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  1. 1


    Habitat Debate. 2001 Jun; 7(2):[2] p..

    At the special session of the General Assembly Istanbul +5, UN Member States adopted by consensus the "Declaration on Cities and Other Human Settlements in the New Millennium", which commits governments to strengthening their efforts to improving the living environment, especially for the urban poor. The governments had met in New York for three days to review progress made in implementing the Habitat Agenda. Five years after the Agenda was adopted, the Istanbul + 5 special session of the General Assembly recognized the gaps and obstacles in the way of developing sustainable human settlements, but also showed the way forward in achieving the Agenda's objectives. By adopting the Declaration, the governments recognized that the world is becoming increasingly urban and that specific policies are needed to address growing urban poverty. Urbanization is clearly a dominant factor in global demographics, raising challenges and opportunities, which in turn have further impact on the numbers. Urbanization has been found to have an impact on fertility, mortality and other demographic trends, on personal and household incomes, and on the general economic development of both rural and urban areas. As UNCHS (Habitat)'s State of the World's Cities Report 2001 clearly indicates, there is a strong correlation between city development and human development at the national level. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Urbanization in Peshawar: making a case for Healthy City Project.

    Khan J

    In: Pakistan's population issues in the 21st century. Conference proceedings Oct 24th - 26th, 2000, Karachi, [compiled by] Population Association of Pakistan. Islamabad, Pakistan, Population Association of Pakistan, 2001. 213-28.

    Acceleration in urban migration is a universal phenomenon. In Pakistan, in general, and Peshawar (the biggest city of North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan), in particular, the urbanization process is taking place at a very rapid pace. Consequently, proper planning is lacking. Being a city in a developing country, the condition of this "city of flowers" has already deteriorated. It was therefore felt that there was a need to highlight this problem and bring it to the notice of all concerned, so that time measures could be taken. In this paper, urbanization problems of Peshawar have been analyzed in the context of emerging global as well as local scenario. An effort has been attempted to present a profile of the problem, to estimate the impact, and recommend strategies to delineate this important public health issue. Indigenous research in this field is seriously lacking in Pakistan. However, published literature, government reports and Internet sources were searched and reviewed. Global view as well as the situation in Pakistan and Peshawar was explored. The impact of urbanization on the population, especially with regard to health was assessed. Finally, recommendations have been put forth for an urgent need for steps to be taken by the government. The recommendations of this study, mainly centering on adoption of healthy city/village concept pledged in the national health policy also, may prove an icebreaker in solving the urbanization-related problems of Peshawar (and other cities of Pakistan as well). This may usher in a new era in raising the health status of the nation in the minimum possible time. (author's)
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