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  1. 1

    A dilemma confronting women in Africa.

    Oucho JO

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1):[2] p..

    An important feature of virtually all African countries has been the growing migration of women to cities as colonial laws and regulations outlawing such movement were eased after independence. But this has placed migrant women in a dilemma from a variety of perspectives. The first problem that arises is the autonomy of women as they attain the same educational standards as men. This status contrasts with that in colonial Africa where female rural-urban migration was restricted mainly because of male-centred urban employment opportunities. Yet, irrespective of such equality, employers, with top echelons dominated by men, tend to discriminate against women in terms of remuneration and promotion, invariably vetting a woman’s marital status, her quest to rent accommodation and access to social services, including contraceptive services where applicable. In some African countries, husbands have to approve their wives’ utilisation of contraceptives, access to credit, or the type of paid or informal employment they take up. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Urbanization in Peshawar: making a case for Healthy City Project.

    Khan J

    In: Pakistan's population issues in the 21st century. Conference proceedings Oct 24th - 26th, 2000, Karachi, [compiled by] Population Association of Pakistan. Islamabad, Pakistan, Population Association of Pakistan, 2001. 213-28.

    Acceleration in urban migration is a universal phenomenon. In Pakistan, in general, and Peshawar (the biggest city of North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan), in particular, the urbanization process is taking place at a very rapid pace. Consequently, proper planning is lacking. Being a city in a developing country, the condition of this "city of flowers" has already deteriorated. It was therefore felt that there was a need to highlight this problem and bring it to the notice of all concerned, so that time measures could be taken. In this paper, urbanization problems of Peshawar have been analyzed in the context of emerging global as well as local scenario. An effort has been attempted to present a profile of the problem, to estimate the impact, and recommend strategies to delineate this important public health issue. Indigenous research in this field is seriously lacking in Pakistan. However, published literature, government reports and Internet sources were searched and reviewed. Global view as well as the situation in Pakistan and Peshawar was explored. The impact of urbanization on the population, especially with regard to health was assessed. Finally, recommendations have been put forth for an urgent need for steps to be taken by the government. The recommendations of this study, mainly centering on adoption of healthy city/village concept pledged in the national health policy also, may prove an icebreaker in solving the urbanization-related problems of Peshawar (and other cities of Pakistan as well). This may usher in a new era in raising the health status of the nation in the minimum possible time. (author's)
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