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  1. 1

    Strategic placement of IVACG in the evolving micronutrient field.

    International Vitamin A Consultative Group [IVACG]

    Washington, D.C., IVACG, 2004 Apr. [4] p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-98-00027-00)

    As evidence has grown about the potential health benefits of reducing deficiencies of other micronutrients in addition to vitamin A, particularly iron, folate, and zinc, health officials have increasingly considered administering vitamin A in combination with other micronutrients, either as supplements or as fortified dietary products. But little is known about the potential interaction, physical and physiologic, of simultaneously administered multiple micronutrients in chronically malnourished populations at varying risk of micronutrient deficiency and serious, recurrent infections (including HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria). Since programs to address other micronutrient deficiencies will inevitably be combined with vitamin A control efforts, it is critically important that relevant policies and decisions be based on sound science concerning the effect of administering multiple micronutrients simultaneously. Therefore, developing an adequate scientific basis for these policies and decisions will increasingly engage IVACG’s attention. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Uzbekistan Health Examination Survey 2002. Preliminary report.

    Uzbekistan. Ministry of Health. Analytical and Information Center; Uzbekistan. State Department of Statistics; ORC Macro. MEASURE DHS+

    Tashkent, Uzbekistan, Analytical and Information Center, 2003 May. ix, 30 p.

    This preliminary report documents the changes that have occurred in the medical-demographic situation of Uzbekistan since the 1996 Demographic and Health Survey. Additional information is provided concerning issues of both male and female adult health: life style practices, knowledge and attitudes towards tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, STDs, risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and information about respiratory, digestive, and dental diseases. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Child survival strategy for Sudan, USAID/Khartoum.

    Harvey M; Louton L

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow, Inc. [JSI], Resources for Child Health Project [REACH], 1987. iii, 33, [22] p. (USAID Contract No.: DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)

    Sudan is one of 8 USAID African child survival emphasis countries. This documents focuses upon linking the discrete areas of child survival to each other in efforts to achieve sustained reductions in national morbidity and mortality rates. The scope of the problem is briefly considered as background in the text, followed by a more in-depth presentation of government policy and programs. This section includes examination of the structure and organization of existing health services, child survival activities, and current progress and constraints. Child survival activities are listed as immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, malaria control, acute respiratory infections, and AIDS. The current strategy of USAID support for these activities is outlined, and includes mention of private volunteer organization and private sector participation. The role of UNICEF, WHO, and the World Bank in child survival in Sudan is also highlighted. Recommendations for child survival strategy in Sudan are presented and discussed at length in the text. Continued support to UNICEF, cost recovery and health care financing efforts through WHO, child spacing and population program support, and support to on-going USAID projects constitute USAID's priorities and emphasis in child survival strategy for Sudan. Detailed short- and long-term recommendations for immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, and child survival and health care financing are provided following the section on priorities. In closing, staffing and recommendations for malaria and other endemic disease, acute respiratory infections, AIDS, and management are considered. Appendices follow the main body of text.
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Child survival and development toward Health for All: roles and strategies for Asia-Pacific universities.

    Raymond JS; Patrick W


    The child survival and development movement in relation to universities in the Asia-Pacific region were the subject of recent discussions of medical practitioners and academics. There are 14 million deaths of children that could be avoided if they could benefit from immunizations, pure water, sanitation, nutrition, and oral rehydration therapy. Also there is a large loss of physical and mental ability. Many international agencies have helped improved children's health and survival, and life expectancy has risen 40% in the last 40 years. In countries such as China, India, Pakistan, Thailand, and Indonesia there has been an exceptional achievement in child survival and development. In many developing countries health services have been patterned after western medical systems that promote treatment rather than prevention. Universities' role in relation to these problems has been the conducting of research, providing instruction, education, and training. The areas of success are in vaccine development and mass communications research. New roles can be taken in technical assistance and introduction of technology in planning and evaluation. There are also possibilities in the pooling of information and resources to help in child survival and development. In long range strategies and roles, universities can use conventional methods. In midrange areas the universities can use new modes and share and interact with governments and international organizations. In the short term they can use the less conventional methods and follow the leadership of the international organizations. In short term, universities can provide help in planning of national campaigns, provide resources, and participate in evaluations of campaigns. In the mid-range they can be involved in joint initiatives in operations research, specialized training, and clinical trials. In the long range universities are best suited to conventional research, training, laboratory science and technology development.
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  5. 5

    International programming in infant and child feeding.

    Forman MJ

    In: Bond JT, Filer LJ Jr, Leveille GA, Thomson AM, Weil WB Jr, ed. Infant and child feeding. New York, Academic Press, 1981. 447-52.

    There is increasing evidence of an upsurge of international interest and support for activities which will promote improved diets for the infant and the young child. Some of the international agencies responding to those interests are USAID, WHO, and UNICEF. These agencies try first to examine the nature and magnitude of the problems as determined by surveys in different countries; data are then analyzed in term of various characteristics, such as age, sex, socioeconomic status, food expenditures and health status. Increased interest has generated increased support for nutrition programs, and for trying to help people more directly by targeting programs toward lower income groups. Obviously the major responsibilities for tackling food-related problems rest with the countries themselves. Some policies and strategies have been agreed upon by 6 agencies and by the agencies of the U.N. system; they are: 1) Strength support for supplementary child feeding programs in developing countries, 2) promote breast feeding as the preferred form of feeding, 3) incorporate maternal and infant nutrition concerns into the individual country's health and nutrition strategies, 4) conduct programs to educate health professionals to the problems of maternal and child nutrition, 5) disseminate pertinent information to managers of information programs or organizations and to concerned individuals, 6) determine the types of regulation which assist or impede the ability of mothers to practice breast feeding, 7) study the use of infant formula in developing countries, and 8) seek to bring about international cooperation and coordination among agencies.
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  6. 6

    [Child health in Chile and the role of the international collaboration (author's transl)] Salud infantil en Chile y el rol de la colaboracion internacional.

    Rosselot J

    Revista Chilena de Pediatria. 1982 Sep-Oct; 53(5):481-90.

    Assuring the rights sanctioned by the UN Declaration on the Rights of Children requires the participation of the family, community, and state as well as international collaboration. Health conditions in Chile have improved significantly and continuously over the past few decades, as indicated by life expectancy at birth of 65.7 years, general mortality of 9.2/1000 in 1972 and 6.2/1000 in 1981, infant mortality of 27.2/1000 in 1981. Although the country has experienced broad socioeconomic development, due to inequities of distribution 6% of households are indigent and 17% are in critical poverty. The literacy rate in 1980 was 94%, but further progress is needed in environmental sanitation, waste disposal, and related areas. Enteritis, diarrhea, respiratory ailments, and infections caused 60.4% of deaths in children under 1 in 1970 but only 37.8% in the same group by 1979. Measures to guarantee the social and biological protection of children in Chile, especially among the poor, date back to the turn of the century. Recent programs which have affected child health include the National Health Service, created in 1952, which eventually provided a wide array of health and hygiene services for 2/3 of the population, including family planning services starting in 1965; the National Complementary Feeding Program, which supervised the distribution in 1980 of 25,195 tons of milk and protein foods to pregnant women and small children; the National Board of School Assistance and Scholarships, which provides 300,000 lunches and 750,000 school breakfasts; and programs to promote breastfeeding and rehabilitate the undernourished. Health services are now extended to all children under 8 years in indigent families. Bilateral or multilateral aid to health services in Chile, particularly that offered by the UN specialized agencies and especially the World Health Organization, Pan American Health Organization, and UNICEF, have contributed greatly to the improvement of health care. The Rockefeller, Ford, and Kellogg Foundations have contributed primarily in the areas of teaching and basic and operational research. Aid from the US government assisted in the development of health units and in nutritional and family health programs. The International Childhood Center in Paris rendered educational aid in social pediatrics. (summary in ENG)
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