Your search found 193 Results

  1. 1
    332832

    State of the urban youth 2010/11. Leveling the playing field: Inequality of youth opportunity.

    United Nations Human Settlements Programme [UN-HABITAT]

    London, United Kingdom, Earthscan, 2010. [86] p.

    This report is based on data from UN-HABITAT’s Global Urban Indicator Database, as well as surveys of, and focus group discussions with, selected representative groups of young people in five major cities located in four developing regions: Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Mumbai (India), Kingston (Jamaica), Nairobi (Kenya) and Lagos (Nigeria).
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  2. 2
    332531

    Urban poverty: a global view.

    Baker JL

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Urban Sector Board, 2008. [37] p.

    This paper provides an overview on what has been learned about urban poverty over the past decade with a focus on what is new and what the implications are for the World Bank going forward in an increasingly urbanized world. Coverage includes current information on the scope of urban poverty, identification of the key issues for the urban poor, a summary of regional characteristics of urban poverty, what has been learned from programs and policies aimed at the urban poor, and finally, the paper identifies priorities for urban poverty reduction within the context of an overall urban strategy.
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  3. 3
    325697

    United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development, New York, 21-23 January 2008.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2008 Mar. 364 p. (ESA/P/WP.206)

    In 2008, the world is reaching an important milestone: for the first time in history, half of the world population will be living in urban areas. Urbanization has significant social and economic implications: Historically, it has been an integral part of the process of economic development and an important determinant of the decline in fertility and mortality rates. Many important economic, social and demographic transformations have taken place in cities. The urban expansion, due in part to migration from rural to urban areas, varies significantly across regions and countries. The distribution and morphology of cities, the dynamics of urban growth, the linkages between urban and rural areas and the living conditions of the rural and urban population also vary quite substantially across countries and over time. In general, urbanization represents a positive development, but it also poses challenges. The scale of such challenges is particularly significant in less developed regions, where most of the urban growth will take place in the coming decades. To discuss trends in population distribution and urbanization and their implications, the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat organized an Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development. The meeting, which took place from 21 to 23 January at the United Nations Headquarters in New York, brought together experts from different regions of the world to present and discuss recent research on urbanization, the policy dimensions of urban growth and internal migration, the linkages and disparities between urban and rural development, aspects of urban infrastructure and urban planning, and the challenges of climate change for the spatial distribution of the population. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    325831

    Urban population, development and the environment 2007 [Wallchart].

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2008 Mar. [2] p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/274)

    The wall chart on Urban Population, Development and the Environment 2007 displays information on various aspects of population, environment and development, including changes in urban populations and their relationship with development and the environment. The wall chart include information for 228 countries or areas as well as data at the regional and sub-regional levels. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    319306

    Hygiene and lost cost sanitation improvement for the urban poor in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    World Bank. Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Board

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Board, 2006 Mar. [2] p.

    Over 900,000 people in peri-urban areas (called Ger districts) in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolio lack basic infrastructure services. Since 1997, the World Bank has supported the Government of Mongolia to improve services to Ger dwellers. A 2004 social assessment revealed that on-site sanitation is very high on the list of priorities for residents in the Ger areas. The Government of Mongolia is now addressing this problem supported by a grant from the Japan Social Development Fund (JSDF). As an initial step in advancing sanitation and hygiene in the Ger areas, the World Bank has provided technical assistance to the Mongolian Government through the Sanitation, Hygiene and Wastewater Support Service (SWAT). The technical work and consultations were a first step to pave the way for a more holistic approach to improving sanitation in Ulaanbaatar's urban periphery. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    311839
    Peer Reviewed

    Implementation of the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study in Ghana.

    Lartey A; Owusu WB; Sagoe-Moses I; Gomez V; Sagoe-Moses C

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2004; 25 Suppl 1:S60-S65.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) African site was Accra, Ghana. Its sample was drawn from 10 affluent residential areas where earlier research had demonstrated the presence of a child subpopulation with unconstrained growth. This subpopulation could be identified on the basis of the father's education and household income. The subjects for the longitudinal study were enrolled from 25 hospitals and delivery facilities that accounted for 80% of the study area's births. The cross-sectional sample was recruited at 117 day-care centers used by more than 80% of the targeted subpopulation. Public relations efforts were mounted to promote the study in the community. The large number of facilities involved in the longitudinal and cross-sectional components, the relatively large geographic area covered by the study, and the difficulties of working in a densely populated urban area presented special challenges. Conversely, the high rates of breastfeeding and general support for this practice greatly facilitated the implementation of the MGRS protocol. (author's)
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  7. 7
    311840
    Peer Reviewed

    Implementation of the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study in India.

    Bhandari N; Taneja S; Rongsen T; Chetia J; Sharma P

    Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2004; 25 Suppl 1:S66-S71.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) Asian site was New Delhi, India. Its sample was drawn from 58 affluent neighborhoods in South Delhi. This community was selected to facilitate the recruitment of children who had at least one parent with 17 or more years of education, a key factor associated with unconstrained child growth in this setting. A door-to-door survey was conducted to identify pregnant women whose newborns were subsequently screened for eligibility for the longitudinal study, and children aged 18 to 71 months for the cross-sectional component of the study. A total of 111,084 households were visited over an 18-month period. Newborns were screened at birth at 73 sites. The large number of birthing facilities used by this community, the geographically extensive study area, and difficulties in securing support of pediatricians and obstetricians for the feeding recommendations of the study were among the unique challenges faced by the implementation of the MGRS protocol at this site. (author's)
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  8. 8
    296464

    Equal pay, urban women problems discussed by Commission - UN Commission on the Status of Women, 38th session, Mar 7-18, 1994 - includes news of other developments pertaining to equal pay and equality in marriage.

    UN Chronicle. 1994 Jun; 31(2):[4] p..

    Equal pay for work of equal value, women in urban areas and measures to eradicate violence against women were among the issues dealt with by the Commission on the Status of Women at its thirty-eighth session (7-18 March, New York). Being also the preparatory body for the Fourth world conference on Women in Beijing 1995, the commission's work focused on preparatory activities, in particular the drafting of the Platform for Action. In discussing priority themes--equality, development and peace--established for its thirty-seven through fortieth sessions, the Commission adopted 13 resolutions, many calling on Governments to urgently improve the situations of women around the world. "The road to Beijing must be paved with vision, commitment and a determination to harness the support of Governments to remove the remaining obstacles to the advancement of women", Gertrude Mongella, UN Assistant Secretary-General and Secretary-General of the Fourth World Conference, told the 45-member Commission on 7 March. It has the task of organizing that conclave, which is set for September 1995. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    296450

    UNCHS - Habitat: global facilitation of human settlements efforts - United Nations Centre for Human Settlements, includes a related article announcing an April 1996 Washington, D.C. conference on Habitat II.

    UN Chronicle. 1996 Spring; 33(1):[2] p..

    The United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS)--widely known as Habitat--was established in Nairobi in 1978, two years after the first Habitat Conference. It formulates and implements relevant UN programmes and serves as a think-tank within the UN system, assisting Governments in improving the development and management of human settlements. Habitat activities are based on the concept that human settlements "are the physical articulation of the social, economic and political interaction of people living in communities", states a UNCHS brochure. "Whether the communities are urban or rural, their development involves a transformation of the environment from its natural state to a built one. The elements required to meet basic human needs include housing and its related infrastructure, places of work, social services and recreation, and the institutions to produce and manage them." (excerpt)
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  10. 10
    292185

    A dilemma confronting women in Africa.

    Oucho JO

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1):[2] p..

    An important feature of virtually all African countries has been the growing migration of women to cities as colonial laws and regulations outlawing such movement were eased after independence. But this has placed migrant women in a dilemma from a variety of perspectives. The first problem that arises is the autonomy of women as they attain the same educational standards as men. This status contrasts with that in colonial Africa where female rural-urban migration was restricted mainly because of male-centred urban employment opportunities. Yet, irrespective of such equality, employers, with top echelons dominated by men, tend to discriminate against women in terms of remuneration and promotion, invariably vetting a woman’s marital status, her quest to rent accommodation and access to social services, including contraceptive services where applicable. In some African countries, husbands have to approve their wives’ utilisation of contraceptives, access to credit, or the type of paid or informal employment they take up. (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    292184

    Gender mainstreaming in European municipalities.

    Gaspard F

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1):[2] p..

    The Women’s Commission of the Council of European Municipalities and Regions (CCRE) in 2004 surveyed municipalities across the European Union to find out whether there were any truly women-friendly cities. No ideal city was found. But they did find many exemplary towns and cities, many with municipal gender policies. The CCRE then asked its national associations to help compile an inventory of best practices. Outlined below are three conditions, which were used for the survey, with examples of towns and cities that are among some 100 on the list of Best Practices. At the pan-European level, the Community programme supporting twinning between towns stipulates respect for gender equality as a prerequisite for financial support from the European Union’s executive arm, the European Commission. (excerpt)
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  12. 12
    292190

    Tolstoy, community cybernetics, and the MDGs.

    Moor J

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):19.

    Leo Tolstoy famously wrote that all happy families are alike, but each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way. If the same can be said about dysfunctional cities, we must be prepared to deal with the unique micro-realities of each ailing community. This can only be done practically by encouraging residents to engage in a form of therapy that begins with local self-discovery. This must be a central aim in monitoring the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In an economically pressurized world where more than 95 percent of all development decisions are made by members of civil society, each acting more or less in their own self-interest, central coordinative systems of governance are failing. Squatters and slumlords everywhere make their choices outside the world of plans and regulations, as do an increasing number of small-scale entrepreneurs. This self-interest promotes unsustainable urban development, inhibiting a cooperative vision for the future that the complex urban ecology demands. The collective future is no-one’s baby and in effect has become an orphan. (excerpt)
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  13. 13
    292191

    A message from the Executive Director.

    Tibaijuka AK

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):2.

    Each year we celebrate World Habitat Day on the first Monday in October. The theme of the event being spearheaded from Jakarta, Indonesia this year and marked in cities around the world is The Millennium Development Goals and the City. It is my intention to use this theme and World Habitat Day as an occasion to launch a new integrated slum upgrading and disaster mitigation programme in Indonesia. We chose this theme because the year 2005 marks the fifth anniversary of the Millennium Declaration in which world leaders agreed on a set of eight ambitious goals. These goals are aimed at eradicating poverty, achieving universal primary education, empowering women, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, fighting AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensuring environmental sustainability, and forging a new partnership for development. These goals are people-centred, timebound and measurable. They are simple but powerful objectives that every woman, man, and young person in the street from Washington to Monrovia, Jakarta to Nairobi and Oslo to Cape Town can understand. They have the political support because they mark the first time our leaders have held themselves accountable to such a covenant. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    292192

    How far is the world from the slum target?

    López Moreno E

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):4-5.

    Governments everywhere recognize that the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are essentially about people and human development. At stake are prospects for hundreds of millions of people to escape poverty, disease and illiteracy and live better lives. Also at stake is the word of world leaders and the commitment of governments and international agencies to take direct action to improve the living conditions of slum dwellers and to offer adequate solutions for the slums of tomorrow. As the UN General Assembly conducts its five-year review of the goals only 15 years remain to achieve Target 11– improving the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by the year 2020. What is new since governments signed up to the Millennium Declaration five years ago is that progress is tracked in every part of the world. Two clear outcomes of this process are now emerging: Firstly, the need to build a broad architecture for global monitoring and reporting, and secondly, the need to use the information gathered more strategically to support new policy formulation. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    292177

    Even in the best of times, women are constantly in danger.

    Smaoun S

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1):[2] p..

    In South Africa, one woman is raped every 26 seconds, and only one rape in 36 is reported to the police. In the United States, a woman is physically abused every 9 seconds, and in France, 7 per cent of all rapes occur in the family. In Papua New Guinea, national statistics show that on average, 67 per cent of married women have been the victims of violence inflicted on them by their husbands. In Latin America, one of the most alarming manifestations of violence against women is homicide. In Mexico, according to Amnesty International, around 370 homicides of women have been registered in 10 years. These are just a sampling of the statistics of horror, of the violence women have to contend with daily around the world. The list goes on. Compared to men, women are particularly prone to various forms of violence, whether in the privacy of their own homes, on a city street or anywhere else. In the city, the question of violence is multifaceted, and the issue of primary importance is that of the suitability of public areas for women. Cities need to be more women-friendly. Planners need to consider the comfort and well being of women in the city. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    292179

    Getting the right data -- helping municipalities help women.

    Mboup G; Amuyunzu-Nyamongo M

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1):[2] p..

    Existing strategies to mainstream gender in development reveals a gap in addressing the situation of women living in poverty. This is mainly due to the fact that existing global instruments and measures are based on national data that are sometimes disaggregated between rural and urban population, but ignoring gender disparities. This is despite compelling evidence that nationwide averages fail to highlight gender differentials vis-à-vis several aspects of human existence. Eliminating gender disparity at all levels of education helps to increase the status and capabilities of women. In developing countries the gender gap in enrolment narrowed during the last decade. However, the progress indicated by national figures has been uneven in countries where many girls and boys remain out-of-school or drop out too early. Female literacy rates are still low, particularly in poor areas (more than 70 percent). This limits the opportunities women can have to take up employment in the formal sector. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    292180

    Gender and urban transport.

    Williams B

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1):[2] p..

    In all societies, men have better access to superior transport, be it more regular use of the family car or disposable income to take public transport instead of walking. The lack of mobility generally, let alone poorer job and educational opportunities, plays an important and under-appreciated role in perpetuating the economic disadvantages of women. Gender inequality in transport is a consequence of social organization and the outcome of differential access to economic, time and other resources. The greater domestic responsibilities of women, coupled with weaker access to household resources, have significant consequences for their transport an travel status. In many parts of the world, women also face customary or legal restraints, their rights to travel or a particular mode of transport with violations often resulting in physical harassment. Personal safety and avoiding harassment are major preoccupations whether women drive, use public transport, cycle or walk. They are especially vulnerable to violent attacks or sexual abuse when transporting heavy goods or with accompanying children. (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    292261

    Women's safety audits.

    Smaoun S

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[2] p..

    Violence against women, be it threats, intimidation, harassment, sexual attacks or rape, considerably inhibits women’s mobility within the city. Women are targets of violence due to their vulnerability, and this vulnerability perpetuates their position in society. This means that in large cities, most women restrict their movements or activities because they feel unsafe. This daily experience of insecurity makes them infinitely qualified to detect problems and offer solutions. One of the ways in which women can feel safer and fully benefit from the services and resources cities have to offer is to actively go about changing their environment together with municipal authorities and other community institutions and groups. A Women’s Safety Audit is a tool that enables a critical evaluation of the urban environment. This tool was initiated in Canada following the recommendations of a report in 1989 on violence against women and has been further developed by UN-HABITAT’s Safer Cities programme. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    292270

    Young people at risk in an urbanizing world.

    Ravestijn S

    Habitat Debate. 2003 Jun; 9(2):[2] p..

    In today's rapidly urbanizing world, the risks facing young people are varied, indiscriminate and growing, especially in the developing world. From boys forced to take up arms by warlords in west and central Africa, and girls kidnapped to serve as their "wives" as documented in Uganda, to the child labourers of Asia, the Middle East and Latin America, there is little hope of leading a healthy life. Likewise for those who end up as street children in Cape Town or Rio de Janeiro. The risks are greatest to those born in poverty, or in countries at war. Elsewhere, dwindling employment opportunities, rising levels of delinquency, crime and growing slums that lack basic services aggravate the situation. Those most at risk are children afflicted by war, young people in conflict with the law, victims of family violence and sexual abuse, the street children and children who have lived all their lives in slums, school drop-outs, orphans, and those without jobs. (excerpt)
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  20. 20
    292264

    Nairobi's slums: where life for women is nasty, brutish and short.

    Warah R

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[2] p..

    Kenya’s capital city, Nairobi, hosts some of the most dense, unsanitary and insecure slums in the world. Slum dwellers constitute the majority of the city’s population; an estimated 60 per cent of the city’s population of roughly 2.5 million people live in slums or informal settlements. Life in Nairobi’s slums is not easy by any standards. As many as 1200 people live in one square hectare, mostly in mud and stick shacks no bigger than 10X10 feet. Provision of basic services is extremely scant or non-existent. Hundreds of people can end up sharing one toilet. A recent enumeration exercise in a Nairobi slum showed that the toilet to person ratio was 1:500. The lack of water and sanitation has a significant impact on the quality of women’s lives. Slum women spend a large part of their lives fetching or looking for water. Also, unlike men, they cannot use open spaces to relieve themselves, so the lack of toilet facilities is an enormous disadvantage. (excerpt)
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  21. 21
    292263

    Crushed homes, crushed lives.

    Scholz B

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[3] p..

    For most women, the home is the single most important place in the world. Beyond shelter, it is a place of employment, where income is generated; it is a place to care for children; and it provides respite from violence in the streets. For some women, the home may be the only place where they can participate in social activities. The interconnectedness and particular relationship women have with housing suggests that a practice like forced eviction will have an acute and disparate impact on women’s lives. According the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, forced eviction is the involuntary, permanent or temporary removal of a person from his/her home or land, directly or indirectly attributable to the State, without the provision of, or access to, legal and other forms of protection The United Nations Commission on Human Rights has deemed the practice of forced evictions to be a “gross violation of human rights, in particular the right to housing.” General Comment No. 7 to the Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights, the most definitive statement on forced evictions in international law, adopted by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, has named the practice of forced eviction a prima facie violation of the provision of the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and “can only be carried out under exceptional circumstances” and then in stringent accordance with principles of international law. (excerpt)
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  22. 22
    292267

    Changing the world: with children and for children.

    de la Barra X

    Habitat Debate. 2003 Jun; 9(2):[2] p..

    The developing world is experiencing the largest ever generation of children and youth. Around 1 billion people - one out of every six on the planet - are between 10 and 19 years of age, 85% of them in developing countries. Because of the considerable drop in fertility rates, the children of today will constitute the largest-ever generation of active people. This is perhaps the greatest development opportunity the world cannot afford to miss. The Convention of the Rights of the Child consolidates the position of children and adolescents as subjects of rights rather than objects of compassion. It also places families and states in a position of responsibility towards them, and gears adults to visualize children in relation to their potential, rather than to the demands they pose on society. They are the main source of inspiration, innovation, creative strength, new values, and of new dreams with which to build a prosperous and humane society. (excerpt)
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  23. 23
    292268

    Youth are an asset -- unemployment is the problem.

    Miller S

    Habitat Debate. 2003 Jun; 9(2):[3] p..

    There are more than 1 billion people in the world aged between 15 and 25. Nearly 40 per cent of the world's population is below the age of 20. Eighty-five per cent of them live in developing countries, where many are vulnerable to extreme poverty. And, the rate of urbanization is by far the greatest in developing countries. By 2015 it is expected that developing countries will account for over 75 per cent of the world's urban population. The International Labour Office estimates that globally around 74 million young women and men are unemployed. They account for 41 per cent of the 180 million people in the world without jobs. Many more young people are working long hours for low pay, struggling to eke out a living in the informal economy. There are an estimated 59 million young people between 15 and 17 years of age who are engaged in hazardous forms of work. Young people actively seeking to participate in the world of work are two to three times more likely than older generations to find themselves unemployed. (excerpt)
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  24. 24
    292266

    My experiences in Port Moresby.

    Ravestijn S

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[2] p..

    Between March and October 2002, I was working in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea (PNG), to set up an urban crime prevention initiative. During my seven months there I often found myself in a difficult position because of my youth and my gender. I decided to share my experiences, as they are a clear illustration of power imbalances in social relations. The urbanization and globalization processes in PNG have caused extremely high levels of alcohol abuse and violent crime, along with a gang culture. Until recently, people perceived gangs as assets to their communities as they were seen to be redistributing wealth from the rich to the poor. In addition to high levels of unemployment and social exclusion, and a traditional culture that emphasizes communal ownership of property, the gang culture, particularly among young males, is not only tolerated, but also seen as heroic. (excerpt)
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  25. 25
    292262

    Manzese Ward, Dar es Salaam.

    Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4):[1] p..

    The Manzese Ward was among the first areas in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to implement crime prevention initiatives under the framework of UN-HABITAT’s Safer Cities Programme. Safer Cities worked with the Manzese women and ward leadership to conduct a Safety Audit for women in two selected areas of the Ward. A two-day discussion accompanied with an exploratory walk was conducted by the group of women who have lived in the area for not less than five years. Guided by a map, the women led the team of Safer Cities and Ward officers into the area through all streets, paths, open spaces and unfinished buildings expressing their experiences of criminal activities at each point. (excerpt)
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