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In: The women and international development annual. Volume 4, edited by Rita S. Gallin, Anne Ferguson, and Janice Harper. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1995. 51-75.The growth of women's studies since 1970 has not been limited to the United States. Similar developments, some as dramatic, have been underway in other countries where there were networks of women scholars and activists. The United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand have made significant advances since the 1970s in women's studies research and in the number and range of courses available. Elsewhere courses appeared on the European continent, particularly in West Germany, the Netherlands, and the Scandinavian countries, where strong government support was available. In most developing countries, however, women's studies as such was little known prior to 1980. The notable exception was India. Here the origins of women's studies are attributable to the investigations of the Committee on the Status of Women in India, which were carried out from 1971 to 1974. The Committee's Report highlighted a lack of knowledge about the diversity of women's lives and pointed to the need for further research and reappraisal of the traditional assumptions of the social sciences. With that background, the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) established a Programme of Women's Studies in 1976 "to develop new perspectives in the social sciences--through examining basic assumptions, methodological approaches and concepts concerning the family, household, women's work, productivity, economic activity--to remedy the neglect and underassessment of women's contributions to the society. (excerpt)
Proceedings of the joint UPM/UNESCO Workshop on Planning and Coordinating Non-Formal Education Programme on Population Education, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, May 28-30, 1979.
Serdang, Selangor, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Center for Extension and Continuing Education, 1979. 62 p.Objectives of the joint Universiti Pertanian Malaysia/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UPM/UNESCO) Workshop on Planning and Coordinating Non-Formal Education Program on Population Education were the following: to invite all the government and nongovernmental agencies to share their programs and experiences with each other; to identify common needs and problems; to develop an interagency national program for out-of-school education and to identify the activities within; to identify the agency which can provide the necessary leadership in this area; and to discuss how population education can be integrated into the agency programs within the scope of the other interagency national programs. Included in this report of the Workshop proceedings are reports of the following agencies: Fisheries Division; Community Development Division; the National Extension Project of the Department of Agriculture; the Veterinary Division; Population Education Unit of the Curriculum Development Center; Federation of Family Planning Association; Rubber Industry Smallholder Development Authority; National Family Planning Board; Ministry of Health; Universiti Pertanian Malaysia; Farmers Organization Authority; and the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports. Working papers on the subjects of planning and developing out-of-school population programs in Asia and Oceania and the potentials and strategies for integrating population elements in non-formal education programs are also included. It was determined that the integration of population education elements into non-formal education programs could be realized by leading agencies initiating programs such as organizing seminars and by training staff to be well-equipped in population and extension development.
In sickness or in health: TDR's parners. 7. Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
TDR NEWS. 1998 Feb; (55):8, 10.Mahidol University's Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand, established in 1960, is one of 14 faculties, 5 institutions, 5 centers, and 2 colleges within Mahidol University. It consists of the following departments: Helminthology, Medical Entomology, Microbiology and Immunology, Protozoology, Social and Environmental Medicine, Tropical Hygiene, Tropical Medicine, Tropical Nutrition and Food Science, Tropical Pediatrics, Tropical Pathology, and Tropical Radioisotopes. The UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) has been associated with the Faculty since 1977, collaborating mainly upon malaria research, but also in filariasis, leprosy, and schistosomiasis research. Early TDR support was directed at research training and institutional strengthening, although by the early 1980s, the Faculty played an increasingly important role in TDR's research and development program. In recent years, the Faculty has focused upon researching malaria, parasitic and bacterial diseases, nutrition and food sciences, and environmental health. The Faculty's malaria-related research is described. The Faculty also conducts research in many other areas of tropical medicine outside of those of interest to TDR.
POPULATION EDUCATION IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC NEWSLETTER AND FORUM. 1994; (40):11-2.A workshop in February 1994, which was organized by the Ministry of Education and Culture and the UN Population Fund (UNFPA), modified and updated the current population education curriculum taught by the Faculty of Education at Tribhuvan University. 23 educators from 3 campuses of the Kathmandu Valley attended the workshop, which was inaugurated by Dr. Iswar Prasad Uphadhyaya, secretary of the Ministry of Education, Culture, and Social Welfare. The previous system had incorporated the subject into other areas at the proficiency certificate, bachelor's degree, and master's degree levels. Concepts of family health, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the population situation in Nepal, determinants of population change, aging, Nepalese population policies and programs, the philosophy of population education, and studies of the major national and international organizations concerned with health and family planning were added to the health and physical education programs at all levels. Concepts of population dynamics, population and development, measures to reduce rapid population growth, and population growth were modified and added to the proficiency certificate and bachelor's degree in geography. The concepts of population dynamics and composition, determinants and measures of population change, and Nepalese programs and policies were added to all levels in economics. Concepts of environmental pollution and ecological crises were added to biology. Concepts of AIDS, infant mortality, health facilities, family size, puberty, family life education, sociocultural values and beliefs were added to education psychology. The mathematical skills necessary to determine annual population growth rates, crude birth rates (CBRs), crude death rates (CDRs), migration rates, fertility rates and family size were added to mathematics.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA. 1991 Jun; 5(2):403-16.In the context of the controversial conference at Alma Ata and the emergent plan of Health for All by the Year 2000 (HFA/2000), the role of academic institutions is discussed. At the risk of expanding the controversy over HFA/2000, institutional involvement facilitates the testing of principals against real world problems of health development. Views from both sides of the debate and controversy are considered with respect to the appropriateness of institutional involvement in HFA/2000. A consultative committee to the Director General of the World Health Organization (WHO) analyzing the successes and failures of primary health care development is 1st explored. Other views from technical discussions of WHO on the roles of universities in the strategy of HFA are then examined. Traditional and progressive arguments on the roles of university in society are reviewed, with an eye to how HFA fits in. The paper concludes that institutions capable of and willing to provide substantial, institution-wide commitment are appropriate candidates for involvement in HFA/2000. The Aga Khan University's commitment orientation and health services development is cited as an example of appropriate, positive institutional participation. The Network of Community-Oriented Educational Institutions for Health Sciences addressing problem-based teaching methods, community orientation, and partnerships with governmental health services is also exemplary. In closing, the paper queries the extent to which the movement will attract institutions around the world.
Child survival and development toward Health for All: roles and strategies for Asia-Pacific universities.
ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 1989; 3(2):118-28.The child survival and development movement in relation to universities in the Asia-Pacific region were the subject of recent discussions of medical practitioners and academics. There are 14 million deaths of children that could be avoided if they could benefit from immunizations, pure water, sanitation, nutrition, and oral rehydration therapy. Also there is a large loss of physical and mental ability. Many international agencies have helped improved children's health and survival, and life expectancy has risen 40% in the last 40 years. In countries such as China, India, Pakistan, Thailand, and Indonesia there has been an exceptional achievement in child survival and development. In many developing countries health services have been patterned after western medical systems that promote treatment rather than prevention. Universities' role in relation to these problems has been the conducting of research, providing instruction, education, and training. The areas of success are in vaccine development and mass communications research. New roles can be taken in technical assistance and introduction of technology in planning and evaluation. There are also possibilities in the pooling of information and resources to help in child survival and development. In long range strategies and roles, universities can use conventional methods. In midrange areas the universities can use new modes and share and interact with governments and international organizations. In the short term they can use the less conventional methods and follow the leadership of the international organizations. In short term, universities can provide help in planning of national campaigns, provide resources, and participate in evaluations of campaigns. In the mid-range they can be involved in joint initiatives in operations research, specialized training, and clinical trials. In the long range universities are best suited to conventional research, training, laboratory science and technology development.
Report on the evaluation of the UNFPA-supported women, population and development projects in Indonesia (INS/79/P20 and INS/83/P02) and of the role of women in three other UNFPA-supported projects in Indonesia (INS/77/P03, INS/79/P04, and INS/79/P16).
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Apr. vi, 52 p.The Evaluation Mission analyzes and assess the 2 United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA)-supported Women, Population and Development Projects and the role of women in 3 other UNFPA-assisted projects in Indonesia. The Mission concluded that the family planning and cooperative/income generation scheme as evolved in the 2 projects has contributed to increasing contraceptive acceptance and continuation and to a shift from the less reliable to the more reliable contraceptive methods. The projects have also assisted women and their families to expand their income generating activities, raise their incomes, and improve the family's standard of living. The Mission recommends that: 1) more diversified income producing activities be encouraged; 2) product outlets be identified and mapped and appropriate marketing strategies devised; 2) loan repayment schedules be carefully examined; 4) data collection, monitoring and evaluation be streamlined and strenghthened; and 5) the process of the entire rural cooperatives/income generation scheme be more comprehensively documented. In the 3 other projects, which are addressed to both men and women, the needs and concerns of women have not been adequately taken into account and/or the participation of women in all phases of the projects and their access to project benefits have not been equal to men. The Mission therefore recommends that special consideration be given to women's concerns in the design and formulation of all projects. The Mission ascertained that non-women specific projects tend to perpetuate existing discriminatory or unequal access to, and control of, resources by women unless specific consideration is accorded to them.
In: The Graduate Education of Foreign Physicians in Public Health and Preventive Medicine. The Role of United States Teaching Institutions, edited by Wendy W. Steele and Sally F. Oesterling. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, . 26-28.The School of Public Health at Loma Linda University in California was founded in 1967, and as of December 1983 had graduated a total of 1764 students, 187 of whom were physicians. 28 countries and 45 foreign schools were represented in this enrollment. The experience at Loma Linda University is different from many others in that there has been little government sponsorship of foreign medical graduates. Of 89 foreign medical graduates, only 17 were sponsored by the US Agency for International Development or the WHO, and all 17 returned to their home countries where they are making significant contributions in Tanzania, Kenya, Thailand and Indonesia. In 1970, the Loma Linda University School of Public Health developed an evening program in which most of the course work was taught in Los Angeles 1 evening per week over a 2-year period. 10 health officers and a few others completed that program. Their success stimulated extending the program. In 1973 an experimental program teaching a general Master of Public Health (MPH) course to Canadians was initiated. In 1980, Loma Linda University also launched an extended program in the Central American-Caribbean area. In the context of a general program in public health and preventive medicine leading to a Master of Public Health Degree, the curriculum in international health seeks to prepare health workers who will be: trainers of trainers; cross-cultural communicators; managers and supervisors of primary health care services; and practitioners of the integrated approach to community development. Graduates are prepared to deal with sociocultural, environmental and economic barriers. Students not having a professional background in health are required to add an area of concentration to degree requirements. Areas of concentration include: tropical agriculture, environmental health, health administration, health promotion, maternal and child health, nutrition and quantitative methods/health planning. The goal of the International Health Department is to help people help themselves to better health. Loma Linda University has also been involved with schools in Asia, Africa, Latin America and recently in the Philippines. The preventive medicine residency program at Loma Linda is for the 2nd and 3rd years only at the present.
In: The Graduate Education of Foreign Physicians in Public Health and Preventive Medicine. The Role of United States Teaching Institutions, edited by Wendy W. Steele and Sally F. Oesterling. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, . 15-8.At a time when there is a growing interdependency among nations with regard to trade, resources and security, there is an increasing provincialism in the US. In such a climate it is difficult to generate support for international programs. Involvement on the part of medical schools has waned almost to the point of nonparticipation in international medical affairs, largely because of constraints on training and residency programs. Academic health centers have not been supported as a matter of policy. Leadership in international health in other parts of the world, diminished involvement in international health, current priorities and programs and a future prospectus are discussed. The WHO seems an unlikely source for necessary leadership in helping define future directions for education or new strategies in preventive medicine and public health in the developing world. Institutions in Europe have deteriorated and participation and leadership from them are unlikely. Few people today are interested in clinical tropical medicine. Another reason for waning academic activity in international health relates to the paucity of interest on the part of foundations. An important initiative was the development about 5 or 6 years ago of the WHO Tropical Disease Research Program. It now has a budget of about US $25 million and has attracted additional money from the US and from other countries. A gamut of prospects has resulted including a maria vaccine, a leprosy vaccine, a new drug for malaria. In the developing countries, there is a much larger base of basic competence than existed only 10 or 20 years ago, but these health workers need support if health goals are to be attained. Schools of public health should be as much professional schools as schools of medicine, and the practice of public health should be engaged in. The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), in its global Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) program in Thailand and in Indonesia has pioneered admirable new approaches in practical training. Provision must be made for sufficient faculty to permit both professional practice and education in any school that offers public health education. The US has a vital and unique role to play in public health and preventive medicine.
Bangkok, Thailand, Thai Population Clearing-House/Documentation Centre, National Family Planning Programme, Ministry of Public Health, 1981. 606 p.Add to my documents.
In: Middleton J, ed. Population education in the Asian Region: a conference on needs and directions. [Honolulu, East-West Center], 1974 Jun. 224-32.In 1972 in Bangkok, Thailand the Mahidol University Population Education Project (MPEP) began operation. MPEP comprises a variety of activities, some funded through its major project with the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and Unesco and others funded through other channels. The most inclusive of the longterm objectives of the MPEP is to function as a national center for teaching, research, and staff training in the field of population education. Other longterm objectives outline some of the types of training and research needed to realize this goal. The activities intended to lead to the realization of each of the following longterm objectives are described: the objective of serving as a national center; the objective of preparing qualified teachers at the university level in health education, adult education, science education, and counseling education; and the objective of undertaking research projects on population education such as curriculum development. MPEP will develop a national population education sourcebook in the near future. Beginning in school year 1974-1975 MPEP plans to offer a Master of Education in Educational Innovation-Population Education. In addition to the Masters program MPEP envisions the development of a series of short-term training activities. A large portion of MPEP activities have thus far been in the area of research. The present status of 12 studies are outlined. As yet, there is little population education to evaluate. Both the sourcebook and the short-term training program for high level educators will be evaluated. MPEP is a project within the Department of Education. MPEP has received financial assistance from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), Colombo Plan Bureau, and Asia Foundation. In the future MPEP will try to do whatever must be done to help develop population education in Thailand. Assuming that support from Unesco/UNFPA continues at about the same level, MPEP needs for which some kind of international or regional response would be useful are suggested.
In: Middleton J, ed. Population education in the Asian Region: a conference on needs and directions. [Honolulu, East-West Center], 1974 Jun. 112-4.The introduction of population education to formal schools has become an urgent task of Korean educators and policy makers. A comprehensive plan for population education was developed by the joint efforts of experts from Korean research institutes and government officials with the help of Unesco experts, and submitted recently to the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) for assistance. A summary of the plan's content is presented. The project is comprised of 4 major areas of activity, and each of these is reviewed: research; curriculum and material development; teacher training; and higher education programs. 5 research topics are included in the plan: development stages in children's acquisition of population knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs; 2 approaches in curriculum organization for population education; effects of structured population instruction and school environment on children's formation of population attitudes; a study on attitude change towards population issues; and consciousness of school teachers of population problems. The population education curriculum will be developed for students at levels of elementary, middle, and high school grades and for adults and youths attending community education classes. The curriculum to be developed by educational level, subject matter, and grade will specify general goals and instructional objectives, population education content, and ways and patterns of organization of population education content. The plan includes a comprehensive in-service teacher training program, including training of school administrators. 4 universities would be provided with grants to develop course materials for the infusion of population education in college programs. Population education study organizations in Korea are listed. An organizational chart of the project is included.
Initiatives in Population 1(1): 13-24. September 1975.This is a compilation of 42 agencies, both government and private, participating in the Philippine population program. Each listing includes: the purpose of the organization; a summary of its activities for fiscal year 1974-1975; the name of the project director; and the address. A large number of these agencies are engaged primarily in population or family planning work. Others, such as the medical schools at the University of the Philippines and the University of Santo Tomas, have family planning programs as part of a broader effort.
In: Rockefeller Foundation. Working papers: Third Bellagio Conference on Population, May 10-12, 1973. New York, June 1974. p. 49-59Existing programs that assist the capacity of universities in less developed countries (LDC's) to directly and indirectly support country programs, including family planning/population activities, are described and critiqued. The present capacity of universities in LDC's to perform such indirect services as educating the countries' future leaders on population problems and to engage in such vital direct services as resea rch and training, is very weak in most developing areas. 14 fundamental principles are suggested for facilitating donor assistance or other institutional arrangements in building university programs. AID grants and contracts funded since 1971 to assist LDC universities in planning and managing their institutional development activities in population/family planning are described. Data generated from an exchange of information program developed from a small AID contract with the University of North Carolina suggest two approaches for building direct institutional support for program operations: 1) Provision by donor agencies of sufficient funds for universities to develop strong interdisciplinary service-oriented programs; and 2) Establishment of needed instutional back-up for family planning independent of any existing university or other organizations. A 3-page appendix contains basic descriptive data of university population activities being supported by donor agencies and/or their intermediaries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. A funding schedule is set forth and illustrated by a graph to show how donor and LDC funds are related to each other over a 10-year time frame.