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  1. 1
    306783

    Toolkit to improve private provider contributions to child health: introduction and development of national and district strategies.

    Prysor-Jones S; Tawfik Y; Bery R; Wolff A; Bennett L 3d

    Washington, D.C., Academy for Educational Development [AED], Support for Analysis and Research in Africa [SARA], 2005 Jun. 50 p. (USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PN-ADF-758; USAID Contract No. AOT-C-00-99-00237-00)

    June 2002, the World Bank published a discussion paper titled Working with the Private Sector for Child Health. The paper--developed with technical assistance from the USAID Bureau for Africa, Office of Sustainable Development (AFR/SD) through the Support for Analysis and Research in Africa (SARA) project--lays out a framework for analyzing the contributions of the private sector in child heath. The framework, outlined below, is designed to serve as a basis for assessing the potential of different components of the private sector at country level. The framework identifies the following components of the private sector as being important for child health: Service providers (formal sector, other for-profit, employers, non-governmental organizations [NGOs], private voluntary organizations [PVOs], and traditional healers); Pharmaceutical companies; Pharmacies; Drug vendors and shopkeepers; Food producers; Media channels; Private suppliers of products related to child health, e.g. ITNs; Health insurance companies. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    274014

    HealthTech: Technologies for Health, Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-96-90007-00. Final report.

    Program for Appropriate Technology in Health [PATH]

    Seattle, Washington, PATH, 2001 Dec 28. [68] p.

    For the past 24 years, PATH has been developing, adapting, transferring, and introducing appropriate new health technologies for resource-poor populations. In 1987, USAID started funding PATH’s work in this area through a cooperative agreement with PATH called the Technologies for Child Health: HealthTech program. This agreement was renewed in 1990 and then again in 1996 as the Technologies for Health program (HealthTech III). This report primarily summarizes the activities under the program during the last agreement, but also reflects work under the entire term of HealthTech since so much of the work is a continuum. The primary goal of HealthTech has been to identify health needs that can be met with technology solutions, and then either identify existing technologies that need adapting to be affordable and appropriate, or develop new ones. This research and development phase includes design, development, scale-up, evaluation in the laboratory and field settings, and finally introduction of technologies for health, nutrition, and family planning. Over the last ten years, HealthTech has effectively scaled up these activities and developed a critical mass of in-house expertise in product and diagnostic design, engineering, evaluation, and introduction of developing world technologies. Multiple collaborations with private industry and global and local agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have been established. Under HealthTech and other similar programs, PATH to date has worked with 57 private-sector companies (21 U.S. firms, 14 additional industrial-world firms and 22 developing-world firms) and at least 40 public-sector partners (22 in the developed world and 18 in developing countries). The results of these collaborations have been to advance more than 30 economically sustainable technologies—17 of which are now in use in more than 25 developing countries. Six of these products are currently being (or have been) distributed worldwide by global agencies. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    127636

    A review of the USAID grant to UNICEF for EPI in Uganda, and a follow up visit on strengthening disease surveillance in Uganda, 29 May - 6 June 1997.

    Weeks M

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1997. [3], 8, [45] p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)

    This report presents the key observations and recommendations of a Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival (BASICS) review of a US Agency for International Development (USAID) grant to UNICEF for the Uganda National Expanded Programme on Immunization (UNEPI). To date, UNEPI's disease surveillance plan has focused almost entirely on acute flaccid paralysis. The need remains for more activities and surveillance concerning measles and neonatal tetanus. The government of Uganda's decentralization process and UNICEF's Community Capacity Building project provide potential for increasing awareness of EPI diseases and improving their detection and reporting. However, UNEPI must first ensure that District Health Teams are prepared, both technically and financially, for responding to reports of EPI diseases. It is recommended that UNEPI continue the revision of its work plan and budget for disease surveillance to include all activities and funding needs for measles and neonatal tetanus as well as the district operational costs. Where possible, UNEPI should provide a facilitator during any Ministry of Health surveillance training to ensure that EPI-related content is adequately covered. Establishment of a reliable, sustainable EPI disease surveillance system in Uganda will contribute to the development of such systems in other African countries.
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  4. 4
    102493

    Discussions and briefing at the WHO Global Programme for Vaccines and Immunization, December 16, 1994.

    Steinglass R

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1994. [3], 10, [29] p. (BASICS Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 NS 01 001; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)

    A staff member from BASICS (Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival) spent December 16, 1994, with staff of the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva to 1) introduce BASICS' Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) strategy; 2) present BASICS' research and development priorities for the second year of the project; 3) review the countries currently receiving BASICS EPI technical assistance and those which may receive assistance in the future; and 4) discuss coordination with WHO of some of the upcoming opportunities in individual countries. Ways in which WHO can access BASICS resources and help open doors at country level for BASICS technical assistance were stressed. This trip report contains notes of conversations with WHO staff about these issues as well as reminders of follow-up actions needed. The appendices provide details of the WHO group briefing, the research and development priorities of the BASICS working group on sustainability of immunization programs, a list of persons contacted, the structure of the provisional staff for the Global Programme for Vaccines and Immunization (GPV), a description of the structure of the GPV, and the GPV technical briefing schedule.
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  5. 5
    064771

    Child survival strategy for Sudan, USAID/Khartoum.

    Harvey M; Louton L

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow, Inc. [JSI], Resources for Child Health Project [REACH], 1987. iii, 33, [22] p. (USAID Contract No.: DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)

    Sudan is one of 8 USAID African child survival emphasis countries. This documents focuses upon linking the discrete areas of child survival to each other in efforts to achieve sustained reductions in national morbidity and mortality rates. The scope of the problem is briefly considered as background in the text, followed by a more in-depth presentation of government policy and programs. This section includes examination of the structure and organization of existing health services, child survival activities, and current progress and constraints. Child survival activities are listed as immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, malaria control, acute respiratory infections, and AIDS. The current strategy of USAID support for these activities is outlined, and includes mention of private volunteer organization and private sector participation. The role of UNICEF, WHO, and the World Bank in child survival in Sudan is also highlighted. Recommendations for child survival strategy in Sudan are presented and discussed at length in the text. Continued support to UNICEF, cost recovery and health care financing efforts through WHO, child spacing and population program support, and support to on-going USAID projects constitute USAID's priorities and emphasis in child survival strategy for Sudan. Detailed short- and long-term recommendations for immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, and child survival and health care financing are provided following the section on priorities. In closing, staffing and recommendations for malaria and other endemic disease, acute respiratory infections, AIDS, and management are considered. Appendices follow the main body of text.
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  6. 6
    270654

    Expanded program on immunization: western hemisphere perspective.

    de Macedo CG

    In: Protecting the World's Children, "Bellagio II" at Cartegena, Colombia, October 1985, prepared by The Task Force for Child Survival. Decatur, Georgia, The Task Force for Child Survival, 1986 Mar. 61-74.

    The Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) was initiated in accordance with a 1974 World Health Assembly resolution. The EPI was endorsed for the Americas by the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 1977. Since its inception in 1977, the EPI program in the Americas has made considerable progress. More than 15,000 health workers have been trained in EPI workshops. A cold chain regional focal point in Cali, Columbia, has trained over 150 technicians in cold chain equipment, maintenance, and repair. Schools of public health in the region have been actively involved in EPI training. Most countries have made notable strides in improving and expanding the equipment and proceedures used in the cold chain to assure the potency of vaccines. PAHO created the EPI Revolving Fund, which has assisted countries in the region with vaccine purchases worth more than US$19 million. This fund has contributed to improved vaccine quality and the ready availability of vaccines at the country level. Since November, 1980, PAHO has collaborated with other organizations that support immunization activities, including UNICEF, USAID, Rotary International, and the Bellagio Task Force for Child Survival. An additional effort in priority countries specifically directed at polio can lead to the interruption of indigenous poliovirus transmission in the Western Hemisphere in a short period of time.
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  7. 7
    017236

    [Child health in Chile and the role of the international collaboration (author's transl)] Salud infantil en Chile y el rol de la colaboracion internacional.

    Rosselot J

    Revista Chilena de Pediatria. 1982 Sep-Oct; 53(5):481-90.

    Assuring the rights sanctioned by the UN Declaration on the Rights of Children requires the participation of the family, community, and state as well as international collaboration. Health conditions in Chile have improved significantly and continuously over the past few decades, as indicated by life expectancy at birth of 65.7 years, general mortality of 9.2/1000 in 1972 and 6.2/1000 in 1981, infant mortality of 27.2/1000 in 1981. Although the country has experienced broad socioeconomic development, due to inequities of distribution 6% of households are indigent and 17% are in critical poverty. The literacy rate in 1980 was 94%, but further progress is needed in environmental sanitation, waste disposal, and related areas. Enteritis, diarrhea, respiratory ailments, and infections caused 60.4% of deaths in children under 1 in 1970 but only 37.8% in the same group by 1979. Measures to guarantee the social and biological protection of children in Chile, especially among the poor, date back to the turn of the century. Recent programs which have affected child health include the National Health Service, created in 1952, which eventually provided a wide array of health and hygiene services for 2/3 of the population, including family planning services starting in 1965; the National Complementary Feeding Program, which supervised the distribution in 1980 of 25,195 tons of milk and protein foods to pregnant women and small children; the National Board of School Assistance and Scholarships, which provides 300,000 lunches and 750,000 school breakfasts; and programs to promote breastfeeding and rehabilitate the undernourished. Health services are now extended to all children under 8 years in indigent families. Bilateral or multilateral aid to health services in Chile, particularly that offered by the UN specialized agencies and especially the World Health Organization, Pan American Health Organization, and UNICEF, have contributed greatly to the improvement of health care. The Rockefeller, Ford, and Kellogg Foundations have contributed primarily in the areas of teaching and basic and operational research. Aid from the US government assisted in the development of health units and in nutritional and family health programs. The International Childhood Center in Paris rendered educational aid in social pediatrics. (summary in ENG)
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  8. 8
    046660

    The control of measles in tropical Africa: a review of past and present efforts.

    Ofosu-Amaah S

    REVIEWS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 1983 May-Jun; 5(3):546-53.

    Control of measles in tropical Africa has been attempted since 1966 in 2 large programs; recent evaluation studies have pinpointed obstacles specific to this area. Measles epidemics occur cyclically with annual peaks in dry season, killing 3-5% of children, contributing to 10% of childhood mortality, or more in malnourished populations. The 1st large control effort was the 20-country program begun in 1966. This effort eradicated measles in The Gambia, but measles recurred to previous levels within months in other areas. The Expanded Programme on Immunization initiated by WHO in 1978 also included operational research, technical assistance, cooperation with other groups such as USAID, and development of permanent national programs. Cooperative research has shown that the optimum age of immunization is 9 months, and that health centers are more efficient at immunization, but mobile teams are more cost-effective as coverage approaches 100%. 53 evaluation surveys have been done in 17 African countries on measles immunization programs. Some of the obstacles found were: rural population, underdevelopment of infrastructure, and exposure of unprotected infants contributing to the spread of measles. Measles surveillance is so poor that less than 10% of expected cases are reported. People are apathetic or unaware of the importance of immunization against this universal childhood disease. Vaccine quality is a serious problem, both from the lack of an adequate cold chain, and lack of facilities for testing vaccine. The future impact of measles control from the viewpoint of population growth and health of children offers many fine points for discussion.
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