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  1. 1

    The roadmap for health measurement and accountability.

    World Bank; United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]; World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Washington, D,.C.], World Bank, 2015 Jun. [34] p.

    The Roadmap articulates a shared strategic approach to support effective measurement and accountability systems for a country’s health programs. The Roadmap outlines smart investments that countries can adopt to strengthen basic measurement systems and to align partners and donors around common priorities. It offers a platform for development partners, technical experts, implementers, civil society organizations, and decision makers to work together for health measurement in the post-2015 era. Using inputs and technical papers developed by experts from international and national institutions, the Roadmap was completed following a public consultation that received extensive contributions from a wide number of agencies and individuals from across the globe. (Excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Family planning: a key component of post abortion care. Consensus statement: International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), International Confederation of Midwives (ICM), International Council of Nurses (ICN), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

    International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO]; International Confederation of Midwives; International Council of Nurses; United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]

    [London, United Kingdom], FIGO, 2009 Sep 25. 4 p.

    The International Federation of OB/Gyn (FIGO,) the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) the International Council of Nurses (ICN) and USAID have recently issued this joint statement that makes a compelling case for the provision of voluntary family planning along with post abortion care. A key message is “The provision of universal access to post abortion family planning should be a standard of practice for doctors, nurses, and midwives in public and private health care.” It also provides some insight on organizing services to make it more practical, including providing FP at the point of service delivery. This document can be used as an advocacy tool at a variety of levels including national, district and facility level.
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  3. 3

    WHO / USAID / FHI Technical Consultation: Expanding Access to Injectable Contraception, 15-17 June 2009, Room M405, WHO, Geneva.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]; Family Health International [FHI]

    [Unpublished] 2009. 5 p.

    The agenda for the consultation is presented. The objectives of the consultation were: To review systematically the evidence and programmatic experience on interventions designed to expand access to / provision of contraceptive injectables, focusing on non clinic-based services and programs; To reach conclusions on issues: (a) for which evidence is consistent and strong; (b) for which evidence is mixed; and (c) for which evidence is marginal or entirely lacking and, thus requires additional research; To document discussions and conclusions of the Consultation, including policy and program implications, and to disseminate these widely.
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  4. 4

    Helping women understand contraceptive effectiveness.

    Shears KH; Aradhya KW

    Mera. 2008 Sep; iii-vi.

    When a woman chooses a contraceptive method, effectiveness is often the most important characteristic she considers. Knowing the risks and benefits of each method, including its effectiveness, is necessary for a woman to make a truly informed decision. Yet, many women do not understand how well various methods protect against pregnancy. Health professionals usually explain effectiveness by informing women of the expected pregnancy rates for each method during perfect use (when the method is used consistently and correctly) and during more typical use (such as when a woman forgets to take all of her pills). However, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recently endorsed a simple evidence-based chart that healthcare providers can use to help women understand the relative effectiveness of different methods -- a concept that is much easier for most people to grasp. Key points of this article are: 1) Clinicians play an important role in ensuring that women understand the concept of effectiveness -- a key element of informed choice; 2) Women are able to understand the relative effectiveness of contraceptive methods more easily than the absolute effectiveness of a particular method; and 3) A new chart that places the methods on a continuum from least to most effective can help health professionals better communicate about contraceptive effectiveness.
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  5. 5

    Access to Clinical and Community Maternal, Neonatal and Women’s Health Services Program. ACCESS. Year one annual report, 1 October 2004 - 30 September 2005.

    JHPIEGO. Access to Clinical and Community Maternal, Neonatal and Women’s Health Services Program [ACCESS]

    [Baltimore, Maryland], JHPIEGO, ACCESS, 2005 Oct. [50] p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. GHS-A-00-04-00002-00)

    The Access to Clinical and Community Maternal, Neonatal and Women’s Health Services (ACCESS) Program launched its mission to improve maternal and newborn health and survival in developing countries worldwide in July 2004, with program implementation beginning October 1, 2004. In its first year, ACCESS had three field-supported country programs; now—one year later— the Program has nine country programs, four Malaria Action Coalition (MAC) countries, and ongoing activities in another 16 countries worldwide. This rapid expansion of field-based programming reflects countries’ growing confidence and interest in ACCESS as they seek to reduce continued high rates of maternal and newborn mortality. Over the past year, ACCESS has become increasingly recognized as a global leader for policy and advocacy, technical expertise, and implementing evidence-based interventions and approaches in maternal and newborn health. Because ACCESS is implemented through such a rich partnership, the Program has demonstrated the technical and programmatic expertise to both advocate for and support the full range of maternal and newborn health care interventions from the household to the referral level. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    USAID extends AIDS project 5 years. [Press release].

    Population Services International [PSI]

    Washington, D.C., PSI, 2002 Jul 1. [2] p.

    The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and Population Services International (PSI) have signed an agreement for a five-year, $90 million extension of AIDSMark, a global project that uses social marketing to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The current five-year, $75 million agreement, which started in 1997 and is due to expire this year, will extend AIDSMark activities until September 2007. PSI is a non-profit organization based in Washington, D.C., with social marketing projects in more than 60 countries. "We are pleased to continue our partnership with Population Services International's AIDSMark program," said Dr. Anne Peterson, who runs USAID's Bureau for Global Health. "The services they provide are a critical element in our fight against HIV/AIDS." (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    The use of economic and financial studies for the Expanded Programme on Immunization: third international meeting proceedings, June 13 - 15, 1990, Paris, France.

    Centre International de l'Enfance; John Snow [JSI]. Resources for Child Health [REACH]

    Paris, France, Centre International de l'Enfance, 1990. [2], 22 p.

    With the financial support of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Centre International de l'Enfance (CIE), 23 meeting participants considered the extent to which financial studies of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) have been used, factors contributing to their use or nonuse, types of information which could come out of financial studies which are most important for EPI managers, and recommendations which should be made about developing and using such studies in the future. Participants included 7 nationals involved in EPI management from Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Haiti, Philippines, Sudan, and Turkey, as well as representatives from CIE, the Resources for Child Health (REACH) project, the world Health Organization (WHO), the Pan American Health Organization, the Association pour la Promotion de la Medecine Preventive, l'Organisation de Coordination et de Cooperation pour la Lutte contre les Grandes Endemies, and INSERM. Participants were introduced and presentations made on experiences with cost and cost-effectiveness studies from the perspectives of national EPI management and technical assistance/donor agencies. Participants were then divided into 2 working groups, 1 French-speaking and 1 mixed language, to consider questions about economic and financial studies, and the relevance of these studies to EPI management. Conclusions were reported in plenary sessions. The meeting closed with remarks from James Cheyne of WHO, a summary and commentary from Walter Batchelor of REACH, group recommendations for the future of EPI studies, and a summary by Dr. Pierre Claquin of REACH on participants' evaluation of the meeting and suggestions for the next meeting. Dr. Lucien Houllemare of CIE closed by stating that EPI financial management issues are broader than EPI and pertain to more general program development problems.
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  8. 8

    Contacts: United Nations, U.S. government and international.

    United Nations

    [New York, New York], United Nations, 1998 Dec. [1] p. (1999 Global Population. The Facts of Life)

    Listed are contacts with phone numbers and email addresses for the UN, US Government, and one international representative. UN Population Fund, Stirling Scruggs, Director of Information and External Relations; Contact: Corrie Shanahan, Senior Information Officer,, (212) 297-5023, UN Population Division; Contact: Joseph Chamie, Director, (212) 963-3179. US Government, US Agency for International Development, Center for Population, Health and Nutrition, Liz Maguire, Director, Office of Population; Contact: Dianne Sherman, Director of Communication and Outreach,, (202) 712-4817, US Department of Health and Human Services; Contact: Sarah Kovner, Special Assistant to the Secretary, (202) 690-6347, US State Department, Bureau of Population, Refugees and Migration, Margaret Pollack, Director, Office of Population; Contact: Suzanne Petroni, Program Officer,, (202)663-3029,; US Information Agency Electronic Journal, Population at the New Millennium: the US Perspective, International, World Population Foundation, Wouter Meijer, Executive Director; Contact: Joke Van Kampen,, (31) 35 642 2304, (full text)
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  9. 9

    World is less crowded than expected, the U.N. reports.

    Crossette B

    NEW YORK TIMES. 1996 Nov 17; 3.

    According to a UN survey covering 1990-1995, world population growth is 1.48%, significantly less than the 1.57% projected in the 1994 report. Fertility declined to an average of 2.96 children per woman; the projected figure was 3.1. The world's population could number 9.4 billion in 2050, nearly half a billion lower than the 1994 projection. World population now numbers 5.77 billion and will stabilize, sooner than expected, at 10.73 billion in 2200 (chart). Joseph Chamie, director of the UN Population Division, cites family planning programs of the 1960s and 1970s and recent programs improving women's status for creating a steady continuous fertility decline in every region. J. Brian Atwood, administrator of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), called the gains heartening at a time when population and development assistance programs are being cut. International family planning program critic, Representative Christopher H. Smith (Republican, NJ), is concerned abortions will be funded. He believes that money would be better spent on improving children's lives and strengthening market economies to create better living standards and smaller families, and that Western family planning programs are culturally intrusive. Mr. Chamie responds that population declines are much slower if couples lack access to safe, culturally and religiously acceptable contraception. As seen in Bangladesh, Syria, and Turkey, where birth rates declined before living standards rose, socioeconomic growth is unnecessary to bring down fertility. Childbearing and marriage are being delayed, and people are being given the chance to choose better lives.
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  10. 10

    ICPD perspectives: institutional views. USAID begins initiatives, continues long-standing commitment.

    Gillespie D

    NETWORK. 1995 Mar; 15(3):25-7.

    The program of action developed at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development will serve as the benchmark for policy discussions on population issues for years to come. It was made clear during the conference in Cairo that countries and the international community cannot afford to address key sustainable development issues one at a time. Instead, a commitment must be made to comprehensively and concurrently improve women's status, strengthen measures to protect the environment, advance reproductive health and rights, and stabilize population growth. UN experts estimate that a total of US$17 billion will be needed by the year 2000 to meet the basic population and reproductive health needs called for in the program of action. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is participating in a cooperative global effort to implement the Cairo document. The entire agency is involved to some degree. In the population, health, and nutrition programs, which are the major focus of the Cairo recommendations, USAID will continue to invest considerable resources. USAID has emphasized maximizing access and quality of care in family planning, through improved training and other technical assistance to program managers and service providers in host countries. USAID has also begun new initiatives, including a focus upon the educational and service needs of youth, breastfeeding, emergency obstetrical care, family planning counseling and services, better access to prenatal and postnatal care, integrating STD prevention efforts with family planning, and improving STD diagnostic and treatment technologies. USAID is stressing a coordinated approach among related programs.
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  11. 11

    Visit to WHO / GPV to discuss introduction of vaccine vial monitors, March 20-24, 1995.

    Fields R

    Arlington, Virginia, Partnership for Child Health Care, 1995. [3], 10, [14] p. (BASICS Trip Report; BASICS Technical Directive: 000 HT 51 012; USAID Contract No. HRN-6006-C-00-3031-00)

    In March 1995, a BASICS (Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival) Project technical officer participated in a World Health Organization (WHO) Global Programme on Vaccines and Immunization (GPV) meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, about introduction of vaccine vial monitors (VVMs). VVMs constitute color-coded labels that can be affixed to vials of vaccines which, when exposed to heat over time, change irreversibly. In 1994, WHO and UNICEF requested that, starting in January 1996, VVMs be affixed on all UNICEF-purchased vials of oral polio vaccine. Yet, UNICEF does not require vaccine manufacturers to include VVMs in their vaccine labels. USAID has supported much of the development and field testing of VVMs since 1987. Participants discussed status of interactions between UNICEF and vaccine manufacturers, issues and means related to introducing VVMs worldwide, and the prospect for conducting a study or studies on the initial effect of VVMs on vaccine-handling practices. They also heard an update on the pilot introduction of VVMs in some countries. BASICS could contribute to the development of a plan for global VVM introduction, since time constraints and heavy workloads face WHO/GPV leaders. UNICEF and GPV staff suggested that other VVM products from different manufacturers also be sold to avoid a monopoly. Participants considered issues of global introduction and resolution of issues with manufacturers of VVMs and vaccines to be high priority issues. WHO and UNICEF asked BASICS to draft general training materials for staff at the central, provincial, district, and periphery levels, focusing on actions that each level should take as a result of VVM use. They also asked BASICS to develop a quick-reference sheet for policy makers.
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  12. 12

    International population institutions: adaptation to a changing world order.

    Crane BB

    In: Institutions for the earth: sources of effective international environmental protection, edited by Peter M. Haas, Robert O. Keohane, and Marc A. Levy. Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press, 1993. 351-93. (Global Environmental Accords)

    This paper describes the political forces which have shaped the agendas and policy formulation of international population institutions (IPI) as well as their institutional characteristics and outputs. It also assesses the contributions of IPIs to national population policy formulation and implementation. During the almost three decades during which IPIs have existed, important exogenous changes have occurred in North-South and East-West relations as well as in the domestic politics of key countries involved in population issues. Although population as an issue has remained somewhat insulated from the large-scale changes in the international political and economic order, the impact of such changes on the preferences and resources of governmental and nongovernmental actors has nonetheless been evident in the decision-making forums of IPIs. There have also been changes and developments in the relevant science and technology as well as in the institutional structures and procedures of the IPIs themselves, which over time have influenced the formation of actors' preferences. IPIs are examined over the following three phases of their history: 1965-1974, the period of rapid growth in IPIs under leadership from the US and other Western donor countries; 1974-1984, a period of greater accommodation to the preferences of developing countries; and 1984-1991, a period marked by conflict over IPIs and a search for new sources of support, especially from the transnational environmental movement. A major challenge for IPIs in this recent period has been adapting to the withdrawal of the US government from participation in the UN Population Fund and the International Planned Parenthood Federation in response to domestic political pressure from individual and group lobbies against women's right to abortion.
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  13. 13

    Can AIDS prevention move to sufficient scale?

    Slutkin G

    NETWORK. 1993 May; 13(4):16-7.

    Much has been learned about which AIDS prevention interventions are effective and what an AIDS prevention program should look like. It is also clear that important program issues must be worked out at the country level if effective interventions are to be had. Programs with successful interventions and approaches in most countries, however, have yet to be implemented on a sufficiently large scale. While some national programs are beginning to use proven interventions and are moving toward implementing full-scale national AIDS programs, most AIDS prevention programs do not incorporate condom marketing, are not using mass media and advertising in a well-programmed way, do not have peer projects to reach most at-risk populations, and do not have systems in place to diagnose and treat persons with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Far more planning and resources for AIDS prevention are needed from national and international public and private sectors. International efforts by the World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF, UNDP, UNESCO, UNFPA, and the World Bank have increased markedly over the past few years. Bilaterally, the US, Sweden, United Kingdom, Canada, Netherlands, Norway, Denmark, Japan, Germany, France, and other countries are contributing to WHO/GPA and to direct bilateral AIDS prevention activities. USAID happens to be the largest single contributor to WHO/GPA and is also the largest bilateral program with its $168 millions AIDSCAP funded over 5 years. AIDSCAP integrates condom distribution and marketing, STD prevention and control, behavioral change and communication strategies through person-to-person and mass media approaches, and strong evaluation components. AIDSCAP can help fulfill the need to demonstrate that programs can be developed on a country-wide level by showing how behavior can be changed in a broad geographical area.
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  14. 14

    USAID steps up anti-AIDS program.

    USAID HIGHLIGHTS. 1991 Fall; 8(3):1-4.

    This article considers the epidemic proportion of AIDS in developing countries, and discusses the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) reworked and intensified strategy for HIV infection and AIDS prevention and control over the next 5 years. Developing and launching over 650 HIV and AIDS activities in 74 developing countries since 1986, USAID is the world's largest supporter of anti-AIDS programs. Over $91 million in bilateral assistance for HIV and AIDS prevention and control have been committed. USAID has also been the largest supporter of the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS since 1986. Interventions have included training peer educators, working to change the norms of sex behavior, and condom promotion. Recognizing that the developing world will increasingly account for an ever larger share of the world's HIV-infected population, USAID announced an intensified program of estimated investment increasing to approximately $400 million over a 5-year period. Strategy include funding for long-term, intensive interventions in 10-15 priority countries, emphasizing the treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases which facilitate the spread of HIV, making AIDS-related policy dialogue an explicit component of the Agency's AIDS program, and augmenting funding to community-based programs aimed at reducing high-risk sexual behaviors. The effect of AIDS upon child survival, adult mortality, urban populations, and socioeconomic development in developing countries is discussed. Program examples are also presented.
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  15. 15

    Trip report on Norplant meeting, Turku, Finland.

    Rimon JG 2d

    [Unpublished] 1991. [14] p.

    Jose G. Rimon, II, Project Director for the Johns Hopkins University Population Communication Services (JHU/PCS) Center for Communication Programs, visited Finland to attend a NORPLANT planning meeting. Meeting discussion focused upon issues involved in expanding NORPLANT programs from pre-introductory trials to broader national programs. Financing and maintaining quality of care were issues of central importance for the meeting. Participants included representative from NORPLANT development organizations, the U.S. Agency for International Development, the World Bank, and other donor agencies. Mr. Rimon was specifically invited to make a presentation on the role of information, education, and communication (IEC) on NORPLANT with a focus upon future IEC activities. The presentation included discussion of the need to develop a strategic position for NORPLANT among potential customers and within the service provide community, the feasibility of global strategies positioning in the context of country-specific variations, the need to identify market niches, the need for managing the image of NORPLANT, and the need to study IEC implications in terms of supply-side IEC, content/style harmonization, materials volume, and language and quality control. Participants collectively agreed to develop an informal group to address these issues, concentrating upon universal issues potentially addressed on a global scale. A meeting on strategic positioning is scheduled for August 19-20, 1991.
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  16. 16

    Distribution and logistics.

    Fabricant S

    In: ICORT II proceedings. Second International Conference on Oral Rehydration Therapy, December 10-13, 1985, Washington, D.C., [edited by] Linda Ladislaus-Sanei and Patricia E. Scully. Washington, D.C., Creative Associates, 1986 Dec. 83-5.

    At a recent international conference on Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) there were discussions on policy issues. Advances in oral rehydration solution (ORS) local production, and the use of private sector and public sector distribution. It was agreed that the roles of ORS packets and home solutions must be carefully thought through and the be the basis of the program. If ORS is going to be available at the household level then the use of the private sector should be considered. The policy to use informal distribution channels and traditional healers has shown to increase public access to ORS. Also, donor support of ORS commodities may not lead to self sufficiency. Governments should plan for self sufficiency in advance and should manage donor support. Advances in local ORS production include factors that promote low cost production such as efficient personnel, economical procurement of materials, appropriate choice of equipment, minimizing duties, and using existing production facilities. The adoption of a citrate ORS formula allows the use of cheaper packaging material. The private sector can and should be used to make ORS available on a wide scale. Product pricing is a highly complex problem and the mothers ability to pay must be balanced against the profit incentives in the distribution system. Subsidies have been necessary to encourage the private sector and mass media campaigns have proven to be a useful subsidy. The key factor in gaining wide coverage is the person who contacts the mother. Competition can be useful in gaining greater effective usage but there are tradeoffs. The high costs of import licenses and hard currency have been stumbling blocks for the private sector production in some countries. It was found that it is inadvisable to set up a separate distribution system for ORS and it should not be given priority over other child survival interventions. Also a policy of cost recovery can make a program more viable in the absence of donor assistance and has increased confidence in the product and therapy.
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  17. 17

    World wide report on A.I.D. and IPPF funded population activities, FY 1987-FY 1988.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. Office of Population; John Snow [JSI]. Family Planning Logistics Management Project

    Boston, Massachusetts, John Snow, Inc., 1989 Jan. 222 p. (Population Projects Database)

    This issue of the semi-annual Population Project Database Report contains short narrative summaries describing AID-funded population and family planning subprojects primarily as a management toil for the Office of Population; however, it may be useful for the entire international population community. The introduction begins with a discussion of AID population assistance -- how the funds are administered, where the support for activities comes from, and what types of projects are supported by AID's grants and contracts. The 1987 expenditures and 1988 commitments by cooperating agencies for in-country subproject activities are presented followed by a summary of AID subproject activities. This FY1987-FY1988 report includes information on 2,070 AID subproject activities in 94 countries. Of these, 30% concentrate on family planning service delivery, 24% on training-oriented activities, and 17% emphasize research to develop improved contraceptive methods. An additional 8% focus on education, information and communications with regard to family planning, and 7% are primarily concerned with operations research aimed at developing improved ways to deliver family planning services in developing countries. The data in this report were assembled from the Population Projects Database (PPD), a computer-based information system for the Agency for international Development. The bulk of the report is presented in tables which detail AID and IPPF funded population activities in FY1987 and FY1988 by cooperating agency, country and the following regions: Africa, Asia/Near East, Latin America/Caribbean, US/Canada, Europe/Australia, and inter regional. New charts showing the number and types of subproject activities in each region are also include.
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  18. 18

    Reforesting the earth.

    Postel S; Heise L

    Washington, D.C., Worldwatch Institute, 1988 Apr. 66 p. (Worldwatch Paper 83)

    Background issues concerning reforestation worldwide include recent trends in tree cover, fuelwood and industrial wood supplies, role of trees in stabilizing soil and water, the significance of forests in global warming and of the warming on forests, and how organizations are mobilizing for reforestation. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that 11.3 million hectares of tropical forest were cleared annually in the early 1980s, yet satellite data suggest clearing in Brazil and India is even greater. European and North American forests have already been cleared to the point where reforestation has resumed in Europe, and management of industrial forests is viable financially in America. Fuelwood supplies are not yet seen as limited in many areas, since women gather the cooking fuel. Agroforestry, management of forests, and better design of cookstoves are some ways of improving fuel supplies. Industrial wood production and processing has not yet taken hold in most developing countries, but will be a viable market eventually. Now, mature hardwoods are "mined" as though they were an unrenewable resource. Agroforestry methods have achieved notable success in wind-degraded deforested areas of Nepal and Niger. Some estimates are available on the tonnage of CO2 released by deforestation, but it is unknown what effect global warming will have on remaining forests. Possibly higher temperatures will increase respiration and kill off remaining vegetation, or possibly higher CO2 levels will encourage photosynthesis and carbon fixation. The best successes in reforestation have been those of nongovernmental organizations such as CARE, Oxfam, USAID, the Greenbelt Movement of the National Council of Women of Kenya. Some government initiatives, such as tree ownership in India and China, are effective. Reforestation of 130 million hectares by 2000 with 18.4 billion trees will only require each person in the tropics to plant and care for 5 seedlings a year.
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  19. 19

    Draft team member contributions to mid-term evaluation of the Population and Family Planning Project (608-0171) in Morocco.

    Bouhafa M

    [Unpublished] 1988 Mar. 13 p.

    The draft team member contributions to the mid-term evaluation of the population and family planning project in Morocco examine current progress and address future needs. Increased awareness of at least 1 method of family planning was attributed to a USAID-funded project. But, problems of access, religious constraints, and lack of method-specific media campaigns need to be addressed. An increased effort to direct promotion efforts toward men is needed, as a prior immunization program showed that the husband was a key factor in encouraging mothers to bring their children to be vaccinated. Because the local health worker plays a critical role at the community level, training and support for these workers should be emphasized. Media-specific and audience-specific campaigns, by the government and private sector, should focus on the most cost-effective means of reaching the provincial level population. Donor organizations (such as UNICEF, UNFPA and USAID) should address the IEC needs identified by the central health education office, whose role and supporting functions need to be strengthened. Content of family planning materials must be method-specific, using a systematic methodology to address problems of inappropriateness, inadequate contraceptive mix, and lack of field worker training materials. Improved distribution methods for existing materials, as well as increased use of television and mass media are viable options. Using the community more effectively by encouraging leader motivation and instituting incentives could help to improve promotional and distributional activities at the provincial level. An evaluation of training needs revealed that the workshop method of training may be overemphasized, and most health workers expressed a desire for lengthened training. The private sector could be sensitized to public health issues and needs and, in conjunction with out of country technical assistance, produce effective social marketing of contraceptives within the Moroccan context. Coordination with other donors would be beneficial, with the exchange of documents and meetings between the groups.
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  20. 20

    Worldwide reports on A.I.D. population programs, FY 1987.

    John Snow [JSI]. Family Planning Logistics Management Project

    Boston, Massachusetts, John Snow, Inc., 1988 Mar. 33 p. (Population Projects Database)

    This document contains, in looseleaf format, reports generated from the Office of Population's Population Projects Database (PPD) which is now maintained by John Snow's (JSI) Family Planning Logistics Management Project. JSI will issue "The Woldwide Report on A.I.D. and IPPF Funded Population Activities," also known as the "Subproject Activities Report," on a semi-annual basis. The fiscal year (FY) 1986 to FY 1987 is now available. Issued on an annual basis will be "The Country Funding Attribution Report"; the report for FY 1987 is included in the binder under the heading: CA Cost Report. Also provided is a list of current contracts, an acronym list, and an instruction manual for filling in the questionnaire on which the porject reports are based. A blank section is also provided for any special reports requested by the user from the Population Projects Database. Using the subproject activities report and the CA Cost Report together provides a full picture of population activities worldwide. Both reports are organized by country and both attempt to capture actual expenditures in prior years and expected expenditures in the current and future years. The reports differ in the following ways: the Subproject Activities Report focuses on in-country activities, including those carried out by A.I.D. Missions and Regional Bureaus, Cooperating Agencies and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). It includes activities covered under host country contracts, but does not include certain US-based activities of Cooperating Agencies which support the Office of Population programs or those contracts that provide support solely in the form of technical assistance. Both descriptive and financial information is provided. The CA Cost Reports covers all contracts issued directly to Cooperating Agencies by the Office of Population as well as Mission "buy-ins" to those contracts. It does not cover other activities of A.I.D. Missions and Regional Bureaus, host country contract or activities of other international agencies. It is purely a financial report and focuses on the way total contract expenditures have been allocated among various cost categories. Both reports are prepared in tabular format. The PPD, wich was started in 1983, includes information on more than 2400 population assistance project activies funded by A.I.D. in over 100 countries; it also includes 600 projects funded by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and about 100 projects fund by IPPF. Reports on specific topics can be requested from JSI.
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  21. 21

    Population: AIDS: availability of condoms [memorandum]

    United States. Department of State

    [Unpublished] 1987 Jun. 2 p.

    The provision of condoms is an integral part of the strategy for control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) being developed by the US Agency for International Development (AID) in conjunction with the World Health Organization (WHO). Condoms are now available from USAID for AIDS prevention activities, and data are being collected to help prioritize condom requests and maximize effective distribution on a worldwide basis. It is expected that condom distribution will be most effective in cases where condoms are provided to those at highest risk of AIDS transmission through an effective service delivery system with adequate storage and logistical support. AIDS prevention efforts should be coordinated with WHO efforts whenever possible. Logistical support is especially important since AIDS is prevalent in many countries with weak public health infrastructures and limited experience in providing condoms. An AIDS technical support program now being developed by USAID will assist in this area. Further analysis is required to determine whether a distinction should be made at the programmatic level between distribution of condoms for AIDS prevention and for family planning; it may be that combination of these 2 aims will have a synergistic effect. Information is requested from countries on the number of condoms desired, the proposed distribution system, the logistical capacity available, and the strategy for reaching individuals at risk of AIDS infection.
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  22. 22

    Oral rehydration salts: an analysis of AID's options.

    Elliott V

    [Columbia Maryland], Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Public Applied Systems, 1984 Sep. 26, [13] p. (Contract No. PDC-1406-I-02-4062-00, W.0.2; Project No. 936-5939-12)

    Westinghouse Health Systems, under a US Agency for International Development (USAID) contract, ass ssed the global supply and demand of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and developed a set of recommendations concerning USAID's future role as a supplier of ORS. 1.5 billion ORS packets (assuming each packet is equivalent to 1 liter of ORS solution) would be required to treat all ORS treatable cases of diarrhea which occur annually among the world's children under 5 years of age. Currently, about 200 million packets are manufactured/year. In 1983, international sources supplied slightly less than 37 million packets, and the remaining packets were produced by local or in-country manufacturers. UN Children's Fund (UNICEF), which currently provides 81% of the international supply, contracts with private firms to manufacture ORS and then distributes the packets to developing countries, either at cost or free of charge. UNICEF purchases the packets for about US$.04-US$.05. USAID provides about 12.3% of the international supply. Prior to 1981, USAID distributed UNICEF packets. Since 1981, USAID has distributed ORS packets manufactured by the US firm of Jianas Brothers. USAID must pay a relatively high price for the packets (US$.08-US$.09) since the manufacturer is required to produce the packets on an as needed basis. Other international suppliers of ORS include the International Dispensary Association, the Swedish International Development Authority, the International Red Cross, and the World Health Organization. Currently, 38 developing countries manufacture and distrubute their own ORS products. These findings indicate that there is a need to increase the supply of ORS; however, the supply and demand in the future is unpredictable. Factors which may alter the supply and demand in the future include 1) the development of superior alternative formulations and different type of ORS products, 2) a reduction in the incidence of diarrhea due to improved environmental conditions or the development of a vaccine for diarrhea, 3) increased production of ORS in developing countries, 4) increased commercial sector involvement in the production and sale of ORS products, and 5) the use of more effective marketing techniques and more efficient distribution systems for ORS products. USAID options as a future supplier of ORS include 1) purchasing and distributing UNICEF packets; 2) contracting with a US firm to develop a central procurement system, similar to USAID's current contraceptive procurement system; 3) contracting with the a US firm to establish a ORS stockpile of a specified amount; 4) promoting private and public sector production of ORS within developing countries; 5) including ORS as 1 of the commodities available to all USAID assisted countries. The investigators recommended that USAID should contribute toward increasing the global supply of ORS; however, given the unpredictability of the ORS demand and supply, USAID should adopt a short-term and flexible strategy. This strategy precludes the establishment of a central procurement system; instead, USAID should contract a private firm to establish an ORS stockpile and to fill orders from the stockpile. Consideration should be given to altering the ORS packets size and to alternative ORS presentations. USAID should also promote the production of quality ORS products within developing countries and continue to support research on other diarrhea intervention strategies. This report also discusses some of the problems involved in manufacturing and packaging ORS. The appendices contain 1) a WHO and UNICEF statement on the ORS formulation made with citrate instead of bicarbonate, 2) a list of developing countries which manufacture ORS, and 3) statistical information on distribution of ORS by international sources.
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  23. 23

    Report on developments and activities related to population information during the decade since the convening of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974.

    Hankinson R

    New York, United Nations, 1984 Jun. vi, 52 p. (POPIN Bulletin No. 5 ISEA/POPIN/5)

    A summary of developments in the population information field during the decade 1974-84 is presented. Progress has been made in improving population services that are available to world users. "Population Index" and direct access to computerized on-line services and POPLINE printouts are available in the US and 13 other countries through a cooperating network of institutions. POPLINE services are also available free of charge to requestors from developing countries. Regional Bibliographic efforts are DOCPAL for Latin America. PIDSA for Africa, ADOPT and EBIS/PROFILE. Much of the funding and support for population information activities comes from 4 major sources: 1) UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA): 2) US Agency for International Development (USAID); 3) International Development Research Centre (IRDC): and 4) the Government of Australia. There are important philosophical distinctions in the support provided by these sources. Duplication of effort is to be avoided. Many agencies need to develop an institutional memory. They are creating computerized data bases on funded projects. The creation of these data bases is a major priority for regional population information services that serve developing countries. Costs of developing these information services are prohibitive; however, it is important to see them in their proper perspective. Many governments are reluctant to commit funds for these activites. Common standards should be adopted for population information. Knowledge and use of available services should be increased. The importance os back-up services is apparent. Hard-copy reproductions of items in data bases should be included. This report is primarily descriptive rather than evaluative. However, given the increase in population distribution and changes in government attitudes over the importance of population matters, the main tasks for the next decade should be to build on these foundations; to insure effective and efficient use of services; to share experience and knowledge through POPIN and other networks; and to demonstrate to governments the valuable role of information programs in developing national population programs.
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  24. 24

    International population program assistance. What has been achieved? What have we learned? What is next?

    Speidel JJ

    [Unpublished] [1983]. 11 p.

    Causes for optimism about the world population situation include the worlwide fall in birth rates which has occurred following a relatively small investment of about 50Z per capita per year in developing countries, the growing commitment to population control of developing country governments, and the less than predicted severity of the consequences of rapid popultion growth to date. However, the annual world population increment of 80 million, the 2.1% annual growth rate of developing world population, the fact that the fastest growth is occurring in the countries least able to cope with it, and the slowing of growth of funds available from donor grants and private sources are causes for pessimism. The US Agency for International Development has provided about half of all donor resources since the mid-1960s, but budgetary restrictions have affected its population assistance. When adjusted for inflation and per capita developing country population, donor resources available to population work show a declining trend. As a result of previous population program experience and research, it seems clear that both a strong service program and a favorable social and economic setting are important to developing country fertility declines. Operations research has shown that considerable private funds are used to regulate fertility, and has demonstrated the importance of community involvement, household contraceptive distribution, and that integration is not always a desirable approach to provision of family planning services. The need for emphasis on public media and reaching key leadership groups through demonstrations has become apparent, as has the need to provide a wider range of contraceptive methods. Progress in contraceptive development has been considerable, with the pill and IUD becoming available in the 1960s, simplified female sterilization methods in the 1970s, and probably longterm reversible steroidal contraception in the 1980s. Greater commitment of resources by developing countries to support population work will be needed in the future. The developing country's share of expenditure on their population activities increased from roughly 1/2, a decade ago, to 2/3 today.
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  25. 25

    Changing approaches to population problems.

    Wolfson M

    Paris, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Development Centre, 1978. 193 p. (Development Centre Studies)

    The World Population Conference which took place in Bucharest in 1974 witnessed many debates and rhetorical controversies over the role of family planning programs in Third World countries and their relation to development. This report is the result of a collaborative study realized by the Development Centre and the World Bank which investigates how developing countries, as well as aid agencies, are thinking about population problems and, as a consequence, about population assistance in the "post-Bucharest era." The report includes detailed surveys of 12 developing countries, representing Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East. It also interviews and reports on the activities of a large number of population assistance agencies. The roles of international organizations such as the UNFPA, the UN population division and the World Bank itself are assessed in terms of their impact on national development through population control efforts. Reviews of assistance provided to developing nations by nongovernmental agencies, private foundations and developed nations are also presented. Each country paper presented provides an overview of the country's demographic characteristics; a summary of history of population policies, pre- and post-Bucharest era; an overview of population strategies past and present, their integration with other-sector activities; family planning program administration; and a survey of all forms of population assistance available and utilized by the country. Macro-level analyses of changes in family planning assistance by organizations since Bucharest, as well as micro-level, country-specific studies of how each nation has assimilated these changes and has developed a specific population policy are provided.
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