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Expanding the field of inquiry: a cross-country study of higher education institutions' responses to HIV and AIDS.
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2006 Mar. 73 p. (ED-2006/WS/25; CLD 27584)This report compares, analyses, and summarises findings from twelve case studies commissioned by the United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in higher education institutions in Brazil, Burkina Faso, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Lebanon, Lesotho, Suriname, Thailand, and Viet Nam. It aims to deepen the understanding of the impact of HIV and AIDS on tertiary institutions and the institutional response to the epidemic in different social and cultural contexts, at varying stages of the epidemic, and in different regions of the world. The overall objective is to identify relevant and appropriate actions that higher education institutions worldwide can take to prevent the further spread of HIV, to manage the impact of HIV and AIDS on the higher education sector, and to mitigate the effects of HIV and AIDS on individuals, campuses, and communities. Specific focus includes: Institutional HIV and AIDS policies and plans; Leadership on HIV and AIDS; Education related to HIV and AIDS (including pre- and in-service training, formal and nonformal education); HIV and AIDS research; Partnerships and networks; HIV and AIDS programmes and services; and Community outreach. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2004 Dec; 41(4): p..The work of Nobel Prize-winning economist Amartya Sen, such as Development as Freedom, suggests that studying development offers a fertile ground for investigation and training. The beauty of the whole idea is that this possibility transcends traditional divisions of the world into more and less developed, and lends itself to encompassing components of the emerging idea of human security. Thus, the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) can be seen as a resource for education at various levels. Almost all States are committed to achieving the eight MDGs by 2015: eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; achieve universal primary education; promote gender equality and empower women; reduce child mortality; improve maternal health; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; ensure environmental sustainability; and develop a global partnership for health. Several studies on the MDGs and breakdowns of their attainment are emerging. (excerpt)
Report of a pre ICN workshop on Negotiating the Future of Nutrition, Johannesburg, South Africa, 18 September 2005.
Public Health Nutrition. 2005 Dec; 8(8):1229-1230.Good nutrition underpins good health. That reality has been shown in repeated studies and quantified most recently in the 2002 World Health Report of the World Health Organization (WHO). In that report, food and nutrition (their lack or over-consumption) accounted for considerable mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite the compelling evidence of need, global action remains inadequate. Nutrition and food policy still receives considerably less attention in health policy and funding arenas than do many other lesser contributors to human health. Part of the reason relates to the lack of a strong coordinated voice for the broad area that is inclusive of all committed to and able to influence policies and actions for populations. (excerpt)
In: Women, international development, and politics: the bureaucratic mire. Updated and expanded edition, edited by Kathleen Staudt. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Temple University Press, 1997. 269-286.What follows is a narrative of a personal journey into Third World gender redistributive research and the bureaucracies encountered along the way. It is not possible to analyze in full the organization and agenda of each, even in this case study focusing on Women in Development (WID) programs through U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) projects. Rather, I aim to enumerate them and to describe the typical gatekeepers in the path from a home university through development consortia and AID at home and abroad as well as implementing agencies in a host country. In addition, this path requires a recognized WID program at each junction, lest one be left climbing the fence in unofficial and probably unapproved ways. The point of this journey is to analyze the possibilities of improving the opportunities for women less advantaged than those of us who can afford to make getting to the Third World part of our work. (excerpt)
In: The women and international development annual. Volume 4, edited by Rita S. Gallin, Anne Ferguson, and Janice Harper. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1995. 51-75.The growth of women's studies since 1970 has not been limited to the United States. Similar developments, some as dramatic, have been underway in other countries where there were networks of women scholars and activists. The United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand have made significant advances since the 1970s in women's studies research and in the number and range of courses available. Elsewhere courses appeared on the European continent, particularly in West Germany, the Netherlands, and the Scandinavian countries, where strong government support was available. In most developing countries, however, women's studies as such was little known prior to 1980. The notable exception was India. Here the origins of women's studies are attributable to the investigations of the Committee on the Status of Women in India, which were carried out from 1971 to 1974. The Committee's Report highlighted a lack of knowledge about the diversity of women's lives and pointed to the need for further research and reappraisal of the traditional assumptions of the social sciences. With that background, the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) established a Programme of Women's Studies in 1976 "to develop new perspectives in the social sciences--through examining basic assumptions, methodological approaches and concepts concerning the family, household, women's work, productivity, economic activity--to remedy the neglect and underassessment of women's contributions to the society. (excerpt)
In: War and public health, edited by Barry S. Levy, Victor W. Sidel. Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association [APHA], 2000. 323-335.Why have educators failed to change in a changing world? There are at least three long-standing flaws in the academy, which work against change: departmental structure, misunderstanding of international education, and the narrow education of faculty. (excerpt)
In: Missing links: gender equity in science and technology for development, [compiled by] United Nations. Commission on Science and Technology for Development. Gender Working Group. Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre [IDRC], 1995. 55-81.This document is the third chapter in a book complied by the UN Gender Working Group (GWG) that explores the overlay of science and technology (S&T), sustainable human development, and gender issues. This chapter addresses the nature of indigenous knowledge systems, their potential role in sustainable and equitable development, and possible strategies for promoting mutually beneficial exchanges between local and S&T knowledge systems. The introduction notes 1) that local knowledge science systems differ from modern S&T because they are managed by users of knowledge and are holistic, 2) gender roles lead to differentiation in the kind of local knowledge and skills acquired by women and by men, and 3) sustainable and equitable development depends upon full recognition and reinforcement of local knowledge systems. The chapter continues with an analysis of 1) gender, biodiversity, and new agrotechnologies; 2) gender and intellectual property rights, especially in regard to biotechnological developments based on local knowledge; and 3) the work of governments, universities, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and local groups in the areas of S&T programs with women, general women's programs, and programs focused on indigenous knowledge (with an emphasis on research in gender and indigenous knowledge systems, women promoting diversity, the comparative advantage of indigenous knowledge, and the role of NGOs and information networks). Next, the chapter considers the work of the UN and its agencies through a review of documents containing S&T agreements; support for women's rights; and work in the areas of indigenous people, biodiversity, and intellectual property rights. The chapter ends by identifying areas of critical concern and research needs.
In: Partners against AIDS: lessons learned. AIDSCOM, [compiled by] Academy for Educational Development [AED]. AIDS Public Health Communication Project [AIDSCOM]. Washington, D.C., AED, 1993 Nov. 67-76. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5972-Z-00-7070-00)AIDSCOM's Resident Advisor to the WHO Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC) discussed partnerships with existing health institutions. These institutions included Ministries of Health, multilateral agencies (e.g., WHO and UNICEF), family planning associations, universities, international private voluntary organizations, bilateral agencies (e.g., Canadian International Development Agency), and indigenous nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). AIDSCOM helped them develop an appropriate and effective conceptual approach to HIV prevention, which generally meant integrating new HIV prevention skills and concepts into existing programs and activities. AIDSCOM technical assistance addressed issues of accessibility of health services, testing, counseling, policy and confidentiality. Technical assistance included improved planning and management, program design skills, materials development, training in prevention counseling and condom skills, and a model for personal and professional behavior regarding AIDS, sex and risk. A key factor contributing to a successful partnership with CAREC was continuity of AIDSCOM staff contact. AIDSCOM helped CAREC with social marketing and behavioral research. It helped CAREC and its national counterparts to develop a regional KABP protocol for all 19 countries. AIDSCOM helped implement the protocol and strategize how to develop programmatic activities based on the results. The identified activities were training health workers and HIV prevention counselors promoting condom skills, establishing 5 national AIDS hotlines, developing 3 national media campaigns, and developing music, theater, and radio dramas. AIDSCOM and CAREC became partners with local NGOs who had access to hard-to-reach groups. Lessons learned included: technical assistance helps heath projects shift program emphasis from information to behavior change; successful partnership result in innovative programs; and proven effectiveness can be replicated in parallel programs.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1994. xv, 383 p. (Population Programmes and Projects Vol. 1)For the purposes of this guide, the definition of "international population assistance" includes direct financial grants or loans to governments or nongovernmental organizations in developing countries to fund, in whole or in part, a range of population activities such as basic data collection; population policy development; and family planning programs, information, education, training, and research. International assistance also takes the form of indirect grants from one agency through another to a developing country or an institution in a developing country. It includes the provision of commodities, equipment, and vehicles as well as technical and other support. It also encompasses the activities of organizations that offer training programs, expert and advisory services, and research in their special fields of competence; all of which offer valuable information for the formulation of population policies and programs. The Guide is organized into 4 major sections: the first section describes multilateral (UN) organizations and agencies; the second presents regional organizations and agencies, first in general and then those which are specific for Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as the Middle East and Western Asia; the third section deals with bilateral agencies; and the final section covers nongovernmental organizations, university centers, research institutions, and training organizations.
In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume V. Ecological change: environment, development and poverty linkages, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 154-60.The most common global concerns are the threat to the earth's ecological balance, challenges originating from new technologies, and the ability of developing countries to respond to these changes in a way conducive to sustainable development. Creative learning means that political systems assimilate new information when making policy decisions. pathological learning implies that political systems prevent new information from influencing policies, eventually leading to the system's failure. Policymakers cannot ignore the new technologies and the changing environment. The UN University had identified the most important research gaps with regard to technological development. recommendations from this study are more research on the relationship between the effects of existing trends in the technological revolution and the formation of development strategies and the significance of identifying alternatives of technological development better suited to the actual needs and conditions of developing countries. For example, biotechnology may produce new medications to combat some tropical diseases, but a lack of commercial interest in industrialized countries prevents the needed research. Research in the Himalayas shows the importance of focusing on the linkages between mountains and plains, instead of just the mountains, to resolve environmental degradation. This finding was not expected. The researchers promote a broader, more holistic, critical approach to environmental problem-solving. Humans must realize that we have certain rights and obligations to the earth and to future generations. We must translate these into enforceable standards at the local, national, and international levels to attain intergenerational equity. Policy-makers must do longterm planning and incorporate environmentally sound technologies and the conservation of the ecological balance into development policy. sustainable development must include social, economic, ecologic, geographic, and cultural aspects.
Baltimore, Maryland, JHPIEGO, 1987. iii, 23 p.The Johns Hopkins Program for International Education in Gynecology and Obstetrics (JHPIEGO) is a private, non-profit corporation affiliated with the Johns Hopkins University, and funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). It aims to increase the availability of improved reproductive health services and the number of skilled and knowledgeable health professionals in developing countries, especially in the area of family planning. JHPIEGO has supported educational programs for over 55,000 health care professionals and students from 122 countries since 1974. In 1987, it supported 46 programs for 12, 981 participants in 26 countries. 12,821 were trained in-country, 160 attended regional programs open to professionals seeking training not offered domestically, and an additional 122 studies at the JHPIEGO educational center in Baltimore for an eventual total of 13,103 trainees. 1,719 participants were from Africa, 541 from Asia, 10,426 from Latin America and the caribbean, and 417 from the Near East. Additional accomplishments include the creation of a slide/lecture set on contraception and reproductive health for distribution to selected health care leaders with teaching responsibilities in developing countries. A French translation is being developed. Proceedings from a conference co-sponsored with the World Health Organization, Reproductive Health Education and Technology: Issues and Future Directions, should also be published in Fall, 1988. The report comprehensively describes training objectives and activities for the 4 regions and the educational center, and discusses program evaluation. It further presents training and program support statistics, trends, a financial report, and supporting figures and tables.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA. 1991 Jun; 5(2):403-16.In the context of the controversial conference at Alma Ata and the emergent plan of Health for All by the Year 2000 (HFA/2000), the role of academic institutions is discussed. At the risk of expanding the controversy over HFA/2000, institutional involvement facilitates the testing of principals against real world problems of health development. Views from both sides of the debate and controversy are considered with respect to the appropriateness of institutional involvement in HFA/2000. A consultative committee to the Director General of the World Health Organization (WHO) analyzing the successes and failures of primary health care development is 1st explored. Other views from technical discussions of WHO on the roles of universities in the strategy of HFA are then examined. Traditional and progressive arguments on the roles of university in society are reviewed, with an eye to how HFA fits in. The paper concludes that institutions capable of and willing to provide substantial, institution-wide commitment are appropriate candidates for involvement in HFA/2000. The Aga Khan University's commitment orientation and health services development is cited as an example of appropriate, positive institutional participation. The Network of Community-Oriented Educational Institutions for Health Sciences addressing problem-based teaching methods, community orientation, and partnerships with governmental health services is also exemplary. In closing, the paper queries the extent to which the movement will attract institutions around the world.
ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 1989; 3(2):98-104.One of the most pressing problems in the health system is the lag between modern knowledge and its use in the community. This is caused by the inadequate scientific study of methods to apply this knowledge to society, and the poor training of health personnel to apply these methods. These failures are illustrated every day by the death of 50,000 people, mostly children under 5 years, from causes that are preventable at low costs. The medical education system is primarily responsible for what is taught and how it is taught, and yet less than 1% of the this education is related to community health and broad health education. Social organization is the key to efficiency of health protection and use of medical knowledge. The mass media and increasing communications development with modern marketing have allowed social organization at reasonable cost. Changes in human behavior can prevent most health problems and premature deaths. There are examples of how growth monitoring, oral rehydration therapy, breast feeding promotion, immunization, family planning, and female literacy have saved millions of children. There is now a global recognition that healthy children and healthy families are the foundation for national development. International goals are to reduce mortality rates for children under 5 to 70/1000, eliminate polio, have universal primary education, have less than 1% malnutrition, and promote water supply expansion and sanitation. There is also a need for better recordings of births and deaths and, especially in developing countries, low cost methods of collecting data are needed. Medical education needs to use the full range of resources, and students need to learn to promote health as well as treat diseases. Medical schools in consideration of primary health care must revise curricula to achieve a balanced education in the community, and students should be taught in a variety of environments from rural health areas to urban institutions.
POPIN Working Group on Dissemination of Population Information: Report on the meeting held from 2 to 4 April 1984.
Popin Bulletin. 1984 Dec; (6-7):69-79.The objectives of this meeting were: to analyze the general dissemination strategy and functions of POPIN member organizations and assess the methods currently employed to identify users; to select publications or other information output and evaluate how they are being distributed and how procedures for the selective dissemination of information are developed; to develop guidelines for determining the potential audience and reader's interests; to discuss the methodology for maintaining a register of readers' interest; to develop guidelines for establishing linds with key press and broadcasting agencies to ensure rapid dissemination of information; to dientify media and organizations currently involved in the dissemination of population information; to document experience and provide recommendations for the utilization of innovative approaches to serve audiences; and to explore ways and means to meet the special needs of policy makers. Problem areas in population information dissemination were identified at the meeting as well as priority areas in meeting speical information needs of policy makers. Collection of information for dissemination is difficult, costly and time-consuming; there is a shortage of staff trained in the repackaging and dissemination of population information; the direct use of the mass media for information dissemination is still very limited; and financial resources are limited. Priority areas include: compilation of a calendar of events or meetings; conducting media surveys and inventories of population infromation centers and their services and compilation of results; resource development through product marketing and preparation of resource catalogues; and preparation of executive summaries highlighting policy implications to facilitate policy making. Recommendations include: promotion of training and technical assistance in population information activities by the POPIN Coordinating Unit; encouraging member organizations with relevant data bases to develop subsets for distribution to other institutions and, where feasible, to provide technical assistance and support for their wider use; the POPIN Coordinating Unit should alert its members regularly of new technological facilities and innovations in the field of information; organizations conducting population information activities at the national and/or regional levels should be encouraged to provide the POPIN Coordinating Unit with yearly calendars of meetings for publication in the POPIN Bulletin; and the members of POPIN are urged to emphasize the need to incorporate specific plans and budgets for population information activities.
In: The Graduate Education of Foreign Physicians in Public Health and Preventive Medicine. The Role of United States Teaching Institutions, edited by Wendy W. Steele and Sally F. Oesterling. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, . 26-28.The School of Public Health at Loma Linda University in California was founded in 1967, and as of December 1983 had graduated a total of 1764 students, 187 of whom were physicians. 28 countries and 45 foreign schools were represented in this enrollment. The experience at Loma Linda University is different from many others in that there has been little government sponsorship of foreign medical graduates. Of 89 foreign medical graduates, only 17 were sponsored by the US Agency for International Development or the WHO, and all 17 returned to their home countries where they are making significant contributions in Tanzania, Kenya, Thailand and Indonesia. In 1970, the Loma Linda University School of Public Health developed an evening program in which most of the course work was taught in Los Angeles 1 evening per week over a 2-year period. 10 health officers and a few others completed that program. Their success stimulated extending the program. In 1973 an experimental program teaching a general Master of Public Health (MPH) course to Canadians was initiated. In 1980, Loma Linda University also launched an extended program in the Central American-Caribbean area. In the context of a general program in public health and preventive medicine leading to a Master of Public Health Degree, the curriculum in international health seeks to prepare health workers who will be: trainers of trainers; cross-cultural communicators; managers and supervisors of primary health care services; and practitioners of the integrated approach to community development. Graduates are prepared to deal with sociocultural, environmental and economic barriers. Students not having a professional background in health are required to add an area of concentration to degree requirements. Areas of concentration include: tropical agriculture, environmental health, health administration, health promotion, maternal and child health, nutrition and quantitative methods/health planning. The goal of the International Health Department is to help people help themselves to better health. Loma Linda University has also been involved with schools in Asia, Africa, Latin America and recently in the Philippines. The preventive medicine residency program at Loma Linda is for the 2nd and 3rd years only at the present.
In: The Graduate Education of Foreign Physicians in Public Health and Preventive Medicine. The Role of United States Teaching Institutions, edited by Wendy W. Steele and Sally F. Oesterling. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, . 15-8.At a time when there is a growing interdependency among nations with regard to trade, resources and security, there is an increasing provincialism in the US. In such a climate it is difficult to generate support for international programs. Involvement on the part of medical schools has waned almost to the point of nonparticipation in international medical affairs, largely because of constraints on training and residency programs. Academic health centers have not been supported as a matter of policy. Leadership in international health in other parts of the world, diminished involvement in international health, current priorities and programs and a future prospectus are discussed. The WHO seems an unlikely source for necessary leadership in helping define future directions for education or new strategies in preventive medicine and public health in the developing world. Institutions in Europe have deteriorated and participation and leadership from them are unlikely. Few people today are interested in clinical tropical medicine. Another reason for waning academic activity in international health relates to the paucity of interest on the part of foundations. An important initiative was the development about 5 or 6 years ago of the WHO Tropical Disease Research Program. It now has a budget of about US $25 million and has attracted additional money from the US and from other countries. A gamut of prospects has resulted including a maria vaccine, a leprosy vaccine, a new drug for malaria. In the developing countries, there is a much larger base of basic competence than existed only 10 or 20 years ago, but these health workers need support if health goals are to be attained. Schools of public health should be as much professional schools as schools of medicine, and the practice of public health should be engaged in. The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), in its global Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) program in Thailand and in Indonesia has pioneered admirable new approaches in practical training. Provision must be made for sufficient faculty to permit both professional practice and education in any school that offers public health education. The US has a vital and unique role to play in public health and preventive medicine.