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  1. 1

    Strategic placement of IVACG in the evolving micronutrient field.

    International Vitamin A Consultative Group [IVACG]

    Washington, D.C., IVACG, 2004 Apr. [4] p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-98-00027-00)

    As evidence has grown about the potential health benefits of reducing deficiencies of other micronutrients in addition to vitamin A, particularly iron, folate, and zinc, health officials have increasingly considered administering vitamin A in combination with other micronutrients, either as supplements or as fortified dietary products. But little is known about the potential interaction, physical and physiologic, of simultaneously administered multiple micronutrients in chronically malnourished populations at varying risk of micronutrient deficiency and serious, recurrent infections (including HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria). Since programs to address other micronutrient deficiencies will inevitably be combined with vitamin A control efforts, it is critically important that relevant policies and decisions be based on sound science concerning the effect of administering multiple micronutrients simultaneously. Therefore, developing an adequate scientific basis for these policies and decisions will increasingly engage IVACG’s attention. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Investigating health in Guatemala.

    Miller C

    Global HealthLink. 2001 Jul-Aug; (110):11, 17.

    With a population of more than 6 million, expected to double in just 22 years, and with the highest infant mortality rate in the hemisphere, high maternal mortality rates and low contraceptive use, our objective was to find hope among people recovering from 36 years of civil war. In August, the Global Health Council is taking a congressional delegation to Guatemala and Honduras on a study tour to show the strides made and challenges unmet. Two hours outside of Guatemala City is San Juan Comalapa, Chimaltenango, where we visited a small rural clinic providing maternal and child health (MCH) services. This clinic is one of many supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development’s (USAID) 1997 “Better Health for Rural Women and Children” grant to the Guatemalan Ministry of Health (MOH), focused on reducing the gap in health care services between rural Mayans and urban Latino populations. A result of the 1996 Peace Accords, this program is considered the largest health reform example in the world of a MOH contracting out to NGOs to extend basic health services to poor populations. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Uzbekistan Health Examination Survey 2002. Preliminary report.

    Uzbekistan. Ministry of Health. Analytical and Information Center; Uzbekistan. State Department of Statistics; ORC Macro. MEASURE DHS+

    Tashkent, Uzbekistan, Analytical and Information Center, 2003 May. ix, 30 p.

    This preliminary report documents the changes that have occurred in the medical-demographic situation of Uzbekistan since the 1996 Demographic and Health Survey. Additional information is provided concerning issues of both male and female adult health: life style practices, knowledge and attitudes towards tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, STDs, risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and information about respiratory, digestive, and dental diseases. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Nyumbani Village, Nairobi, Kenya. Build community, rebuild hope.

    Noel Group

    Stevens Point, Wisconsin, Noel Group, [2002]. [34] p.

    Nyumbani Village will be successful because: 4 years experience with Ntokozweni 11 years experience with Nyumbani Globally responsible companies want to get involved Support exists from broad coalition of partners. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    The use of economic and financial studies for the Expanded Programme on Immunization: third international meeting proceedings, June 13 - 15, 1990, Paris, France.

    Centre International de l'Enfance; John Snow [JSI]. Resources for Child Health [REACH]

    Paris, France, Centre International de l'Enfance, 1990. [2], 22 p.

    With the financial support of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Centre International de l'Enfance (CIE), 23 meeting participants considered the extent to which financial studies of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) have been used, factors contributing to their use or nonuse, types of information which could come out of financial studies which are most important for EPI managers, and recommendations which should be made about developing and using such studies in the future. Participants included 7 nationals involved in EPI management from Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Haiti, Philippines, Sudan, and Turkey, as well as representatives from CIE, the Resources for Child Health (REACH) project, the world Health Organization (WHO), the Pan American Health Organization, the Association pour la Promotion de la Medecine Preventive, l'Organisation de Coordination et de Cooperation pour la Lutte contre les Grandes Endemies, and INSERM. Participants were introduced and presentations made on experiences with cost and cost-effectiveness studies from the perspectives of national EPI management and technical assistance/donor agencies. Participants were then divided into 2 working groups, 1 French-speaking and 1 mixed language, to consider questions about economic and financial studies, and the relevance of these studies to EPI management. Conclusions were reported in plenary sessions. The meeting closed with remarks from James Cheyne of WHO, a summary and commentary from Walter Batchelor of REACH, group recommendations for the future of EPI studies, and a summary by Dr. Pierre Claquin of REACH on participants' evaluation of the meeting and suggestions for the next meeting. Dr. Lucien Houllemare of CIE closed by stating that EPI financial management issues are broader than EPI and pertain to more general program development problems.
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  6. 6

    Discussions and briefing at the WHO Global Programme for Vaccines and Immunization, December 16, 1994.

    Steinglass R

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1994. [3], 10, [29] p. (BASICS Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 NS 01 001; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)

    A staff member from BASICS (Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival) spent December 16, 1994, with staff of the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva to 1) introduce BASICS' Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) strategy; 2) present BASICS' research and development priorities for the second year of the project; 3) review the countries currently receiving BASICS EPI technical assistance and those which may receive assistance in the future; and 4) discuss coordination with WHO of some of the upcoming opportunities in individual countries. Ways in which WHO can access BASICS resources and help open doors at country level for BASICS technical assistance were stressed. This trip report contains notes of conversations with WHO staff about these issues as well as reminders of follow-up actions needed. The appendices provide details of the WHO group briefing, the research and development priorities of the BASICS working group on sustainability of immunization programs, a list of persons contacted, the structure of the provisional staff for the Global Programme for Vaccines and Immunization (GPV), a description of the structure of the GPV, and the GPV technical briefing schedule.
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  7. 7

    [Child health in Chile and the role of the international collaboration (author's transl)] Salud infantil en Chile y el rol de la colaboracion internacional.

    Rosselot J

    Revista Chilena de Pediatria. 1982 Sep-Oct; 53(5):481-90.

    Assuring the rights sanctioned by the UN Declaration on the Rights of Children requires the participation of the family, community, and state as well as international collaboration. Health conditions in Chile have improved significantly and continuously over the past few decades, as indicated by life expectancy at birth of 65.7 years, general mortality of 9.2/1000 in 1972 and 6.2/1000 in 1981, infant mortality of 27.2/1000 in 1981. Although the country has experienced broad socioeconomic development, due to inequities of distribution 6% of households are indigent and 17% are in critical poverty. The literacy rate in 1980 was 94%, but further progress is needed in environmental sanitation, waste disposal, and related areas. Enteritis, diarrhea, respiratory ailments, and infections caused 60.4% of deaths in children under 1 in 1970 but only 37.8% in the same group by 1979. Measures to guarantee the social and biological protection of children in Chile, especially among the poor, date back to the turn of the century. Recent programs which have affected child health include the National Health Service, created in 1952, which eventually provided a wide array of health and hygiene services for 2/3 of the population, including family planning services starting in 1965; the National Complementary Feeding Program, which supervised the distribution in 1980 of 25,195 tons of milk and protein foods to pregnant women and small children; the National Board of School Assistance and Scholarships, which provides 300,000 lunches and 750,000 school breakfasts; and programs to promote breastfeeding and rehabilitate the undernourished. Health services are now extended to all children under 8 years in indigent families. Bilateral or multilateral aid to health services in Chile, particularly that offered by the UN specialized agencies and especially the World Health Organization, Pan American Health Organization, and UNICEF, have contributed greatly to the improvement of health care. The Rockefeller, Ford, and Kellogg Foundations have contributed primarily in the areas of teaching and basic and operational research. Aid from the US government assisted in the development of health units and in nutritional and family health programs. The International Childhood Center in Paris rendered educational aid in social pediatrics. (summary in ENG)
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  8. 8

    The control of measles in tropical Africa: a review of past and present efforts.

    Ofosu-Amaah S

    REVIEWS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 1983 May-Jun; 5(3):546-53.

    Control of measles in tropical Africa has been attempted since 1966 in 2 large programs; recent evaluation studies have pinpointed obstacles specific to this area. Measles epidemics occur cyclically with annual peaks in dry season, killing 3-5% of children, contributing to 10% of childhood mortality, or more in malnourished populations. The 1st large control effort was the 20-country program begun in 1966. This effort eradicated measles in The Gambia, but measles recurred to previous levels within months in other areas. The Expanded Programme on Immunization initiated by WHO in 1978 also included operational research, technical assistance, cooperation with other groups such as USAID, and development of permanent national programs. Cooperative research has shown that the optimum age of immunization is 9 months, and that health centers are more efficient at immunization, but mobile teams are more cost-effective as coverage approaches 100%. 53 evaluation surveys have been done in 17 African countries on measles immunization programs. Some of the obstacles found were: rural population, underdevelopment of infrastructure, and exposure of unprotected infants contributing to the spread of measles. Measles surveillance is so poor that less than 10% of expected cases are reported. People are apathetic or unaware of the importance of immunization against this universal childhood disease. Vaccine quality is a serious problem, both from the lack of an adequate cold chain, and lack of facilities for testing vaccine. The future impact of measles control from the viewpoint of population growth and health of children offers many fine points for discussion.
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