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Tashkent, Uzbekistan, Analytical and Information Center, 2003 May. ix, 30 p.This preliminary report documents the changes that have occurred in the medical-demographic situation of Uzbekistan since the 1996 Demographic and Health Survey. Additional information is provided concerning issues of both male and female adult health: life style practices, knowledge and attitudes towards tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, STDs, risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and information about respiratory, digestive, and dental diseases. (excerpt)
The blurred line between aiding progress and sanctioning abuse: United States appropriations, the UNFPA and family planning in the P.R.C.
New York Law School Journal of Human Rights. 2000; 17(3):1063-1104.This note discusses the trend in People's Republic of China programs, international standards of human rights, legislative trends, and the United States budget for fiscal years 2000 and 2001 as they apply to family planning programs. Specifically, this discussion shows why Congress should condition funding of these programs based on assurances of compliance with human rights standards. Part I presents an overview of the P.R.C. programs. Part II reviews internationally accepted standards of human rights concerning reproduction and population control, as well as China's violations of these rights. Part III describes UNFPA funding of the P.R.C.'s programs, emphasizing their latest 4-year program. Part IV discusses the legislative trend since 1985 of limiting or halting funding to the programs, and the current state of the federal budget regarding these appropriations. Part V discusses the global gag rule and the necessity of its removal. Part VI considers recently proposed legislation regarding funding family planning. Finally, the conclusion proposes a possible solution to the family planning dilemma in the face of both the continuing need for assistance and the continued existence of human rights abuses. (excerpt)
Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival [BASICS], 1997. , 14,  p. (Report; USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-93-00031-00)This report pertains to a consultant visit to Mali, during November 15-22, 1997, to plan a radio training workshop. The workshop was requested as a follow-up to a BASICS regional workshop for radio health messages held in Burkina Faso, in June 1997. The aim of the visit was to decide on an operational plan to deliver health messages aimed at behavioral change, as construed by USAID. The consultants studied the mass media context in Mali, and planned a training workshop for radio journalists and health personnel on an appropriate child health topic. Mali has a thriving independent radio network and a good degree of communal listening to the radio. Health agencies have prioritized the most important child health need as maternal and infant malnutrition and nutritional practices that are harmful to child health. High infant mortality is attributed to withholding of fluids in cases of infant diarrhea and delayed breast feeding. About 50% of mothers are anemic. Meetings were held with many radio-related persons in Bamako, in order to determine the extent and focus of the training need. The family health director of the Ministry of Health (DSF) suggested targeting participants beyond the BASICS area. DSF is BASICS' key partner and one that has contact with 2 local radio stations. Meetings included child health and IEC specialists with USAID/Bamako, which supports 64 community radios outside Bamako. USAID has contacts with major supporters of radio. Meetings were held with people from Plan International, UNICEF, PANOS Institute, Groupe Pivot, SOMARC, World Vision, CNIECS, and potential collaborators.
Arlington, Virginia, John Snow, Inc., Resources for Child Health Project (REACH), 1989 Apr. , 102 p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)A review of 28 reports from the cost-effectiveness literature published between 1979 and 1987 which evaluated the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) was undertaken by the Resources for Child Health Project (REACH) for the Program and Policy Coordination Bureau of the USAID as part of the Immunization Sustainability Study. The objectives were to assess the quality of cost-effectiveness studies of the EPI and to determine whether these data were a sufficient basis for generalization relationships between program costs and coverage levels in the future. In 1985, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) committed itself to the eradication of polio virus from the region by 1990. PAHO's preliminary analysis for 19 countries showed that more than $450 million was committed to the Plans of Action was 85% financed by government resources. By 1988, worldwide immunization coverage reported for the third doses of DPT and polio vaccine has surpassed the 50% level in both developing and developed countries. UNICEF was accelerating the EPI to achieve Universal Childhood Immunization (UCI). USAID funding for immunization increased from $30 million in 1985 to $51 million in 1988, and the agency strove for universal immunization by 1990. USAID also funded efforts made by PAHO, the Rotary International, and UNICEF toward global eradication of polio and universal childhood immunization by 1990. The average cost per fully immunized child was $13 which was within the specified range of $5-$15 per child presented at the Bellagio Conference in 1984. Routine services through fixed facilities cost $11.74 per fully immunized child. Immunization campaigns cost $15.62 per fully immunized child. Immunization programs in Africa have lower average costs than those in Asia between $12.26 and $16.41 for all strategies. For routing services through fixed facilities, the proportion of government contribution was 55% of total; it diminished to 40% for campaign strategies. International organizations and donor agencies covered EPI costs (such as vaccines, syringes, cold chain equipment, vehicles, and local training costs). The Mauritania national campaign had a cost-effectiveness ratio of almost 1/2 that of the campaigns in Cameroon and Senegal because of a smaller urban target population, while greater numbers of doses of vaccine were administered in Senegal than in Mauritania. A cost- effectiveness study protocol is needed to standardize basic costing and effectiveness terminology and methods and to address the needs of program managers and policy makers.
Technical assistance to the Kenya Expanded Program on Immunization (KEPI), Nairobi, Kenya, November 24 - December 14, 1990.
[Unpublished] 1990. , 8,  p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5982-Z-00-9034-00)Several activities were undertaken to support the Kenya Expanded program on Immunization (KEPI). A workshop on recent developments in accelerated control of measles in Kenya was held March 11-14, 1991. This workshop also covered the topic of Hepatitis B and other "expanded program on immunization" (EPI) diseases and was supported by the USAID. The strategy for measles control in Kenya was developed in the mid-1970s, and owing to the success of the current strategy, the epidemiology of measles had changed from a serious endemic disease to an epidemic disease. Meetings were held with KEPI, the Department of Pediatrics, The Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), and UNICEF. A study was planned for April, 1991 to measure the level of serological protection against tetanus in pregnant women with the support of DANIDA. The basic method of the study was interviewing antenatal patients and drawing their blood to ascertain the true level of protection against tetanus and neonatal tetanus. An evaluation of the Child-to-Child Program was planned to assess administrative indicators, routine data, and survey data. These activities were to be completed by February, 1991 with preparation of a scientific article for submission to a journal. The Resources for Child Health Project (REACH) commented on the recent KEPI coverage survey, the preparation of a manual for medical students, and technical assistance to KEPI on the Computerized EPI Information Systems (CEIS). Other activities consisted of planning a coverage survey in Siaya District and training KEPI staff in data analysis; providing feedback to authors of the teaching manual; planning with KEPI and the Department of Pediatrics for other appropriate operations research activities; and follow-up action on the measles workshop, Tetanus Toxoid Serological Study, and the Child-to-Child Program.
Arlington, Virginia, John Snow, Inc. [JSI], Resources for Child Health Project [REACH], 1987. iii, 33,  p. (USAID Contract No.: DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)Sudan is one of 8 USAID African child survival emphasis countries. This documents focuses upon linking the discrete areas of child survival to each other in efforts to achieve sustained reductions in national morbidity and mortality rates. The scope of the problem is briefly considered as background in the text, followed by a more in-depth presentation of government policy and programs. This section includes examination of the structure and organization of existing health services, child survival activities, and current progress and constraints. Child survival activities are listed as immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, malaria control, acute respiratory infections, and AIDS. The current strategy of USAID support for these activities is outlined, and includes mention of private volunteer organization and private sector participation. The role of UNICEF, WHO, and the World Bank in child survival in Sudan is also highlighted. Recommendations for child survival strategy in Sudan are presented and discussed at length in the text. Continued support to UNICEF, cost recovery and health care financing efforts through WHO, child spacing and population program support, and support to on-going USAID projects constitute USAID's priorities and emphasis in child survival strategy for Sudan. Detailed short- and long-term recommendations for immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, and child survival and health care financing are provided following the section on priorities. In closing, staffing and recommendations for malaria and other endemic disease, acute respiratory infections, AIDS, and management are considered. Appendices follow the main body of text.
Child survival and development toward Health for All: roles and strategies for Asia-Pacific universities.
ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 1989; 3(2):118-28.The child survival and development movement in relation to universities in the Asia-Pacific region were the subject of recent discussions of medical practitioners and academics. There are 14 million deaths of children that could be avoided if they could benefit from immunizations, pure water, sanitation, nutrition, and oral rehydration therapy. Also there is a large loss of physical and mental ability. Many international agencies have helped improved children's health and survival, and life expectancy has risen 40% in the last 40 years. In countries such as China, India, Pakistan, Thailand, and Indonesia there has been an exceptional achievement in child survival and development. In many developing countries health services have been patterned after western medical systems that promote treatment rather than prevention. Universities' role in relation to these problems has been the conducting of research, providing instruction, education, and training. The areas of success are in vaccine development and mass communications research. New roles can be taken in technical assistance and introduction of technology in planning and evaluation. There are also possibilities in the pooling of information and resources to help in child survival and development. In long range strategies and roles, universities can use conventional methods. In midrange areas the universities can use new modes and share and interact with governments and international organizations. In the short term they can use the less conventional methods and follow the leadership of the international organizations. In short term, universities can provide help in planning of national campaigns, provide resources, and participate in evaluations of campaigns. In the mid-range they can be involved in joint initiatives in operations research, specialized training, and clinical trials. In the long range universities are best suited to conventional research, training, laboratory science and technology development.
[Child health in Chile and the role of the international collaboration (author's transl)] Salud infantil en Chile y el rol de la colaboracion internacional.
Revista Chilena de Pediatria. 1982 Sep-Oct; 53(5):481-90.Assuring the rights sanctioned by the UN Declaration on the Rights of Children requires the participation of the family, community, and state as well as international collaboration. Health conditions in Chile have improved significantly and continuously over the past few decades, as indicated by life expectancy at birth of 65.7 years, general mortality of 9.2/1000 in 1972 and 6.2/1000 in 1981, infant mortality of 27.2/1000 in 1981. Although the country has experienced broad socioeconomic development, due to inequities of distribution 6% of households are indigent and 17% are in critical poverty. The literacy rate in 1980 was 94%, but further progress is needed in environmental sanitation, waste disposal, and related areas. Enteritis, diarrhea, respiratory ailments, and infections caused 60.4% of deaths in children under 1 in 1970 but only 37.8% in the same group by 1979. Measures to guarantee the social and biological protection of children in Chile, especially among the poor, date back to the turn of the century. Recent programs which have affected child health include the National Health Service, created in 1952, which eventually provided a wide array of health and hygiene services for 2/3 of the population, including family planning services starting in 1965; the National Complementary Feeding Program, which supervised the distribution in 1980 of 25,195 tons of milk and protein foods to pregnant women and small children; the National Board of School Assistance and Scholarships, which provides 300,000 lunches and 750,000 school breakfasts; and programs to promote breastfeeding and rehabilitate the undernourished. Health services are now extended to all children under 8 years in indigent families. Bilateral or multilateral aid to health services in Chile, particularly that offered by the UN specialized agencies and especially the World Health Organization, Pan American Health Organization, and UNICEF, have contributed greatly to the improvement of health care. The Rockefeller, Ford, and Kellogg Foundations have contributed primarily in the areas of teaching and basic and operational research. Aid from the US government assisted in the development of health units and in nutritional and family health programs. The International Childhood Center in Paris rendered educational aid in social pediatrics. (summary in ENG)