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In: War and public health, edited by Barry S. Levy, Victor W. Sidel. Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association [APHA], 2000. 323-335.Why have educators failed to change in a changing world? There are at least three long-standing flaws in the academy, which work against change: departmental structure, misunderstanding of international education, and the narrow education of faculty. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1994. xv, 383 p. (Population Programmes and Projects Vol. 1)For the purposes of this guide, the definition of "international population assistance" includes direct financial grants or loans to governments or nongovernmental organizations in developing countries to fund, in whole or in part, a range of population activities such as basic data collection; population policy development; and family planning programs, information, education, training, and research. International assistance also takes the form of indirect grants from one agency through another to a developing country or an institution in a developing country. It includes the provision of commodities, equipment, and vehicles as well as technical and other support. It also encompasses the activities of organizations that offer training programs, expert and advisory services, and research in their special fields of competence; all of which offer valuable information for the formulation of population policies and programs. The Guide is organized into 4 major sections: the first section describes multilateral (UN) organizations and agencies; the second presents regional organizations and agencies, first in general and then those which are specific for Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as the Middle East and Western Asia; the third section deals with bilateral agencies; and the final section covers nongovernmental organizations, university centers, research institutions, and training organizations.
In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume V. Ecological change: environment, development and poverty linkages, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 154-60.The most common global concerns are the threat to the earth's ecological balance, challenges originating from new technologies, and the ability of developing countries to respond to these changes in a way conducive to sustainable development. Creative learning means that political systems assimilate new information when making policy decisions. pathological learning implies that political systems prevent new information from influencing policies, eventually leading to the system's failure. Policymakers cannot ignore the new technologies and the changing environment. The UN University had identified the most important research gaps with regard to technological development. recommendations from this study are more research on the relationship between the effects of existing trends in the technological revolution and the formation of development strategies and the significance of identifying alternatives of technological development better suited to the actual needs and conditions of developing countries. For example, biotechnology may produce new medications to combat some tropical diseases, but a lack of commercial interest in industrialized countries prevents the needed research. Research in the Himalayas shows the importance of focusing on the linkages between mountains and plains, instead of just the mountains, to resolve environmental degradation. This finding was not expected. The researchers promote a broader, more holistic, critical approach to environmental problem-solving. Humans must realize that we have certain rights and obligations to the earth and to future generations. We must translate these into enforceable standards at the local, national, and international levels to attain intergenerational equity. Policy-makers must do longterm planning and incorporate environmentally sound technologies and the conservation of the ecological balance into development policy. sustainable development must include social, economic, ecologic, geographic, and cultural aspects.
In: The Graduate Education of Foreign Physicians in Public Health and Preventive Medicine. The Role of United States Teaching Institutions, edited by Wendy W. Steele and Sally F. Oesterling. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, . 15-8.At a time when there is a growing interdependency among nations with regard to trade, resources and security, there is an increasing provincialism in the US. In such a climate it is difficult to generate support for international programs. Involvement on the part of medical schools has waned almost to the point of nonparticipation in international medical affairs, largely because of constraints on training and residency programs. Academic health centers have not been supported as a matter of policy. Leadership in international health in other parts of the world, diminished involvement in international health, current priorities and programs and a future prospectus are discussed. The WHO seems an unlikely source for necessary leadership in helping define future directions for education or new strategies in preventive medicine and public health in the developing world. Institutions in Europe have deteriorated and participation and leadership from them are unlikely. Few people today are interested in clinical tropical medicine. Another reason for waning academic activity in international health relates to the paucity of interest on the part of foundations. An important initiative was the development about 5 or 6 years ago of the WHO Tropical Disease Research Program. It now has a budget of about US $25 million and has attracted additional money from the US and from other countries. A gamut of prospects has resulted including a maria vaccine, a leprosy vaccine, a new drug for malaria. In the developing countries, there is a much larger base of basic competence than existed only 10 or 20 years ago, but these health workers need support if health goals are to be attained. Schools of public health should be as much professional schools as schools of medicine, and the practice of public health should be engaged in. The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), in its global Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) program in Thailand and in Indonesia has pioneered admirable new approaches in practical training. Provision must be made for sufficient faculty to permit both professional practice and education in any school that offers public health education. The US has a vital and unique role to play in public health and preventive medicine.