lead to a desexualization of the birth control movement. The movement's communication now concentrates on reproduction and ignores sex; it emphasizes family planning and population control but does not mention sexual pleasure. Taboos against publicity concerning contraceptives are more powerful even than laws restricting the sale or distribution of contraceptives themselves in many countries. The movement must recover its earlier revolutionary stance.
    Add to my documents.
  11. 11
    771184

    Population: ''an integral part of development.''

    Front Lines 15(11): 2. March 31, 1977.

    An AID plan to focus on the interrelationship of family planning and development is described. Research into such areas as the relationship of fertility to women's status and opportunity, health, and changing pattern of income distribution will be undertaken. Encouraging indications in controlling the population growth of developing countries include the involvement of government recognition of the relationship of family planning and development and declining birthrates. Programs need to be locally developed, attuned to the needs of the people to achieve success. Major population planning activities of the 1978 budget include family planning delivery services ($53 million), manpower and institutional development ($22.2 million), education and information ($18.4 million), fertility control techniques and operations research ($15.6 million), demographic data collection and analysis ($14.2 million), population policy ($13.1 million), and U.N. Fund for Population Activities ($28 million).
    Add to my documents.
  12. 12
    755683

    Population/Family planning project: A.I.D. field evaluation July 1975: final report.

    BERNARD R; FORNOS W; MICHAEL F; ROTHER M

    Washington, D.C., USAID, September 16, 1975. 85 p

    The USAID Population/Family Planning Project for Tunisia was evaluated by a 4-man team from July 21-August 1, 1975. The team was to determine the project's status, outline a strategy for phasing out USAID support by mid-1977 and set up criteria for further USAID assistance. Tunisian family planning programs historically lacked management/implementation skills. The creation of the Office National du Planning Familial et de la Population (ONPFP) and appointment of President Director General Chekir alleviated many problems, mainly by recruiting highly qualified, youthful management teams. Program effectiveness depends on the will of the Regional Administrator and varies with individual personalities. Recommendations by the evaluation team include greater use of existing facilities; better dissemination of family planning information; national policy on the role of the nurse/midwide; addition of 2 full-time physicians to ONPFP; update national program goals; adopt community-based distribution system; resolve authority diffusion at local levels; training physicians in mini-laparoscopy technique; evaluations at regular intervals. The success of the Tunisian program is indicated by a marked decrease in birth rate in 1974. Since Tunisia is a model program in the Muslim world it was recommended that USAID continue support until FY 1978.
    Add to my documents.
  13. 13
    753837

    Indonesia (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, February 1975. 9 p.

    An overview of the demographic and family planning situation in Indonesia reveals an active movement which began with the 1957 founding of the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA). In 1968, the government announced its support of family planning. The Government Family Planning Coordinating Body (BKKBN) coordinates the components of the national program, of which IPPA is one. Most of IPPA's clinics have been turned over to the government for operation, but the organization has plans to establish 14 self-supporting Maternity and Family Planning Clinics throughout Indonesia. Much of IPPA's work in information and education, training, and research and evaluation is also linked with the government program. 16 other organizations also aid Indonesia's family planning program.
    Add to my documents.
  14. 14
    753836

    The Gambia (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, January 1975. 6 p.

    According to 1973 figures, the total population of Gambia is 494,279 and the population growth rate is 4.7%. In 1967 infant mortality was estimated at 122/1000 in Banjul and 500/1000 in rural areas where health services are extremely limited. In 1970 there was 1 hospital in Banjul, 9 rural health centers, 24 dispensaries, and 34 subdispensaries. An increasing demand for abortion, particularly in the Banjul-Kombo-St. Ma ry area, has been reported. Family planning services are provided by the Family Planning Association of Gambia (FPAG), established in 1969, at its 5 clinics. Additionally, a number of health centers are visited by the FPAG. Efforts are now being taken to persuade the government to adopt a population policy and a plan for integrating family planning services into the national health services program. For the 1st half of 1974 Association figures show 791 new acceptors of contraceptive methods, 711 continuing acceptors, and 1442 total visits to the FPAG clinics. Regarding information and education, the FPAG is presently working among both youth and various groups of rural extension personnel. In 1974 the intention had been to increase the motivational literature in 2 of the local languages and to begin the publication of motivational literature in other local languages. In 1975 the Informati on and Education Department will cooperate with the fieldwork cadre in order to receive program feedback. Consequently, fieldworkers will be more actively involved in the preparation of suitable family planning materials.
    Add to my documents.
  15. 15
    735203

    Indonesia (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, June 1973. 10 p.

    The Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA) was founded in 1957 and pioneered family planning services. It made little headway duri ng the pronatalist Sukarno regime, but in 1967 the present government announced an intensive family planning program and the IPPA was named as an implementing unit in 1971. 2 primary roles now are the training activities for fieldworkers and the development of community education and motivation programs. This complements the national mass media program. In 1970 the government took over all clinics except those in the Outer Islands (the islands outside Java, Bali, and Madura). The IPPA runs 150 clinics in the Outer Islands, is responsible for all supplies and maintenance, and has a number of model clinics in Java and Bali. The Community Education program has 8 components: speakers bureau, family planning clubs, mobile audiovisual units, exhibitions, tr aditional media, special events, local mass media support, and evaluatio n. In 1971 the 'ippa trained 2951 people; in 1972 this was increased by 25%. In 1973 the target is training 3000 fieldworkers with 16 centers for training and 16 field demonstration areas. An agreement with the U.N. Fund for Population Activities/International Development Association (UNFPA/IDA) will provide for building, equipping, and staffing. The research and evaluation function is also expanding to complement government activities. The government program aims to train 20,250 medical and paramedical personnel over 5 years and medical schools have incorporated the teaching of population and family planning. Government allowances are being curtailed for all children over 3 for government workers. An active clinic program aims to set up 1200 fully equipped and 1250 moderately equipped facilities by 1973. An active media campaign has been launched and for the 1st time in the population field the UNFPA and the IDA are helping to finance a project to expand a family planning program and broaden its activities. This su pport will provide for physical facilities, technical assistance, training, motivation, evaluation, research, and population education.
    Add to my documents.
  16. 16
    745597

    Laos (Family Planning)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, February 1974. 6 p.

    Laos has been so torn by war and continuing waves of refugees that i t has been difficult to provide basic medical services to the population . In 1969 Laos had 53 medical doctors, 40 of whom were foreign instructors at the School of Medicine, 676 practical nurses, and 400 trained midwives. Before 1971 the government was opposed to family planning. A study commission in that year, however, examined population growth problems and recommended support for family planning. The voluntary association had been formed in 1966 and had sent representatives to international workshops. After the change in government attitude, the association has actively acted to distribute family planning supplies to villages, train midwives as motivators, and give additional training to public health center heads, home economists, medical assistants, and refugee village heads. The governmental emphasis is on better spacing of births rather than limitation. It took over operation of 7 association clinics in 1973 and now helps provide contraceptive services. The association still has 5 fixed and 6 mobile clinics. A refugee pilot program which opened in 1971 now has a permanent building and a full-time rural midwife. The association also stresses influencing opinion leaders through lecture forums, pamphlets, radio commercials, and film shows. Information and Education teams were formed to conduct 2-3 day seminar-lectures in other provinces to diverse groups like village headmen, town influentials, teachers, and other leaders. Many foreign groups have provided assistance, supplies, training, and other aid. WHO is helping with the integration of family planning into the nursing and midwifery curricula in the schools of Laos.
    Add to my documents.
  17. 17
    744614

    Contraceptive development.

    Barnes AC; Schearer B; Segal S

    In: Rockefeeller Foundation. Working papers: Third Bellagio Conference o n Population, May 10-12, 1973. New York, June 1974. p. 75-78

    Outside the pharmaceutical industry, there are 4 major programs to develop new fertility-control methods under the auspices of the U.S. Agency for International Development, the Center for Population Research of USNICHD, the World Health Organizaion, and the Population Council. The areas of research and development and monies spent by each organization are presented. It seems likely that at least half a dozen new birth control methods will emerge over the next 5 years. They will not be ideal; but they should be relatively convenient and offer a wide range of contraception alternatives to attract a variety of acceptors. So far, enormous advances in basic biology have been made at relatively small cost. It is necessary to support the increasing levels of expenditure necessary to the continuation of basic research, increased applied research, and the costly stages of clinical testing.
    Add to my documents.
  18. 18
    744086

    Third Bellagio conference on population.

    Rockefeller Foundation

    New York, Rockefeller Foundation. 1974 June; 98.

    31 participants, representing in the main specialists from international public and private agencies, together with regional representatives from the developing world, gathered in Bellagio, Italy, in May 1973, to discuss world population growth. A record of that conference, consisting of some of the position papers and a small portion of the attending dialogue, is presented. Topics include: 1) status report on population developments; 2) sociopolitical implications of family planning programs as an aspect of population policies and development planning in Africa; 3) population and family planning programs in Latin America--programs and prospects; 4) emerging issues in population policy and population program assistance; 5) an overview of agency activities; 6) social research and population policy; 7) university programs and population centers; 8) delivery systems for family planning; 9) contraceptive development; 10) demographic data collection and analysis; and 11) population education: school and nonschool.
    Add to my documents.
  19. 19
    725737

    Sierra Leone (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, June 1972. 5 p

    All the demographic statistics and the cultural, economic, and geogr aphical sttuation of Sierra Leone are presented. The Planned Parenthood Association of Sierra Leone (PPASL) was founded in 1960. There is no anticontraceptive legislation in the country but the attitude of the government toward family planning is still tentative. Current educational, fieldwork, clinic operations, and fund raising projects are summarized. Current personneof PPASL are given. New acceptors choose t he IUD generally, with more educated acceptors favoring the pill or spermicides. Other services provided by PPASL are mentioned. Sources of funding, including international organizations, are listed.
    Add to my documents.
  20. 20
    725736

    Sarawak (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, June 1972. 4 p

    All the demographic statistics and the cultural, economic, and geogr aphical situation of Sarawak, part of the Malaysia Federation, are presented. The history of interest in family planning and the current personnel of the Sarawak Family Planning Association (FPA) are presented. The FPA is assisted with clinics, grants, and land from the government. Family planning services are provided by the FPA at 8 urban and 57 rural clinics. Orals are the overwhelming favorite of acceptors. Current educational and training activities are summarized. International organizations providing assistance for the family planning program are mentioned.
    Add to my documents.
  21. 21
    725732

    Republic of Vietnam (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, May 1972. 5 p

    All the demographic statistics and the cultural, economic, and geogr aphical situation of the Republic of Vietnam are presented. The history of interest in family planning and the current personnel of the Vietnamese Association for the Protection of Family Happiness are presented. Conservative Catholic opinion considers family planning activity controversial. Contraception is widely practiced by those who can afford to pay for it and the practice is considered private, not open to government interference. The government is showing increasing i nterest in the question of population. Current educational, clinic, training, and research activities are summarized. International organizations providing aid are enumerated.
    Add to my documents.
  22. 22
    725719

    Hong Kong (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, September 1972. 7 p

    Hong Kong, with 3858 people/sq km, is 1 of the world's most densely populated areas. Family planning was introduced in 1936 by the Hong Kong Eugenics League and 5 clinics were operating by 1940. The Family Planning Association (FPA) was formed in 1950 and was a founder member of IPPF in 1952. Interest in family planning increased as massive immigration from China added to overcrowding. The government supports FPA (in 1972 the grant was U.S.$254,545) and houses 80% of the FPA clinics in government properties. At present there are 46 female clinics providing 189 sessions per week and 2 male clinics operating eac h week. The decline from 54 to 48 clinics is due to the new emphasis on full-time rather than part-time clinics. In 1971 there were 347,894 attenders, an increase of 18% over 1970, and 31,898 new acceptors, an increase of 4%. There has been continued increase in the number of patients requesting oral contraceptives (70.6% in 1971). The IUD began to decline after bad publicity surrounded a large number of loops which had broken in the uterus; in 1971 only 6% of acceptors asked for IUDs. Condoms account for 11.5% and injectables, 3.6%. FPA offers subfertility and marriage guidance services and is extending its Papanicolaou smear service. An active media campaign, exhibitions, and seminars are conducted. Until 1967 fieldwork consisted of random home visits. An efficiency study led to concentration on maternal and child health clinics, postnatal clinics, and follow-up home visits. Home visi ts are still made on request. A number of international trials for various contraceptives have been run in Hong Kong. Many church and international organizations are helping to finance family planning activities, both through FPA and through their own organizations.
    Add to my documents.
  23. 23
    022392

    AID support of laparoscopy overseas: 1973-1983.

    Wiley AT; Speidel JJ

    [Unpublished] [1983]. 12 p.

    In 1972 the US Agency for International Development (USAID) began to provide funds to Johns Hopkins and other universities to train developing country personnel in laparoscopic sterilization technique. The demand for this training and AID's perceived need for a mechanism to provide developing country doctors with current training in family planning and other aspects of reproductive health led, in 1974, to the creation of the Johns Hopkins Program for International Education in Gynecology and Obstetrics (JHPIEGO). One of its purposes was to provide short-term training in laparoscopy for overseas physicians and to arrange for distribution and maintenance of laparoscopic equipment. JHPIEGO was also conceived of as a broad based program for training in reproductive health emphasizing the important role that family planning plays in reproductive health. Most of this USAID supported training now takes place in medical centers in the developing countries. The training usually consists of 2-4 weeks of didactic and clinical work in many aspects of reproductive health of which training in laparoscopy is often an important part. After the laparoscopic training, each qualifying trainee is visited at his/her own hospital by a consultant who helps set up the laparoscopic equipment for use. A significant number of supervised laparoscopic procedures are then performed by the trainee over a period of several days. When the consultant trainer is satisfied with the skill of the particular trainee, a laparoscopic unit is given to the trainee's institution. By September 1983, 2500 physicians from approximately 100 countries had received this type of JHPIEGO training, and more than 1600 of them have since been provided with laparoscopies at their home institutions. USAID funded laparoscopic training and equipment and other types of training and equipment also have been provided to the developing countries by the Association for Voluntary Sterilization (AVS). These 2 groups have now cumulatively provided laparoscopic training for at least 3800 physicians from developing countries. The Falope Ring applicator is now in use throughout the world, and JHPIEGO and AVS have converted their overseas laparoscopes to include this capability and for the past 5 years all laparoscopes supplied by USAID have had this Falope Ring capability. The laprocator, a simplified laparoscope which is designed for use of the Falope Ring, was developed in response to USAID's interest in lowering costs and maintenance requirements. USAID has provided over 1000 of these simplified systems to more than 75 developing countries. The use of laparoscopy in the voluntary sterilization programs of the Philippines, in India, and in Africa are reviewed. Voluntary sterilization has grown each year in popularity and is now the method of birth control in most widespread use around the world.
    Add to my documents.