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In: AAWORD / AFARD 5th General Assembly (19-24 July 1999). "Visions of Gender Theories and Social Development in Africa: Harnessing Knowledge for Social Justice and Equality, [compiled by] Association of African Women for Research and Development [AAWORD]. Dakar, Senegal, AAWORD, 2001. 95-113. (AAWORD Book Series)This paper analyzes some implications of the persistent under-representation of girls and women in education in Africa, with a specific reference to women's limited participation in knowledge production. It also examines the negative impact of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund’s structural adjustment programs on Africa’s educational system. The first section presents a conceptual and historical discussion of the issues. The second section addresses the current educational distribution along gender lines, noting especially the lack of women in higher education. The author also warns women to question whether the values transmitted through higher education perpetuate norms of patriarchy and inequality. The third section examines African women's role in the production of knowledge.