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Child survival and development toward Health for All: roles and strategies for Asia-Pacific universities.
ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 1989; 3(2):118-28.The child survival and development movement in relation to universities in the Asia-Pacific region were the subject of recent discussions of medical practitioners and academics. There are 14 million deaths of children that could be avoided if they could benefit from immunizations, pure water, sanitation, nutrition, and oral rehydration therapy. Also there is a large loss of physical and mental ability. Many international agencies have helped improved children's health and survival, and life expectancy has risen 40% in the last 40 years. In countries such as China, India, Pakistan, Thailand, and Indonesia there has been an exceptional achievement in child survival and development. In many developing countries health services have been patterned after western medical systems that promote treatment rather than prevention. Universities' role in relation to these problems has been the conducting of research, providing instruction, education, and training. The areas of success are in vaccine development and mass communications research. New roles can be taken in technical assistance and introduction of technology in planning and evaluation. There are also possibilities in the pooling of information and resources to help in child survival and development. In long range strategies and roles, universities can use conventional methods. In midrange areas the universities can use new modes and share and interact with governments and international organizations. In the short term they can use the less conventional methods and follow the leadership of the international organizations. In short term, universities can provide help in planning of national campaigns, provide resources, and participate in evaluations of campaigns. In the mid-range they can be involved in joint initiatives in operations research, specialized training, and clinical trials. In the long range universities are best suited to conventional research, training, laboratory science and technology development.
In: Middleton J, ed. Population education in the Asian Region: a conference on needs and directions. [Honolulu, East-West Center], 1974 Jun. 112-4.The introduction of population education to formal schools has become an urgent task of Korean educators and policy makers. A comprehensive plan for population education was developed by the joint efforts of experts from Korean research institutes and government officials with the help of Unesco experts, and submitted recently to the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) for assistance. A summary of the plan's content is presented. The project is comprised of 4 major areas of activity, and each of these is reviewed: research; curriculum and material development; teacher training; and higher education programs. 5 research topics are included in the plan: development stages in children's acquisition of population knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs; 2 approaches in curriculum organization for population education; effects of structured population instruction and school environment on children's formation of population attitudes; a study on attitude change towards population issues; and consciousness of school teachers of population problems. The population education curriculum will be developed for students at levels of elementary, middle, and high school grades and for adults and youths attending community education classes. The curriculum to be developed by educational level, subject matter, and grade will specify general goals and instructional objectives, population education content, and ways and patterns of organization of population education content. The plan includes a comprehensive in-service teacher training program, including training of school administrators. 4 universities would be provided with grants to develop course materials for the infusion of population education in college programs. Population education study organizations in Korea are listed. An organizational chart of the project is included.
In: Middleton J, ed. Population education in the Asian Region: a conference on needs and directions. [Honolulu, East-West Center], 1974 Jun. 239-44.The Florida State University Population Education Program developed out of a mutual interest among education specialists and demographers in improving the knowledge level of the public concerning population education matters. Initial program efforts were directed toward identifying the faculty and students at the the university who shared the interest in population education and instituting mechanisms whereby projects in the population education field could be developed. The following were among the steps taken: expert consultation on population education; preparation of training, research, and program proposals for local and international population education projects; and development of university courses for graduate students to deal with critical issues in population education. The University provided initial funding for the program. Some limited funding has since been obtained from government agencies for a project in curriculum materials development and field testing. The University's population education program emphasizes in-school curriculum and materials development, teacher training, and field administration of population education activities. Some of the projects completed in the area of curriculum and materials are listed. Undergraduate or graduate degree programs leading to B.A., M.A., or Ph.D. are offered through the Department of Sociology and the Programs of Science and Human Affairs and Developmental Comparative Studies. The function of research in the program is 2-fold: to provide a factual basis for input to curriculum material development and to measure changes in population knowledge, attitudes, and behavior which result from population education. Program aims are to extend the focus of in-school curriculum projects to encompass children at the elementary school level as well as senior high school and university levels, broaden research efforts in the direction of improving understanding of population learning process, and develop empirical bases for judging the effects of the various types of population education strategies and programs. Program needs over the next 3 years are identified. A table of illustrative curriculum content is included.
El papel de la universidad en la esfera de la poblacion. The role of the university in population, statement made at Special Convocation of the University of Panama, Panama City, Panama, 29 November, 1983.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 8 p. (Speech Series No. 104)The University of Panama, as an academic and research institution, is the key to the joint implementation of government population and development programs. Many Latin American universities now have a better understanding of the complexity of the relationship between popultion and development and therefore devote more attention to this field by including demographic components in the curricula for existing specialties or creating new specialties. It is recommended that the University of Panama work constructively with the relevant technical experts to determine the position that Panama will adopt at the World Population Conference, in Mexico. If possible, such participation could help to strengthen the link between the academic community and the government in the area of population. In the final analysis, this will promote a better understanding of the dynamic relationship that exists between population and development.
Population Sciences. 1983; (4):7-15.The slow progress of family planning in Egypt is not due to the insufficiency of human and material resources. The problem lies in the distribution, management, and improvement of these resources. Research and personnel training are critical to directing efforts along the right course and towards the right objectives. The Population Council (USA), at the end of 1972, identified all findings of major significance from international research on family planning programs. Of the 322 studies, not 1 was carried out in Egypt or was based on 2ndary data from Egypt. Since 1972, though, Egyptian social and medical scientists have become actively involved in demographic themes and human reproduction. These are mainly personal iniatives, often limited by a scarcity of funds. Findings of population studies are not as transferable from 1 population to another. Also, there is a diversity of research needs. Many Muslims believe that their religion outlaws birth control. Religious objection appears the most widely shared reason for nonuse. This objection suggests a series of questions on what can be done to influence religious attitudes relating to contraception. A permanent and adequately managed institution for training in family planning and related aspects of maternal education has not been set up in Egypt. Training requirements of different levels and categories of personnel must be carefully identified. The impact of training on the quality of performance must be monitored. Training should not be limited to conventional groups of trainees. Al-Azhar's Islamic Centre for Population Studies and Research was built 5 years ago with initial aid from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities. It was an attempt to create an intellectual focus on population issues, concerning how the quality of life and Islamic standards of its quality affect each other. During the 1st 5 years, the Centre devoted itself to research activities. 44 studies were conducted.