Important: The POPLINE website will retire on September 1, 2019. Click here to read about the transition.

Your search found 27 Results

  1. 1
    096819

    Contraceptive requirements and logistics management needs in the Philippines.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical and Evaluation Division. Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning Branch

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1994. x, 122 p. (Technical Report No. 17)

    In 1989, the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) began its "Global Initiative" to estimate "Contraceptive Requirements and Logistics Management Needs" throughout the developing world in the 1990s. After the initial study was completed, 12 countries were chosen for the preparation of more detailed estimates with information on program needs for logistics management of contraceptive commodities, options for local production, the involvement of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in the supply of contraceptives, condom requirements for sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV/AIDS prevention, and financing issues. The fact-finding mission to the Philippines took place in 1993. In the introductory chapter of this technical report, the Global Initiative is described and the Philippine Population Program is presented in terms of the demographic picture, the population policy framework, the Philippine Family Planning (FP) Program, STD/AIDS control and prevention efforts, and an overview of donor assistance from 1) the UNFPA, 2) USAID, 3) the World Bank, 4) the Asian Development Bank, 5) the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau, 6) the Canadian International Development Agency, 7) the Commission of the European Community, 8) the International Planned Parenthood Federation, 9) the Japanese International Cooperation Agency, and 10) the Netherlands. The second chapter presents contraceptive requirements including longterm forecasting methodology, projected longterm commodity requirements, condom requirements for STD/AIDS prevention, total commodity requirements for 1993-2002, short-term procurement projections, and projections and calculations of unmet need. Chapter 3 covers logistics management for 1) the public sector, 2) condoms for STD/AIDS preventions, 3) NGOs, and 4) the commercial sector. The fourth chapter is devoted to a consideration of private practitioners and a detailed look at the ways that NGOs relate to FP groups. This chapter also covers the work of NGOs in STD/AIDS prevention and coordination and collaboration among NGOs. Chapter 5 is devoted to the private commercial sector and includes information on social marketing, the commercial sector, and duties and taxes. The issues addressed in chapter 6 are contraceptive manufacturing and quality assurance, including the potential for the local manufacture of OCs, condoms, IUDs, injectables, and implants. The national AIDS prevention and control program, the forecasting of condom requirements for STD/AIDS prevention, and policy and managerial issues are considered in chapter 7. The last chapter provides a financial analysis of the sources and uses of funds for contraceptives including donated commodities, the private commercial sector, cost recovery issues, and regulations and policies, such as taxes and duties on donated contraceptives, which affect commodities. 5 appendices provide additional information on contraceptive requirements, logistics management and costs, the private commercial sector, condoms for STD/AIDS prevention, and a financial analysis. Information provided by the texts and appendices is presented in tables and charts throughout the report.
    Add to my documents.
  2. 2
    093323

    Family planning hygiene project.

    Philippines. Provincial Population Office; Philippines. Commission on Population

    In: Operations research family planning database project summaries, [compiled by] Population Council. New York, New York, Population Council, 1993 Mar. [1] p. (PHI-01)

    In 1975, a USAID-Commission on Population (POPCOM) planning team reported that the key problem facing the National Family Planning (FP) Program in the Philippines was extending the program beyond its existing network of municipal-based clinics to the surrounding barrios. At that time, the number of new FP acceptors was declining, and there was a shift to less effective methods among current users. Because most clinics were urban-based, rural acceptors could not easily access FP services. The report recommended that supply depots be established in barrios and that motivators be used to distribute contraceptives and hygiene information and materials. An operations research project, which cost US $77,313, was developed to test the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of delivering FP/hygiene materials directly to households in rural areas. The Barrio Supply Point (BSP) operators were to visit and make available to every household free FP and hygiene materials. After the initial visit, BSP operators were to continue to serve as resupply agents. Although contraceptives were resupplied free, a nominal charge was required for hygiene materials. A quasi-experimental study design was employed. Pilot tests were conducted to determine what materials might be effectively distributed in addition to contraceptives. Project support was terminated in December 1978, before the project was fully implemented, because of the evolution of a national outreach program. Results of the pilot test showed that over 90% of households offered free condoms and oral contraceptives, or free contraceptives and bars of soap, accepted them. No data on use of these items were collected.
    Add to my documents.
  3. 3
    093251

    Family planning saturation project.

    American University in Cairo; American University

    In: Operations research family planning database project summaries, [compiled by] Population Council. New York, New York, Population Council, 1993 Mar. [2] p. (EGY-01)

    Egypt's family planning (FP) program, active since 1966, has been facilitated by the country's population density, flat terrain, and extensive health infrastructure. Nevertheless, by the early 1970s, a substantial proportion of couples were still not using contraception because of minimal clinic outreach; high dropout rates for oral contraceptive (OC) users; lack of knowledge about side effects among clinic staff and clients; disruptions in clinical supplies; and unavailability of other methods, such as the IUD, especially in rural areas. In 1971, USAID supported the American University in Cairo's (AUC) FP research activities in rural Egypt, in which household fertility survey data, a follow-up of women attending FP clinics, the cultural context of FP, communication and education, and the implementation of services were studied. In 1974, AUC initiated a demonstration project (which cost US $224,000) of a low-cost way to provide FP services to all married women in a treatment population through a household contraceptive distribution system. The interventions were implemented in the Shanawan (rural) and Sayeda Zeinab (city of Cairo) communities of Menoufia Governorate. During an initial canvas in November 1974, married women 15-49 years of age, who were living with their husbands and were not pregnant or less than 3 months postpartum and breast feeding, were offered 4 cycles of OCs or a supply of condoms. During a second canvas in February 1975, acceptors were provided with an additional 4 cycles of OCs and referred to a local depot for resupply. Each distribution area was mapped, and each housing unit numbered. Data collected through canvassing consisted primarily of eligibility screening items and provided numbers of acceptors, refusals, ineligibles, not at homes, etc. To increase coverage, 2 attempts were made to reach women not at home. Of the 2,493 women canvassed in Sayeda Zeinab, 1713 (69%) were eligible to receive contraceptives. Of these, 58% accepted 4 to 6 cycles of OCs. At the time of initial household distribution, 45% of eligible women were already using OCs. As a result of the canvass, an additional 5% of the women became acceptors. The AUC did not expand the household distribution of contraceptives to other urban areas of Cairo, because women there evidently already had adequate access to FP information and supplies. In the 6,915 households canvassed in Shanawan, 1156 of the 1820 women (64%) were eligible to receive contraceptives. Of these, 45% accepted 4 to 6 cycles of OCs. 21% of eligible women were already using OCs at the time of initial household distribution. Although condoms were offered, few were accepted, apparently because it was not culturally acceptable for women to either distribute or accept condoms. One year after the initial household distribution, contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age had increased 69% from 18.4 to 31% among all age and parity groups and at all educational and occupational levels, and the incidence of pregnancy declined from 19.3 to 14.9%.
    Add to my documents.
  4. 4
    152951

    [Contraceptive fact sheets. A tool for advisors in logistics] Fiches factuelles sur les contraceptifs. Un outil pour les conseillers en logistique.

    John Snow [JSI]. Family Planning Logistics Management Project

    Arlington, Virginia, JSI, Family Planning Logistics Management Project, 1998. [15] p. (USAID Contract No. CCP-C-00-95-00028-04)

    This guide lists the visual indicators of eventual quality problems, special considerations, donors, manufacturers, brands, shelf life, primary and secondary conditioning, units per shipping crate, and the dimensions and weights of boxes of the following contraceptive methods: condoms, oral contraceptive pills, IUDs, injectables, contraceptive implants, spermicides, and other vaginal barrier methods. These methods are presented in different categories according to donor: USAID, IPPF, or FNUAP. These data are provided as a tool to consultants in logistics. References are given for additional information on each method discussed.
    Add to my documents.
  5. 5
    134847

    Accomplishments in HIV / AIDS programs: highlights from the USAID HIV / AIDS Program, 1995-1997.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]

    Arlington, Virginia, Center for International Health Information, 1997 Dec. 16 p.

    This booklet presents highlights of 1995-97 activities of the US Agency for International Development's (USAID's) HIV/AIDS program. After a brief description of the current status of the pandemic, USAID's response, and its new strategy, the booklet provides a more in-depth examination of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, the highlights of USAID HIV/AIDS prevention activities during the past decade, and USAID's focus on prevention, which focuses on promoting safer sex behavior, increasing condom availability and use, and controlling sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The next section of the booklet reviews USAID's proven interventions, such as behavior change communication and research, condom social marketing, and the development of services to prevent and treat STDs. An example is then given of how the three interventions were used successfully to stem transmission in Thailand. The booklet continues by explaining how USAID has targeted its response to developing countries (where it can have a significant impact on slowing the pandemic), youth, and women, and how peer educators and community outreach activities have been used to spread the prevention message. Next, the booklet discusses how USAID has expanded its partnerships with the World Health Organization's Global Programme on AIDS, with UNAIDS, and with Japan. The final section details the new USAID strategy for the future that will continue to focus on the three aspects of prevention and will also seek to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on individuals and communities. The booklet also contains case studies of various USAID-funded projects.
    Add to my documents.
  6. 6
    108838
    Peer Reviewed

    Interaction of condom design and user techniques and condom acceptability.

    Gerofi J; Deniaud F; Friel P

    CONTRACEPTION. 1995 Oct; 52(4):223-8.

    In November 1991 in Cotonou, Benin, 30 sex workers complained that the World Health Organization (WHO) blue condoms were not as good as the USAID condoms. The National AIDS Programme had replaced the USAID condoms with WHO condoms. Leading complaints about WHO condoms were in order of importance: causes pain in vagina, too short, too small, insufficient lubrication, breaks easily, and several condoms needed per client due to breakage. Samples of both condoms underwent laboratory tests to learn more about the complaints. Informal interviews were conducted with professionals in contact with users (e.g., family planning workers and condom vendors) and condom users (prostitutes, bar girls, and men). There were some differences between the two condom types. For example, the USAID condom exerted 20-30% less pressure on the penis than the WHO condom. However, researchers considered the differences to be too small to completely explain the complaints. Two social workers had done a suboptimal job of explaining to sex workers how to unroll condoms. Other than these sex workers, others accepted the WHO condom well. Both condoms had at least the same strength, suggesting that other factors likely explain the complaints (e.g., breakage). The WHO condom had less lubricant than the USAID condom (223 vs. 451 mg), yet the amount was within the range of that on the commercial market. One batch of WHO condoms had much less lubricant than other WHO batches. Even though the sex workers complained that the WHO condom was too short, it was actually longer than the USAID condom, suggesting that the WHO condoms were not unrolled completely. These findings indicate the need to teach correct application procedures to condom users and to make condoms as immune as possible to incorrect or suboptimal techniques (e.g., changes in lubricant).
    Add to my documents.
  7. 7
    094440

    SOMARC's condom projects in Morocco and Turkey achieve complete self-sufficiency.

    Futures Group. Social Marketing for Change [SOMARC]

    SOMARC III HIGHLIGHTS. 1994 Mar; (10):1-2.

    Morocco's Protex condom project was introduced in September, 1989, by Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC). Since September, 1993, when Protex became self-sufficient, the local distributor, Moussahama, has maintained strong sales, with 1993 fourth quarter sales 18 percent higher than they were the year before. Moussahama is purchasing the condoms directly through the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Moussahama continues to expand distribution to non-traditional outlets. Condom sales are projected to reach three million units in 1994, nearly 40 percent higher than in 1993. An important component of SOMARC's project was a media campaign designed to improve attitudes toward condom use. A recent study measuring the impact of the campaign documented that current condom use of any brand among married men has increase from 3% in 1989 to 20% in 1993; 93% of all married men interviewed were aware of Protex, and nine out of ten condom users said they use Protex most often. The Okey condom in Turkey became self-sufficient in December, 1993, attributed chiefly to SOMARC's having obtained from Eczacibasi, the Turkish distributor, a commitment to directly purchase all condoms to be sold in the social marketing project. Eczacibasi has covered all commodity as well as management and distribution costs of the product since its initial launch. During this time, USAID saved over US $700,000 which it would otherwise have spent providing condoms to the project. Sales of Okey have increased rapidly since the condom's introduction in June, 1991, and are expected to exceed seven million units 1994. Eczacibasi budgeted over US $450,000 in 1994 for advertising and promotion for the Okey brand. A recent study evaluating the impact of SOMARC's condom social marketing in Turkey has increased by a dramatic 124 percent. The success of the Okey condom has encouraged the London Rubber Co. to take a more active role in marketing condoms in Turkey.
    Add to my documents.
  8. 8
    093422

    Treatment kit nips STDs in the bud.

    AFRICA WOMEN AND HEALTH. 1993 Apr-Jun; 1:24-6.

    Within the framework of a pilot project, nearly 100 pharmacies in Cameroon will start selling antibiotics in a treatment kit for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The objective is to control STDs as well as to reduce the transmission of AIDS, because the presence of genital ulcers increases the risk of getting infected with HIV fifty-fold. The Ministry of Health is sponsoring the project in collaboration with Family Health International and Population Services International with fund from the U.S. Agency for International Development. This social marketing project hopes to attract clients with low product prices and availability, thereby improving the quality of STD treatment. About 90% of people with STDs go to a local healer or pharmacist, where they receive inadequate treatment. Antibiotics are often sold by untrained staff, who cannot provide instructions for use. Incomplete dosages fail to cure the infection and contribute to the increase of resistant bacterial strains. The strict controls over antibiotics were relaxed recently. In 1991, the U.S. food and Drug Administration allowed the over-the-counter sale of an antibiotic drug to treat vaginal candidiasis. The Cameroon treatment kit will include appropriate antibiotics to treat the most common strains of gonorrhea and chlamydia, promote correct condom use, and include 2 packages of condoms and a partner referral card to seek treatment. A number of baseline studies are underway, including surveillance among pregnant women and commercial sex workers to learn about the prevalence of STDs, and research concerning the pathogenesis of male urethritis. The strong private pharmacy distribution system will help realize the project. The campaign messages will focus on proper STD treatment and lowering the chances of getting AIDS. Advertising will link treatment with prevention and the Prudence condom, while radio commercials and leaflets will promote the kits as an effective means of treatment for STDs.
    Add to my documents.
  9. 9
    083041

    Condoms becoming more popular.

    Manuel J

    NETWORK. 1993 May; 13(4):22-4.

    Social marketing is a strategy which addresses a public health problem with private-sector marketing and sales techniques. In condom social marketing programs, condoms are often offered for sale to the public at low prices. 350 million condoms were sold to populations in developing countries through such programs in 1992, and another 650 million were distributed free through public clinics. The major donors of these condoms are the US Agency for International Development, the World Health Organization, the UN Population Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the World Bank, and the European Community. This marketing approach has promoted condom use as prevention against HIV transmission and has dramatically increased the number of condoms distributed and used throughout much of Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Donors are now concerned that they will not be able to provide condoms in sufficient quantities to keep pace with rapidly rising demand. Findings in selected countries, however, suggest that people seem willing to buy condoms which are well promoted and distributed. Increasing demand for condoms may therefore be readily met through greater dependence upon social marketing programs and condom sales. Researchers generally agree that a social marketing program must change for 100 condoms no more than 1% of a country's GNP in order to sell an amount of condoms equal to at least half of the adult male population. Higher prices may be charged for condoms in countries with relatively high per-capita incomes. Since prices charged tend to be too low to cover all promotional, packaging, distribution, and logistical management costs, most condom distribution programs will have to be subsidized on an ongoing basis.
    Add to my documents.
  10. 10
    074220

    1991 contraceptive social marketing statistics.

    DKT International

    Washington, D.C., DKT International, 1992 Jun. [5] p.

    1991 statistics form various contraceptive social marketing programs are presented in a 5-page leaflet complete with a table and 2 bar graphs. The table consists of program sales and couple years of protection (CYP) data for 32 social marketing programs in developing countries ranging from Bangladesh to Zimbabwe. 1 CYP is defined as 100 condoms or foaming tablets, 13 cycles of oral contraceptives (OCs), 0.53 IUDs, and 4 injectables. All but 2 programs distribute condoms. Peru's social marketing program markets only OCs and vaginal foam tablets. The program in Thailand just sells OCs. 12 programs distribute only condoms, including programs in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Costa Rica, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Turkey, and the Nirodh program in India. Other contraceptives distributed by various programs are IUDs and injectables. Only the program in Sri Lanka markets Norplant. It also provides condoms, OCs, vaginal foam tablets, IUDs, and injectables. In 1991, India had by far the highest CYPs at around 3.28 million followed by Bangladesh at 1.44 million. Bolivia had the lowest CYPs (10,608), CYPs (10,608). CYPs as percentage of target market (80% of 15-44 year old women in a union) statistics do not exhibit the same pattern, however. Jamaica had the highest share (15.9%) followed relatively closely by Egypt (14.8%). 2 other outstanding countries in terms of CYPs as percentage of target market were Colombia (11.7%) and Bangladesh (9.2%). India had only 2.8% and the 3 lowest were Turkey (0.3%), Philippines (0.1%), and Nigeria (0.1%). Leading funding supporters of social marketing programs include USAID, country governments, and IPPF.
    Add to my documents.
  11. 11
    070425

    As AID condom prices climb, so do calls for more condom sources.

    FAMILY PLANNING WORLD. 1992 Jan-Feb; 2(1):6, 20.

    USAID is the world's largest distributer of condoms with over 800 million condoms distributed in 1990, the most recent year figures are available. However, this year's order is 300 million smaller because AID will no longer be supplying Bangladesh or Pakistan. This, combined with inflation has caused the price to rise 16% or from $4.51/100-$5.35/100. Bangladesh will not longer be supplied because the European Community will provide condoms as part of a new 5 year plan from the World Bank. Pakistan will no longer be supplied because US law forbids foreign aid to countries that refuse to sign the United Nations Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. The UNFPA distributed 98.5 million condoms last year. The WHO Global Program on AIDS supplied 140 million in 1989 and 30 million in 1990. The International Planned Parenthood Federation distributed 15 million condoms in 1990. Unlike AID, the other organizations can buy their condoms from any manufacture that meets the new international condom standard set up with the help of the WHO. AID must buy condoms manufactured in the US in accordance with US law. AID does however get a much better price for IUDs, oral contraceptive and Norplant. As a result AID is trying to work with other organizations in an attempt to maximize the amount of contraceptives available world wide for family planning. Since other groups are not restricted by the same rules, they could provide condoms, while AID could use its price advantage to supply other methods.
    Add to my documents.
  12. 12
    070787

    Social Marketing of Contraceptives. A project of Government of Pakistan and USAID. Quarterly report 18, April - June, 1990.

    Davies J

    [Unpublished] 1990. [2], 25 p.

    This quarterly report summarizes the work of PSI Marketing Associates, a social marketing agency, in Pakistan from April-June 1990. Much of PSI's work centered around assisting The Sathi Operating Group (SOG), an organization that markets the Sathi condom. Sathi sales during the quarter totalled more than 14 million condoms. Although Sathi sales have increased significantly since last year, this trend does not indicate an increase in the demand for condoms in general. Because of a continuing short supply of Sultan, another USAID-procured condoms, Sathi has filled the existing demand. One of PSI's concerns is how to increase demand for condoms in general. PSI and SOG have completed a plan for additional mass media advertising to increase condom demand. In other activities, PSI has also: 1) assisted the Domestic Research Bureau in conducting a Contraceptive Practices Survey; 2) assisted USAID in developing a long-term contraceptive marketing strategy; 3) assisted Aftab Associates in implementing its Perpetual Trade audit of condoms; 4) updated the SMC Briefing Book; 5) obtained oral contraceptive training information from IPPF; 6) participated in conferences; 7) discussed social marketing issues with USAID officers in Washington; and 8) worked with PSI officers in Washington to draft a proposal in response to USAID's Request for Proposals for a new SMC Technical Assistance Contract in Pakistan. The report notes that violence in various parts of the Sind Province in Pakistan disrupted program activities. Appendices include the PSI/Pakistan Workplan for the April-June quarter, a Sathi Sales Report, minutes of SOG meetings, and the PSI/Pakistan Workplan for the July-September quarter.
    Add to my documents.
  13. 13
    069634

    Trip report, Geneva, Switzerland.

    Wharton C

    [Unpublished] 1990. [6], 3, [26] p.

    In February 1990, a writer for the international publication Population Reports attended the WHO Interagency Consultation to Discuss Strategies for Coordinating and Improving Global Condom Supply in Geneva, Switzerland to garner the most recent facts about the international supply of condoms and their distribution to be incorporated in an upcoming issue. The WHO/Global Programme on AIDS (WHO/GPA) expanded its role recently to become a major procurer of condoms. Its traditional role remained as coordinating agency of condom strategies against AIDS. The writer recommended that the issue on condoms include a short box featuring WHO/GPA condom activities. Participants agreed that national AIDS programs should focus more on condom services. This could include formation of a condom subcommittee, involvement of a condom programming specialist in drafting medium term national plans, and incorporation of condom distributor experiences in planning. Further they emphasized the need to recognize and consider family planning program experience in supplying and distributing condoms. Participants also conceded the need to no longer differentiate between condom use for AIDS prevention and for family planning. Several agencies including WHO/GPA and USAID addressed the need for quality control including increased emphasis on logistics and distribution channels. They did acknowledge, however, that implementation of quality assurance measures in many countries would be hard and time-consuming. 1 item that received considerable discussion was a generic condom which USAID intended to purchase under its next contract. USAID also planned on switching its focus from quantity to condom distribution and quality control. UNFPA adopted the new WHO Specifications and Guidelines for Condom Procurement. IPPF considered doing so also.
    Add to my documents.
  14. 14
    068551

    USAID steps up anti-AIDS program.

    USAID HIGHLIGHTS. 1991 Fall; 8(3):1-4.

    This article considers the epidemic proportion of AIDS in developing countries, and discusses the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) reworked and intensified strategy for HIV infection and AIDS prevention and control over the next 5 years. Developing and launching over 650 HIV and AIDS activities in 74 developing countries since 1986, USAID is the world's largest supporter of anti-AIDS programs. Over $91 million in bilateral assistance for HIV and AIDS prevention and control have been committed. USAID has also been the largest supporter of the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS since 1986. Interventions have included training peer educators, working to change the norms of sex behavior, and condom promotion. Recognizing that the developing world will increasingly account for an ever larger share of the world's HIV-infected population, USAID announced an intensified program of estimated investment increasing to approximately $400 million over a 5-year period. Strategy include funding for long-term, intensive interventions in 10-15 priority countries, emphasizing the treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases which facilitate the spread of HIV, making AIDS-related policy dialogue an explicit component of the Agency's AIDS program, and augmenting funding to community-based programs aimed at reducing high-risk sexual behaviors. The effect of AIDS upon child survival, adult mortality, urban populations, and socioeconomic development in developing countries is discussed. Program examples are also presented.
    Add to my documents.
  15. 15
    043366

    AIDS: race against mounting odds.

    Bond C; Linden R

    SOUTH. 1987 Apr; (78):109-12.

    The prevalence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in East African countries is the topic of this news article. With the exception of Uganda, most countries' data are considered underreported. Highest estimates are 1 to 3 million cases in Africa; official counts reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) total 2561 cases. In Kenya, 250 cases and 400 infected prostitutes have been confirmed. Nigeria does not admit to any cases, officially. Uganda's officials estimate that 5-10% of urban adults are carriers. Testing is too expensive there, even of blood donors, as costs would bankrupt the health budget. USAID has contributed condoms, however. Infants born of or breast fed by infected mothers are at risk: many of babies have AIDS in Uganda, Zambia, Zaire and Rwanda. On the other hand, Rwanda has instituted a well-coordinated AIDS education campaign with the help of the Norwegian Red Cross, and Uganda, the first country to publicized AIDS, may be selected for the WHO AIDS center.
    Add to my documents.
  16. 16
    042230

    Population: AIDS: availability of condoms [memorandum]

    United States. Department of State

    [Unpublished] 1987 Jun. 2 p.

    The provision of condoms is an integral part of the strategy for control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) being developed by the US Agency for International Development (AID) in conjunction with the World Health Organization (WHO). Condoms are now available from USAID for AIDS prevention activities, and data are being collected to help prioritize condom requests and maximize effective distribution on a worldwide basis. It is expected that condom distribution will be most effective in cases where condoms are provided to those at highest risk of AIDS transmission through an effective service delivery system with adequate storage and logistical support. AIDS prevention efforts should be coordinated with WHO efforts whenever possible. Logistical support is especially important since AIDS is prevalent in many countries with weak public health infrastructures and limited experience in providing condoms. An AIDS technical support program now being developed by USAID will assist in this area. Further analysis is required to determine whether a distinction should be made at the programmatic level between distribution of condoms for AIDS prevention and for family planning; it may be that combination of these 2 aims will have a synergistic effect. Information is requested from countries on the number of condoms desired, the proposed distribution system, the logistical capacity available, and the strategy for reaching individuals at risk of AIDS infection.
    Add to my documents.
  17. 17
    026795

    Sri Lanka drops leading condom.

    Social Marketing Forum. 1984 Summer; 1(4):1,5.

    Sri Lanka's Family Planning Association has stopped selling its Preethi Regular condom, the backbone of its social marketing program for nearly a decade. Last year nearly 7 times as many Preethi condoms were sold as all other brands combined. The decision was reported to be caused by budget constraints following the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) new policy of limiting the number of Preethi Regular condoms supplied to Sri Lanka. IPPF's Asian Regional Officer reported that the Preethi condom is a costly product, and that as many as needed of a US Agency for International Development (USAID) supplied product will be sent to Sri Lanka. The Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) program has devised a new sales strategy, based partly on the introduction of a high-priced condom to fill the gap left by the discontinuation of the Preethi Regular. The new Preethi Gold condom is expected to help the project become more financially self-reliant while taing advantage of Preethi's marketplace popularity. Preethi Gold is manufactured by the Malaysia Rubber Company and costs the project US $4.85/gross. It is sold for US $.14 for 3, about 3 times the price of a Preethi Regular. The project is also pushing the Panther condom, donated to IPPF by USAID. 2 Panther condoms sell for about 3.6U, about the cost of Preethi Regulars. The project also sells Moonbeam, Rough Rider, and Stimula condoms, the latter 2 at full commercial prices. A smooth transfer of demand from Preethi to Panther had been desired, but by the end of 1983 some retailers were hesitating to make the product switch because some Preethi Regulars were still available. Total condom sales in 1983 were down by nearly 590,000 from the approximately 6,860,000 sold in 1982. Total condom sales for the 1st quarter of 1984 were slightly over 1,218,000 pieces, compared to about 1,547,000 for the same quarter in 1983, a decline of 21%. The Family Planning Association is gearing up to reverse the downward trend. Panther sales increased from, 38,000 condoms in the 1st quarter of 1983 to 462,000 in the same period of 1984. The project is intensifying its market coverage by increasing the number of sales divisions from 5 to 7 to help maintain sales momentum for the new product.
    Add to my documents.
  18. 18
    746929

    UNICEF-meeting to determine and coordinate medical/technical aspects of family planning supplies-April 29, 1974. [Memorandum]

    Van der Vlugt GV

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Government, 1974 May 1. 5 p.

    A meeting was held among personnel from UNICEF, WHO, IPPF (International Planned Parenthood Federation), and UNFPA (United Nations Fund for Population Activities. The meeting was held to determine and coordinate funding aspects of family planning supply programs. UNFPA agreed to fund OCs (oral contraceptives), condoms, Depo-Provera, spermicides, IUDs, and abortion equipment for UNICEF programs. It was mentioned that AID (the U.S. Agency for International Development) supplies most of the contraceptives needed for IPPF activities. WHO sets standards and prepares lists of acceptable contraceptive supplies. The UNFPA funding called for $2 million for OCs, $1 million for condoms, and much lesser amounts for the other types of contraceptives.
    Add to my documents.
  19. 19
    762112

    Senegal.

    Menes RJ

    Washington, D.C., U.S. Office of International Health, Division of Planning and Evaluation, 1976. 144 p. (Syncrisis: the dynamics of health, XIX)

    This report uses available statistics to examine health conditions in Senegal and their interaction with socioeconomic development. Background data are presented, after which population, health status, nutrition, environmental health, health infrastructure, facilities, services and manpower, national health policy and planning, international organizations, and the Sahel are discussed. Diseases such as malaria, measles, tuberculosis, trachoma and venereal diseases are endemic in Senegal, and high levels of infant and childhood mortality exist throughout the country but especially in rural areas. Diarrhea, respiratory infections, and neonatal tetanus contribute to this mortality and are evidence of the poor health environment, and lack of basic services including nutrition assistance, health education, and potable water. Nutrition in Senegal appears to be good in general, but seasonal and local variations sometimes produce malnutrition. Lowered fertility rates would reduce infant and maternal mortality and morbidity and might slow the present decline in per capita food intake. At present the government of Senegal has no population policy and almost no provisions for family planning services. Health services are inadequate and inefficient, with shortages of all levels of health manpower, poor planning, and overemphasis on curative services.
    Add to my documents.
  20. 20
    796496

    Condoms: manufacturing perspectives and use.

    Quinn J

    In: Zatuchni GI, Sobrero AJ, Speidel JJ, Sciarra JJ, ed. Vaginal contraception: new developments. Hagerstown, Md., Harper and Row, 1979. 66-81.

    Although condoms are still produced from a variety of materials, the popularity of the condom increased mainly after the dipped latex process was developed in the 1930s. Condoms went with US troops all over the world during World War Two. It is only in recent years that strict quality standards were established. Many countries, including the US, measure quality in the number of pinholes acceptable per unit, the number of acceptable holes varying considerably between countries. Japan has made a standard based on leakage as measured by sodium ion concentration. Various types, colors, names, and sizes of condoms are popular in different countries. Large scale distribution in recent years has raised the question of shelf life. It is generally thought that a condom kept in a sealed tinfoil package will stay good indefinitely. Nonetheless, for management as well as safety purposes smaller shipments are preferred over large shipments in mass distribution programs. Condom popularity is partly associated with the number and accessibility of distribution points; therefore, it has become more prevalent to use both government units and regular commercial distribution points for popularizing the condom, and there is reason to believe that this type of program will grow. In light of the current interest in integration of contraceptive programs with health care and development efforts, population specialists should look closely at the condom and the commercial resources available for its distribution. A series of tables gives gross numbers of condoms supplied by international donor agencies in the developing countries, 1975-78.
    Add to my documents.
  21. 21
    755854

    Consultant report on commercial contraceptive distribution in Bangladesh.

    Markow TG; Smith RH

    Washington, D.C. American Public Health Association, 1975. 16 p. (APHA Assgn. No. 1100-020)

    A commercial contraceptive distribution program in Bangladesh, funded by USAID and contracted by Population Services International (PSI) was evaluated upon completion of the market testing phase of the operation. The evaluation team reported that the program was generally in compliance with the contract, made a number of recommendations for modifying both the program and the contractual agreement, and offered suggestions for USAID drafting of similar contracts in the future. The evaluation team recommended that the prices should not be so high as to reduce sales but high enough to permit future price setting flexibility, to inhibit smuggling, to enhance the identification of the product as a quality item, to discourage the use of the product for other purposes, and to insure the self-reliance of the program in the future. All pills should be packaged as soon as possible to insure sanitary handling. A timetable for covering the distribution network should be submitted promptly so that distribution and promotional efforts can be coordinated. Expanding the program by adding new administrative units each month was considered an inappropriate approach in a small country. Instead efforts should be made to promote national coverage within 1 year. No decision should be made at this time on whether or not a non-profit organization should be established for carrying on the program after PSI phases out. Additional funds should be allocated for market research and for promotional activities and allocations for consumer attitudinal surveys should be reduced. A foreign advisor shoud be hired to help coordinate the distribution phase since it is difficult to hire a qualified local person given governmental salary restrictions. In reference to the establishment of contract guidelines for future distribution projects in developing countries, the team recommended against the development of a uniform contract. A flexible contract tailored to the needs of the specific country was viewed as more appropriate. The development of a technical marketing plan should not be a contract requirement. USAID should determine the most appropriate form of packaging for the contraceptives and then use this form of packaging in all future distribution programs.
    Add to my documents.
  22. 22
    755312

    Interim report of International Contraceptive Study Program (ICOSP).

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UN. April 14, 1975. 39 p

    Any shortage in the supply of oral contraceptives (OCs) or condoms in the next 5-10 years will be a result of the planning and procurement system rather than shortages of raw materials or production capacity. Production of OCs could be doubled with existing facilities and trebled (if manufacturers were assured of demand) within 2 years; production of condoms is at capacity but could be increased quickly if industry were assured of demand. Because of the rapid growth of the public sector contraceptive market, which will probably overtake commercial sales within 5 years, an organized system that uses longer term planning for future needs and single-point negotiations with suppliers is needed to hold down costs and ensure continuity of supply. As part of this planning, manufacturers, family planning program directors, and international agencies support the institution of a data system to report contraceptive distribution on a regular basis by country, method, and sector, with the capacity to forecast demand by method and country over a 5-year period.
    Add to my documents.
  23. 23
    753743

    An overview of research approaches to the control of male fertility.

    Perry MI; Speidel JJ; Winter JN

    In: Sciarra, J.J., Markland, C. and Speidel, J.J., eds. Control of male fertility. (Proceedings of a Workshop on the Control of Male Fertility, San Francisco, June 19-21, 1974). Hagerstown, Maryland, Harper and Row, 1975. p. 274-307

    Literature on research approaches to permanent and relatively reversible methods of male fertility control is reviewed. Sources and expenditures for research into male fertility control are noted. Permanent methods discussed include electrocautery of the vas, transcutaneous interruption of the vas, vasectomy clips, chemical occlusion of the vas, and passive immunization. Reversible methods reviewed include vasovasotomy, intravasal plugs, and vas valves. Current research into animal models, reversibility after vas occlusion, nonocclusive surgical techniques, pharmacological alteration of male reproductive function, including adrenergic blocking agents, steroidal compounds, inhibitors of gonadotropin secretion, clomiphene citrate, organosiloxanes, prostaglandins, alpha-chlorohydrin, heterocyclic agents, and alkylating agents, and delivery systems for antifertility agents is discussed. Research into semen storage and improved condoms is also reviewed. As a relatively low proportion of funds are committed to research in male fertility control, a greater investment in applied and clinical research is warranted.
    Add to my documents.
  24. 24
    745602

    Republic of Korea (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, February 1974. 10 p.

    The Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea (PPFK) was founded in 196 1 to act as a pressure group to persuade the government to set up a family planning program. In 1962 the Korean government became 1 of the 1st in the world with such an official program. PPFK has a permanent staff of 62 at headquarters and 135 at branch offices to implement the information/education program. It was formerly responsible for the training for the government effort and it continues to initiate research and pilot projects. It also indirectly supports the clincs at Seoul National University and Yonsei University Medical colleges, runs 14 demonstration clincs, and has a mobile team unit in Taegi City and surrounding rural areas. Since 1968 it has organized "Mothers' Classes" which have been integrated into the rural community development program. Special projects include a "Stop at 2" campaign which the government officially adopted. The "Two Child Family" club was started in Seoul in 1971 and is expanding. UNFPA is funding an information, education, and communication campaign that will explore various uses of mass media. Pilot telephone consultation was begun in 1973. Vasectomy information is being given to the Homeland Reserve Force, an education project has been started for civil servants, and student newspapers are being used to reach the student population. PPFK has national responsib ility for clinical trials of new contraceptives. Tests on Minovlar ED continue and the results of Neovlar trials are being analyzed. Details of the government organizations are given. Research being carried on at various universities and in other agencies is also capsuled.
    Add to my documents.
  25. 25
    735203

    Indonesia (Family planning).

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    IPPF Situation Report, June 1973. 10 p.

    The Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association (IPPA) was founded in 1957 and pioneered family planning services. It made little headway duri ng the pronatalist Sukarno regime, but in 1967 the present government announced an intensive family planning program and the IPPA was named as an implementing unit in 1971. 2 primary roles now are the training activities for fieldworkers and the development of community education and motivation programs. This complements the national mass media program. In 1970 the government took over all clinics except those in the Outer Islands (the islands outside Java, Bali, and Madura). The IPPA runs 150 clinics in the Outer Islands, is responsible for all supplies and maintenance, and has a number of model clinics in Java and Bali. The Community Education program has 8 components: speakers bureau, family planning clubs, mobile audiovisual units, exhibitions, tr aditional media, special events, local mass media support, and evaluatio n. In 1971 the 'ippa trained 2951 people; in 1972 this was increased by 25%. In 1973 the target is training 3000 fieldworkers with 16 centers for training and 16 field demonstration areas. An agreement with the U.N. Fund for Population Activities/International Development Association (UNFPA/IDA) will provide for building, equipping, and staffing. The research and evaluation function is also expanding to complement government activities. The government program aims to train 20,250 medical and paramedical personnel over 5 years and medical schools have incorporated the teaching of population and family planning. Government allowances are being curtailed for all children over 3 for government workers. An active clinic program aims to set up 1200 fully equipped and 1250 moderately equipped facilities by 1973. An active media campaign has been launched and for the 1st time in the population field the UNFPA and the IDA are helping to finance a project to expand a family planning program and broaden its activities. This su pport will provide for physical facilities, technical assistance, training, motivation, evaluation, research, and population education.
    Add to my documents.

Pages