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  1. 1

    The state of the world's children 2012. Children in an urban world.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2012. [156] p.

    When many of us think of the world’s poorest children, the image that comes readily to mind is that of a child going hungry in a remote rural community in sub-Saharan Africa -- as so many are today. But as The State of the World’s Children 2012 shows with clarity and urgency, millions of children in cities and towns all over the world are also at risk of being left behind. In fact, hundreds of millions of children today live in urban slums, many without access to basic services. They are vulnerable to dangers ranging from violence and exploitation to the injuries, illnesses and death that result from living in crowded settlements atop hazardous rubbish dumps or alongside railroad tracks. And their situations -- and needs -- are often represented by aggregate figures that show urban children to be better off than their rural counterparts, obscuring the disparities that exist among the children of the cities. This report adds to the growing body of evidence and analysis, from UNICEF and our partners, that scarcity and dispossession afflict the poorest and most marginalized children and families disproportionately. What does this mean for children? This document examines the situation of children growing up in urban settings and finds that denial of children’s rights to survival, health, nutrition, education and protection are widespread. It sheds light on the scale of these urban inequities and suggests ways to ensure that urban childhoods are safe, healthy, participatory and fulfilling. The report also includes sections on adolescents, HIV and other issues impacting the well-being of youth. (Excerpt)
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  2. 2

    The state of world population 2011. People and possibilities in a world of 7 billion.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2011. [132] p.

    The milestone of 7 billion is marked by achievements, setbacks and paradoxes. While women are on average having fewer children than they were in the 1960s, our numbers continue to rise. Globally, people are younger -- and older -- than ever before. In some of the poorest countries, high fertility rates hamper development and perpetuate poverty, while in some of the richest countries, low fertility rates and too few people entering the job market are raising concerns about prospects for sustained economic growth and about the viability of social security systems. While labour shortages threaten to stymie the economies of some industrialized countries, unemployed would-be migrants in developing countries are finding more and more national borders closed to them and the expertise they may have to offer. And while progress is being made in reducing extreme poverty, gaps between rich and poor are widening almost everywhere. The State of World Population 2011 explores some of these paradoxes from the perspective of individuals and describes the obstacles they confront -- and overcome -- in trying to build better lives for themselves, their families, communities and nations. Through personal stories, this report sheds light on the real-life challenges we face in our world of 7 billion. It is mainly a report from the field, from nine countries where the ordinary people who live there, the national experts who study demographic trends and the policymakers who must make decisions based on local conditions talk directly about their lives and work: China, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, India, Mexico, Mozambique, Nigeria and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. (Excerpt)
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  3. 3

    State of the world’s cities 2010 / 2011: Bridging the urban divide.

    United Nations. Human Settlements Programme [UN-HABITAT]

    London, United Kingdom, Earthscan, [2010]. [244] p.

    The world's urban population now exceeds the world's rural population. What does this mean for the state of our cities, given the strain this global demographic shift is placing upon current urban infrastructure? Following on from previous State of the World's Cities reports, this edition uses the framework of 'The Urban Divide' to analyse the complex social, political, economic and cultural dynamics of urban environments. The book focuses on the concept of the 'right to the city' and ways in which many urban dwellers are excluded from the advantages of city life, using the framework to explore links among poverty, inequality, slum formation and economic growth. The volume will be essential reading for all professionals and policymakers in the field, and a valuable resource for researchers and students in all aspects of urban development.
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  4. 4

    Hidden cities: Unmasking and overcoming health inequities in urban settings.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; United Nations. Human Settlements Programme [UN-HABITAT]

    Kobe, Japan, WHO, Centre for Health Development, 2010. [145] p.

    This report exposes the extent to which certain city dwellers suffer disproportionately from a wide range of diseases and health problems. This report provides information and tools to help governments and local leaders reduce health inequities in their cities. The objective of the report is not to compare rural and urban health inequities. Urban health inequities need to be addressed specifically for they are different in their magnitude and in their distribution.For the first time in human history, the majority of the world’s population is living in urban areas, and this proportion continues to grow. Cities concentrate opportunities, jobs and services, but they also concentrate risks and hazards for health. The rapid increase of people living in cities will be among the most important global health issues of the 21st century. Urban growth has outpaced the ability of governments to build essential infrastructures, and one in three urban dwellers lives in slums or informal settlements. In all countries, certain city dwellers suffer disproportionately from poor health, and these inequities can be traced back to differences in their social and living conditions. To unmask the full extent of urban health inequities, it is important to disaggregate health and health determinants data within cities. Unless urgent action is taken to address urban health inequities, countries will not achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goal targets. Acting on urban health inequities requires the involvement of organized communities and all levels of government -- local, provincial and national. Solutions often lie beyond the health sector, and require the engagement of many different sectors of government and society. Local leaders and governments can and should play a key role in promoting urban health equity. (Excerpts)
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  5. 5

    Urban poverty: a global view.

    Baker JL

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Urban Sector Board, 2008. [37] p.

    This paper provides an overview on what has been learned about urban poverty over the past decade with a focus on what is new and what the implications are for the World Bank going forward in an increasingly urbanized world. Coverage includes current information on the scope of urban poverty, identification of the key issues for the urban poor, a summary of regional characteristics of urban poverty, what has been learned from programs and policies aimed at the urban poor, and finally, the paper identifies priorities for urban poverty reduction within the context of an overall urban strategy.
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  6. 6

    United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development, New York, 21-23 January 2008.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2008 Mar. 364 p. (ESA/P/WP.206)

    In 2008, the world is reaching an important milestone: for the first time in history, half of the world population will be living in urban areas. Urbanization has significant social and economic implications: Historically, it has been an integral part of the process of economic development and an important determinant of the decline in fertility and mortality rates. Many important economic, social and demographic transformations have taken place in cities. The urban expansion, due in part to migration from rural to urban areas, varies significantly across regions and countries. The distribution and morphology of cities, the dynamics of urban growth, the linkages between urban and rural areas and the living conditions of the rural and urban population also vary quite substantially across countries and over time. In general, urbanization represents a positive development, but it also poses challenges. The scale of such challenges is particularly significant in less developed regions, where most of the urban growth will take place in the coming decades. To discuss trends in population distribution and urbanization and their implications, the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat organized an Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development. The meeting, which took place from 21 to 23 January at the United Nations Headquarters in New York, brought together experts from different regions of the world to present and discuss recent research on urbanization, the policy dimensions of urban growth and internal migration, the linkages and disparities between urban and rural development, aspects of urban infrastructure and urban planning, and the challenges of climate change for the spatial distribution of the population. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Urban population, development and the environment 2007 [Wallchart].

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2008 Mar. [2] p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/274)

    The wall chart on Urban Population, Development and the Environment 2007 displays information on various aspects of population, environment and development, including changes in urban populations and their relationship with development and the environment. The wall chart include information for 228 countries or areas as well as data at the regional and sub-regional levels. (excerpt)
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  8. 8

    Population challenges and development goals.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2005. 57 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/248)

    Part one of this report provides a global overview of demographic trends for major areas and selected countries. It reviews major population trends relating to population size and growth, urbanization and city growth, population ageing, fertility and contraception, mortality, including HIV/AIDS, and international migration. In addition, a section on population policies has been included, in which the concerns and responses of Governments to the major population trends are summarized. The outcomes of the United Nations conferences convened during the 1990s set an ambitious development agenda reaffirmed by the United Nations Millennium Declaration in September 2000. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, being one of the major United Nations conferences of the decade, addressed all population aspects relevant for development and provided in its Programme of Action a comprehensive set of measures to achieve the development objectives identified. Given the crucial importance of population factors for development, the full implementation of the Programme of Action and the key actions for its further implementation will significantly contribute to the achievement of the universally agreed development goals, including those in the Millennium Declaration. Part two discusses the relevance that particular actions contained in those documents have for the attainment of universally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals. It also describes the key population trends relevant for development and the human rights basis that underpins key conference objectives and recommendations for action. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Growing up urban. UNFPA state of world population 2007. Youth supplement.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2007. [55] p.

    The world is undergoing the largest wave of urban growth in its history. The 3 billion population of towns and cities in 2005 will increase by 1.8 billion by 2030. The urban population of Asia and sub-Saharan Africa will double in less than a generation. The fastest growth will be in the poorer urban areas. For example, the slum population of Dhaka has more than doubled in a decade, from 1.5 million in 1996 to 3.4 million in 2006. Most urban growth comes from natural increase (more births than deaths). The urban poor have higher fertility rates than other urbanites: women have less education and less autonomy; they know little about sexual and reproductive health services, and have little access to them. Rural-urban migration also contributes to urban growth. Young people under 25 already make up half the urban population and young people from poor families will be a big part of the urban wave. The future of cities depends on what cities do now to help them, in particular to exercise their rights to education, health, employment, and civic participation. Investment in young people is the key to ending generations of poverty. In particular it is the key to reaching the Millennium Development Goals and halving poverty by 2015. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    State of world population 2007. Unleashing the potential of urban growth.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2007. [105] p.

    In 2008, the world reaches an invisible but momentous milestone: For the first time in history, more than half its human population, 3.3 billion people, will be living in urban areas. By 2030, this is expected to swell to almost 5 billion. Many of the new urbanites will be poor. Their future, the future of cities in developing countries, the future of humanity itself, all depend very much on decisions made now in preparation for this growth. This Report tries to grasp the implications of the imminent doubling of the developing world's urban population and discusses what needs to be done to prepare for this massive increase. It looks more closely at the demographic processes underlying urban growth in developing areas and their policy implications. It specifically examines the consequences of the urban transition for poverty reduction and sustainability. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    Population / development / environment trends in a globalized context: challenges for the 21st century.

    Martine G

    Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):247-278.

    This paper begins with a brief review of ongoing trends in development patterns and population dynamics, with emphasis on the impacts of globalization. This assessment suggests that, in the foreseeable future, the most pertinent PDE questions will relate to the distribution of population over space and leads to the question - how can we best address the issue of environment and space? The sustainable use of space is posited here as a helpful approach and its usage is exemplified with respect to the main PDE problem of the 21st century, namely - urban growth. Finally, the paper addresses the question - what are the environmental implications of unparalleled growth in towns and cities, and what issues need to be addressed in this connection? (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    Report of the conference.

    Golini A; Basili M

    Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):27-48.

    The International Conference Trends and Problems of the World Population in the 21st Century. 50 years since Rome 1954, was held in Rome, under the High Patronage of the President of the Italian Republic, at the "Accademia dei Lincei" on the 26th and 27th of May 2005 and at University of Rome "La Sapienza" on the 28th of May 2005. Organized by the Accademia dei Lincei, the University of Rome "La Sapienza" and its Department of Demograpy, the Conference was financially supported by the Banca d' Italia and the Compagnia di San Paolo. After the five fundamental United Nations Conferences on Population - held in Rome in 1954 and in Belgrade in 1965, and the following, intergovernmental, held in Bucarest in 1974, Mexico City in 1984 and in Cairo in 1994 - this Conference has been a new, important occasion for the analysis and the debate on population problems bringing them back to Rome after the first pionieristic, merely academic, Conference organized by the United Nations in Rome in September 1954. At that time in Rome the debate highlighted trends and problems that would have characterized the world population during the second half of the 20th century and that have contributed in defining the population policy carried out by the UN and by the single countries. This time, once again in Rome, the aim has been to identify trends and problems that are likely to affect the world population in the first half of the 21st century and to provide cues able to define and build population policies. In one word to revitalize the debate on population issues which have been, for some time, languishing both in the UN and in many countries. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    Families at risk: UN tackles the challenge - proposals to help unfortunate families - International Year of the Family, 1994 - Cover story.

    UN Chronicle. 1994 Mar; 31(1):[3] p..

    In today's world, many families face daunting challenges that threaten their ability to function and, indeed, to survive. Disease, war, poverty, famine, environmental problems, unemployment, drugs, crime and the scourge of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are taxing families in both the developing and developed worlds, often beyond their ability to cope. "War and political conflict are widespread today, and they exact a heavy toll", said the Secretary-General at the launching of the international Year of the Family on 7 December. "Separation and loss physically threaten family cohesion. Trauma and displacement inflict overwhelming emotional distress. Economically, unplanned development disrupts traditional patterns of family life. Industrial strategies are often pursued with little regard for their impact upon the family. The inability of some families to provide for themselves weakens family cohesion and undermines self-respect." (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    The need for a more ambitious target.

    Bazoglu N

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):8.

    At the Millennium Summit world leaders pledged to improve the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2020, as proposed in Nelson Mandela’s Cities Without Slums initiative. Since its inception 30 years ago, the human settlements programme has taken significant steps on the conceptualization of slums and security of tenure. Yet the goals of security of tenure and adequate shelter have always remained on the periphery of the international development agenda, despite the Istanbul Summit of 1996. As the first major global instrument of the international human settlements community, the Habitat Agenda is primarily a declaration of good principles. But the broad range of themes it articulates in politically correct language allows any stakeholder to defend any argument. Indeed the Habitat Agenda falls short of providing a focused, results-oriented road map. (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    The Millennium Declaration and the Habitat Agenda.

    Auclair C

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):9.

    The Millennium Declaration, the current blueprint for international action on the most crucial development issues, comes four years after the more modest but fundamental set of commitments on human settlements in the Habitat Agenda. Although both documents present large differences in form and content, they reinforce each other in many respects. With over 90 commitments and more than 600 recommendations, the Habitat Agenda was more than a road map for the 171 signatory Member States and their partners at the Istanbul Summit in 1996. The Habitat Agenda’s goals and principles, its commitments and Global Plan of Action were seen as an integral part of the overall fight against poverty. The implementation of the Habitat Agenda was meant to focus on people’s development, acknowledging the central role of women, and dealing with issues directly affecting the lives of the poor. The challenge was about empowering people, creating decent and healthy living conditions, achieving social equity and an environmentally sound future. Also, for the first time in the international arena, the Habitat Agenda showed that cities are engine of growth and need to be considered as central platforms of development, where the poor should be included rather than excluded. (excerpt)
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  16. 16

    Young people at risk in an urbanizing world.

    Ravestijn S

    Habitat Debate. 2003 Jun; 9(2):[2] p..

    In today's rapidly urbanizing world, the risks facing young people are varied, indiscriminate and growing, especially in the developing world. From boys forced to take up arms by warlords in west and central Africa, and girls kidnapped to serve as their "wives" as documented in Uganda, to the child labourers of Asia, the Middle East and Latin America, there is little hope of leading a healthy life. Likewise for those who end up as street children in Cape Town or Rio de Janeiro. The risks are greatest to those born in poverty, or in countries at war. Elsewhere, dwindling employment opportunities, rising levels of delinquency, crime and growing slums that lack basic services aggravate the situation. Those most at risk are children afflicted by war, young people in conflict with the law, victims of family violence and sexual abuse, the street children and children who have lived all their lives in slums, school drop-outs, orphans, and those without jobs. (excerpt)
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  17. 17

    My experiences in Port Moresby.

    Ravestijn S

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[2] p..

    Between March and October 2002, I was working in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea (PNG), to set up an urban crime prevention initiative. During my seven months there I often found myself in a difficult position because of my youth and my gender. I decided to share my experiences, as they are a clear illustration of power imbalances in social relations. The urbanization and globalization processes in PNG have caused extremely high levels of alcohol abuse and violent crime, along with a gang culture. Until recently, people perceived gangs as assets to their communities as they were seen to be redistributing wealth from the rich to the poor. In addition to high levels of unemployment and social exclusion, and a traditional culture that emphasizes communal ownership of property, the gang culture, particularly among young males, is not only tolerated, but also seen as heroic. (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    Young women and urbanization -- trying to cope in crowded cities.

    Kiwala L; Arvidsson M

    Habitat Debate. 2003 Jun; 9(2):[2] p..

    Deborah, 18, has always dreamed of a better life and better job prospects in Nairobi. But she is also discovering the grim realities of today's rapidly urbanizing world - a world in which young people like her often end up in slums that are potentially dangerous places for young women. Driven by poverty, many young women leave their rural homes to try their luck in the city. According to a study last year by the African Population and Research Centre, slum populations in Nairobi, the Kenyan capital, are growing mainly because of rural to urban migration. The slums, lacking security of tenure, are the only places young people can find cheaper accommodation. Often sharing with friends or total strangers, they live in over-crowded and dangerous environments. Some are introduced to sex and drugs at an early age, and many find themselves having sexual relationships and babies prematurely. Others mix with criminals and drug barons and become victims as well as offenders. Not surprisingly, the study found young girls to be at much higher risk in the slums than at home in the countryside. This is also true for young girls and women who get a formal education. Because of peer pressure and town influence, some become teenage mothers without any hope of continuing their education, and have to find their way in the world as unskilled single mothers without child-care help or support from their parents. (excerpt)
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  19. 19

    Urban population trends.

    Oucho JO

    Habitat Debate. 2001 Jun; 7(2):[4] p..

    It is projected that the world population will rise from 5.7 billion in 1995 to 8.9 billion in 2050, growing at the rate of 1.3 per cent per annum in the period 1995- 2000 to 0.3 per cent per annum in the period 2045-2050. The assumption is that there will be a massive fertility decline in the majority of countries, a scenario expected to produce ageing populations, i.e. populations in which the proportion of children is declining and that of older persons is increasing. Voluntary and Forced Migration The world is polarized between the net-immigration in more developed countries and the net-emigration in the developing world. The developed world receives immigrants mainly from Asia and Latin America, and to a certain extent, Africa. Immigration patterns suggest that countries in Europe and North America are becoming less homogenous in terms of race and culture. (excerpt)
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  20. 20

    The population and resource equation: future prospects for urban food supplies.

    Ngara-Muraya R

    Habitat Debate. 2001 Jun; 7(2):[3] p..

    Half a century ago, less than 30 per cent of the world's population lived in towns and cities. Two decades from now, that figure is forecast to reach 57 per cent. In the more developed world, urban population is already above 76 per cent of the total. By 2020, three-quarters of the world's urban dwellers will live in cities and towns of the developing world i.e. Africa, Asia and Latin America. 94.5 per cent of the urban population increase over the period 2000 to 2030 (some 1.9 billion people) will take place in less developed regions. This already huge and growing urban population will need to be adequately fed. Most of the agricultural activities are taking place in rural areas. Given that a large fraction of global arable land has already been put to use, how will this population continue to feed itself if all the available land resource is exhausted? With usage, land gets degraded, leading to decreased yield. What strategies are being employed to maintain and eventually increase productivity of agricultural land and thus ensure a continued and adequate food supply to the growing urban population? Cities are taking up more space and encroaching on formally rural and agriculturally productive land. How can the now urban land be made agriculturally productive such that the increasingly larger urban population may be assured of adequate food supply? (excerpt)
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  21. 21


    Habitat Debate. 2001 Jun; 7(2):[2] p..

    At the special session of the General Assembly Istanbul +5, UN Member States adopted by consensus the "Declaration on Cities and Other Human Settlements in the New Millennium", which commits governments to strengthening their efforts to improving the living environment, especially for the urban poor. The governments had met in New York for three days to review progress made in implementing the Habitat Agenda. Five years after the Agenda was adopted, the Istanbul + 5 special session of the General Assembly recognized the gaps and obstacles in the way of developing sustainable human settlements, but also showed the way forward in achieving the Agenda's objectives. By adopting the Declaration, the governments recognized that the world is becoming increasingly urban and that specific policies are needed to address growing urban poverty. Urbanization is clearly a dominant factor in global demographics, raising challenges and opportunities, which in turn have further impact on the numbers. Urbanization has been found to have an impact on fertility, mortality and other demographic trends, on personal and household incomes, and on the general economic development of both rural and urban areas. As UNCHS (Habitat)'s State of the World's Cities Report 2001 clearly indicates, there is a strong correlation between city development and human development at the national level. (excerpt)
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  22. 22

    Africa's cities may face a dry and dirty future.

    Sen Y

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Jun; 8(2):15-16.

    Water management and pollution are the most critical issues affecting water access today, as affirmed by UN Secretary- General Kofi Annan, during World Water Day, 22 May, 2002, when he stated that, "Even where supplies are plentiful, they are increasingly at risk from pollution and rising demand". The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC), estimates that presently, some 1.1 billion people on earth are without access to clean water and over 2.4 billion are without adequate sanitation. This concern led the organization to launch the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for All (WASH) campaign. UN-HABITAT, which is also involved in this campaign, is increasing its role in urban water issues. It started with the innovative programme, Water for African Cities in seven demonstration cities: Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire), Accra (Ghana), Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), Dakar (Senegal), Johannesburg (South Africa), Lusaka (Zambia) and Nairobi (Kenya). UN-HABITAT has also recently been mandated by the third World Water Forum to play a leading role in raising international awareness on water and cities. (excerpt)
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  23. 23

    Water for thirsty cities is demand management the solution?

    Ray K

    Habitat Debate. 2000; 6(3):[4] p..

    Africa and Asia are the most rapidly urbanizing regions in the world. The city authorities in these regions are often overwhelmed by this growth and the burgeoning pressure on public services. A recent report of the United Nations Secretary General states that at the current rate of progress, providing safe water to all cannot be anticipated before 2050 in Africa and 2025 in Asia. That is still a generation away! In the meantime, those without access to public supplies — the urban poor — will continue to pay a heavy price for lack of easy access to safe water. Let us take a closer look at the situation in Africa which is the fastest urbanizing continent today. Africa’s urban population will nearly quadruple from 138 million in 1990 to 500 million by 2020. How is it managing its growing urban water demand from the competing industrial, commercial and domestic sectors? The answer is not simple. The task of the city manager is made more complex by the fact that most of the rapidly growing cities are located in water stress or water scarce regions, with diminishing per capita water availability. Several of the larger cities on the continent (Johannesburg, Dakar and Nairobi, for example), have outgrown the capacity of local sources and are forced to carry water from a distance of 200 to 600 kilometres. Others (such as Abidjan, Lusaka and Addis Ababa) are drawing deeper and deeper, often over-abstracting the ground aquifers. (excerpt)
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  24. 24

    Water crisis linked to poor governance, says Toepfer.

    Habitat Debate. 2000; 6(3):[4] p..

    Cities concentrate people in high-density settlements creating severe demand for services like water supply and sanitation. It is really a matter of concern that some 95 per cent of the urban population increase over the next 30 years will be in less developed countries. Out of 19 megacities of the world, 15 are in developing countries. Cities are increasingly forced to transport water from longer distances, often beyond natural watersheds and even across national boundaries, as in the case of Johannesburg. In other cases, over-exploitation of groundwater has resulted in major environmental problems. Mexico City, for example, has sunk more than 10 metres in the last 70 years. Thailand is facing irreversible damage to freshwater aquifers from saltwater intrusion, caused by over-abstraction of groundwater. (excerpt)
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  25. 25

    The challenge of slums: global report on human settlements 2003.

    United Nations Human Settlements Programme [UN-HABITAT]

    London, England, Earthscan Publications, 2003. xxxiv, 310 p.

    The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements 2003 is mainly concerned with the shelter conditions of the majority of the urban poor. It is about how the poor struggle to survive within urban areas, mainly through informal shelter and informal income-generation strategies, and about the inadequacy of both public and market responses to the plight of the urban poor. But the report is also about hope, about building on the foundations of the urban poor’s survival strategies and about what needs to be done by both the public and non-governmental sectors, as well as by the international community, if the goal of adequate shelter for all is to have any relevance for today’s urban youth. (except)
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