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  1. 1

    Increasing the relevance of education for health professionals. Report of a WHO Study Group on Problem-Solving Education for the Health Professions.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Study Group on Problem-Solving Education for the Health Professions


    A consideration of current practices in problem-solving education for the health professions was the agenda of a World Health Organization (WHO) Study Group convened in Geneva, Switzerland, in October 1992. The group widened its concerns to provide a general outline of how health professional educational institutions (HPEIs) can influence health care delivery by redefining and expanding their role into the domain of health policy and service delivery. The committee's report presents information on such educational innovations as problem-based learning, student-centered education, community-based education, and community-oriented education. The effects of these innovations can be measured in terms of outcomes for the individual and outcomes for the HPEI, which include effects on the HPEIs themselves and effects on the community health sector. The report discusses 1) creating links with new partners by identifying and solving priority health problems in and with the community, 2) working in the community, 3) shaping health policy through the appropriate use of pharmaceuticals, 4) the effective use of health personnel, 5) the rational allocation of human resources, and 6) health-related legislation. The group addressed strategies for change as they apply to health systems and (HPEIs) including such barriers to changes as fear of a loss of control, failure to align innovation with the perceived needs of the HPEI or service, specific behavior on the part of innovators which jeopardized the change process, fear that change will erode professional excellence or undermine the reward system, and security considerations. Strategies for changes include encouraging broad participation, ensuring that all participating constituencies benefit, maintaining links with other innovative programs, and encouraging participation through a reward system. Organization and practical issues addressed in the committee report include factors involved with getting started, resource needs for curricular development, selecting community sites, and creating favorable administrative structures. The committee recommended that HPEIs review their mission statements, establish partnerships in the community, conduct action research, shift resources to health systems research, ensure the relevance of educational programs, evaluate programs in terms of their impact practice, ensure the use of problem-based learning techniques, and support longterm evaluation. WHO member states were advised to provide incentives and remove unnecessary barriers to collaboration, to use the potential of HPEIs to improve the health sector, to provide financial and administrative support for action research, and to ensure that research findings guide policy development. Finally, the group recommended that WHO encourage the development of guidelines and models to support action research, collaborate with HPEIs which express an interest in developing pilot collaborative projects, and encourage research efforts in HPEIs which have begun such collaboration.
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  2. 2

    Training methodologies for integration of population variables into development planning, with particular reference to the UNFPA Global Programme of Training in Population and Development.

    Mazouz M

    In: Population and development planning. Proceedings of the United Nations International Symposium on Population and Development Planning, Riga, Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, 4-8 December 1989, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Development. New York, New York, United Nations, 1993. 275-82. (ST/ESA/SER.R/116)

    This discussion focuses on a UN Population Fund training strategy as part of the Global Program of Training in Population and Development. This training involves senior officials with a policy and decision-making role, senior professionals, executives and technicians, academics, midlevel government officials, managers, and program administrators. The program was launched in 1986 for developing country candidates within the Catholic University of Louvain at Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; the Center for Development Studies at Trivandrum, India; and the Institute of Social Studies in cooperation with the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute in the Hague. The discussion of program activities includes teaching methods, the techniques for integrated programs, and support skills. The conclusion after two years of program experience is that the approach is appropriate, offers practical skill building, and opens people up to thinking in new ways about their disciplines. The problems are a lack of data or poor quality of data, endogeneity, behavioral content, user friendliness, and lack of technical background of some participants. Feedback from participants was positive about the concept and practice of integrated population and development programs. Program objectives are building national capacity in integration of population into development strategies, policies, and programs. Individuals are trained to examine the effect of population policy options on development planning and vice versa. Courses are directed to the attainment of functional knowledge, skills, and techniques for implementing basic planning and research and preparing "clear, succinct, and coherent" policy and program statements. Skills are developed for translating policy into programs and implementing policies and programs in a complex context. A variety of teaching methods are used for training.
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  3. 3

    Partners: existing health institutions.

    Rosenbaum J

    In: Partners against AIDS: lessons learned. AIDSCOM, [compiled by] Academy for Educational Development [AED]. AIDS Public Health Communication Project [AIDSCOM]. Washington, D.C., AED, 1993 Nov. 67-76. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5972-Z-00-7070-00)

    AIDSCOM's Resident Advisor to the WHO Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC) discussed partnerships with existing health institutions. These institutions included Ministries of Health, multilateral agencies (e.g., WHO and UNICEF), family planning associations, universities, international private voluntary organizations, bilateral agencies (e.g., Canadian International Development Agency), and indigenous nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). AIDSCOM helped them develop an appropriate and effective conceptual approach to HIV prevention, which generally meant integrating new HIV prevention skills and concepts into existing programs and activities. AIDSCOM technical assistance addressed issues of accessibility of health services, testing, counseling, policy and confidentiality. Technical assistance included improved planning and management, program design skills, materials development, training in prevention counseling and condom skills, and a model for personal and professional behavior regarding AIDS, sex and risk. A key factor contributing to a successful partnership with CAREC was continuity of AIDSCOM staff contact. AIDSCOM helped CAREC with social marketing and behavioral research. It helped CAREC and its national counterparts to develop a regional KABP protocol for all 19 countries. AIDSCOM helped implement the protocol and strategize how to develop programmatic activities based on the results. The identified activities were training health workers and HIV prevention counselors promoting condom skills, establishing 5 national AIDS hotlines, developing 3 national media campaigns, and developing music, theater, and radio dramas. AIDSCOM and CAREC became partners with local NGOs who had access to hard-to-reach groups. Lessons learned included: technical assistance helps heath projects shift program emphasis from information to behavior change; successful partnership result in innovative programs; and proven effectiveness can be replicated in parallel programs.
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