Your search found 26 Results

  1. 1

    Empowering today's young people - The World Youth Forum - Brief article.

    Park KE

    UN Chronicle. 2002 Jun-Aug; 39(2):[2] p..

    The fourth session of the World Youth Forum of the United Nations System took place in Dakar, Senegal from 6 to 10 August 2001. Organized by the United Nations and the Senegalese National Youth Council, the Forum addressed the challenges young people face today and sought ways to enable them to communicate their concerns and hopes. It adopted the Dakar Youth Empowerment Strategy, which contains recommendations and tools to broaden young people's involvement in their societies. Secretary-General Kofi Annan, in his message, emphasized the fight against AIDS and unemployment. He observed that every minute, five persons between the ages of 10 and 24 are infected with HIV. He also pointed out that about 70 million young people were unemployed around the world and called upon Governments and international organizations for support. "Young people should be at the forefront of global change and innovation", the Secretary-General said. "Empowered, they can be key agents for development and peace. ... Let us ensure that all young people have every opportunity to participate fully in the lives of their societies." (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Youth are an asset -- unemployment is the problem.

    Miller S

    Habitat Debate. 2003 Jun; 9(2):[3] p..

    There are more than 1 billion people in the world aged between 15 and 25. Nearly 40 per cent of the world's population is below the age of 20. Eighty-five per cent of them live in developing countries, where many are vulnerable to extreme poverty. And, the rate of urbanization is by far the greatest in developing countries. By 2015 it is expected that developing countries will account for over 75 per cent of the world's urban population. The International Labour Office estimates that globally around 74 million young women and men are unemployed. They account for 41 per cent of the 180 million people in the world without jobs. Many more young people are working long hours for low pay, struggling to eke out a living in the informal economy. There are an estimated 59 million young people between 15 and 17 years of age who are engaged in hazardous forms of work. Young people actively seeking to participate in the world of work are two to three times more likely than older generations to find themselves unemployed. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Decent work for Africa's development: signs of hope.

    World of Work. 2003 Dec; (49):4-10.

    Hall of Africa's population, over 300 million people, live in extreme poverty on the equivalent of US$1 a day or less- the highest intra-regional poverty level and the widest gap between rich and poor in the world. Strategies for reducing such poverty and closing this gap through a job-centred development agenda are the main items on the table at the ILO 10th African Regional Meeting, on 2 to 5 December, in Addis Ababa. What are the key issues facing Africa today and what can be done about them? (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Reproductive health and employment: implications for young people.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical Support Division

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2002. [2] p.

    Almost all United Nations global conferences in the last decade have recognized that youth unemployment is a growing problem that needs to be addressed, and that placing youth at the centre of the development agenda is a key to sustainable development. Youth unemployment, especially among girls, is linked to problems of poverty, illhealth, illiteracy. Hence, preparing young people for productivity and healthy integration into their changing societies calls for attention to their economic, health and basic social needs. The ongoing and future demands created by large young populations, particularly in terms of health, education and employment, represent major challenges and responsibilities for families, local communities, countries and international community. To meet the special needs of adolescents and youth, especially young women, the challenge is to give due regard for their own creative capacities, and to provide social, family and community support, employment opportunities, participation in political processes, and access to education, health, counselling and high quality reproductive health services. Health, including sexual and reproductive health, is an important consideration in the employability of young people. At the same time, employment can improve young people’s access to health and other social services. Thus, securing their health and rights will enhance efforts to provide young people, especially girls and women with education, employment, and life skills that will benefit them as individuals, their families and society at large. (author's)
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    East Timor: Lessons for women, constitution and peace-building. An interview with Dr. Milena Pires.

    Farkas S

    Women and Environments International. 2003 Spring; (58-59):9.

    WE Magazine editor, Suzanne Farkas talked with Milena Pires about women's involvement in the creation of the world's newest democratic assembly. Until July 2001, Milena had been the Deputy Speaker of the East Timorese National Council and a key member of the transitional government. Currently she is an elected member of the Constituent Assembly, leading Advocate of peace and gender equality at the Catholic Institute for International Relations, and a founding member of the Social Democratic Party in East Timor. She also is an active member of "Rede Feto Timor Lorosae" women's network. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    [Crisis, economic policy reforms and employment in Yaounde] Crise, reformes des politiques economiques et emploi a Yaounde.

    Kouame A; Kishimba N; Kuepie M; Tameko D

    Paris, France, Centre Francais sur la Population et le Developpement [CEPED], 2001 Sep. 35 p. (Dossiers du CEPED No. 64)

    Cameroon has experienced economic recession since 1987, from which it is now only barely emerging. This paper examines the impact of the economic crisis and economic reforms implemented to improve the situation upon employment in Yaounde. Results are based upon the analysis of data drawn from a literature review of research upon the problem, conducted in Yaounde during November-December 1996, by CEPED and IFORD. The study explored labor market access, job losses, and unemployment. The economic crisis and subsequent corrective measures were found to have a disastrous impact upon employment in the city, restricting young people’s access to jobs, particularly in the public sector, and provoking numerous layoffs especially in the modern employment sector. The number of job layoffs increased throughout the implementation of stabilization and internal adjustment measures recommended by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. These job losses and limited access to job markets increased unemployment levels among the city’s youth. Neither stabilization and adjustment measures, nor currency devaluation stimulated employment in Yaounde, a city in which available human resources are currently underutilized.
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  7. 7

    Statement: Poland.


    [Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 3 p.

    The statement of the Polish delegation to the 32nd session of the UN Commission on Population and Development in New York on March 22-24, 1999, is presented. The delegation states that rapid demographic changes have been taking place in Poland in the 1990s. They are running parallel to a socioeconomic transformation that has brought about growth in the gross domestic product (GDP), a drop in the level of inflation, and an increase in the share of services in the GDP accompanied by a fall in the share of industrial and agricultural production. The unemployment rate has been showing a declining tendency. However, a considerable stratification in the standard of living of Polish society has to be noted. In anticipation of a 50% increase in the size of the post-working-age population during the years 1995-2020, the government introduced reform of the old-age pension system on January 1, 1999. The Polish government has also adopted actions aimed at increasing the population through the promotion of activities in its pro-family policy that will indirectly influence the level of fertility. The delegation has presented two documents at the session--The Concept of Implementation in Poland of the Program of Activity of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo and The Demographic Situation in Poland in Annual Reports.
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  8. 8

    The World Bank on the social impact of the Indonesian crisis.

    World Bank


    The 1997 Asian financial crisis began in Thailand and spread rapidly to other countries of eastern and southeastern Asia, acquiring broader economic and political dimensions. No country has been worse affected by the crisis than Indonesia, where the economy has suffered a major contraction, the currency has depreciated by approximately 80%, capital has fled, and there have been widespread corporate insolvencies, disruption of trade and distribution systems, and a major decline in living standards. Riots in Jakarta and some other cities, targeted especially at businesses owned by Chinese Indonesians, caused considerable mortality and physical destruction. Compounding factors were drought leading to crop losses and forest fires earlier in 1997, and uncertainty over the country's future leadership. The rise in food and fuel prices in the context of growing unemployment increased the proportion of impoverished households in the country. Health services and education became less attainable by the masses. The nearest comparable experience in Indonesia's history was the Great Depression. Both fertility and mortality rates may decline.
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  9. 9

    [Trends in the urbanization process in Central America in the 1980's] Tendencias del proceso de urbanizacion en Centroamerica en los 80.

    Lungo Ucles M

    CUADERNOS DEL CENDES. 1990 Jan-Aug; (13-14):101-17.

    In the 1980s, urbanization in Central America was increasing compared to the three previous decades. By 1990, the urban population reached 42% in Guatemala, 44% in El Salvador, 43% in Honduras, 59% in Nicaragua, 53% in Costa Rica, and 54% in Panama. The urban population increased mostly in the largest cities, in contrast to Latin America, where secondary cities grew fastest. This trend was particularly true in Managua and San Salvador because of the military conflicts. The only exception was Honduras, where the second city underwent stronger growth. The urban population comprised 51.7% women and 48.3% men in Central America. The segregation and polarization of social classes was also increasing because of increased poverty and unemployment during the 1980s. This was partly caused by the increasing privatization of public services, decentralization, and the reinforcement of local governments, which all ensued from the structural readjustment programs of the International Monetary Fund. This neoliberal model of economic development in the short run resulted in increased poverty and unemployment for the urban populations. In 1982, the informal sector represented 29% of the total employment in Central America, and its share reached 40% in Managua and San Salvador. Urban unemployment increased from 2.2% in 1980 to 12% in 1988 in Guatemala; from 8.8% to 13.1% in Honduras; and from 10.4% to 20.8% in Panama. In the political arena, the process of democratization was underway, with civil presidents taking power and promoting privatization and deregulation of the economy. There was a close relationship between the urban social structure, the economy, and politics in the region. In Costa Rica, during the Arias administration between 1986 and 1990, a program was implemented creating 80,000 new homes, and in El Salvador there was an increasing demand to find a negotiated solution to the military conflict. These new political and economic perspectives could lead to genuine popular participation in solving urban problems.
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  10. 10

    [Latin America and the crisis (points for the balance of a decade)] America Latina y la crisis (apuntes para el balance de una decada).

    Lopez Maya M

    CUADERNOS DEL CENDES. 1990 Jan-Aug; (13-14):146-66.

    The decade of the 1980s was catastrophic for the countries of Latin America because of profound transformations in the world economy, which started in the 1970s, the wilting of the state development programs that were imposed after World War II, and the collapse of socialism with the incipient transition to market economies. The crisis started because of the erosion of the world economic system as constituted under the Bretton Woods agreement; the drastic drop in the economic growth of market economies; the increased costs of living and the deterioration of the environment; the decrease in industrial capacity; and the emergence of transnationalization of production. In Latin America, the economic models that had been in place without solving underdevelopment became even more obsolete (import substitution, internal trade, and the role of the state). The crisis of socialism and the rapprochement of eastern European countries to western Europe also affected Latin America (e.g., Germany cancelled 30 mine exploration projects in Bolivia due to investments in East Germany). The structural readjustment policies of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank resulted in currency devaluations, redistribution of government funds, elimination of various subsidies, reduction of public debt and social expenditures, reduction of public employment, and payment of external debt. The result was more inflation (in Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, and Argentina, inflation rates were 683.7%, 157.1%, 100.1%, and 326.2%, respectively, between 1980 and 1986), unemployment, and poverty in the lost decade of the 1980s. After 1982, state expenditures on roads, education, hospitals, and nutrition declined by 40% in Mexico. Even though most countries returned to democracy in the region, this was at the cost of the increased role of the military and the transnationals. The grand parties collapsed and in Venezuela, Mexico, and Colombia authoritarian tendencies survived into the 1970s degrading democracy. The states' socioeconomic regulatory role has to be redefined.
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  11. 11

    A world meeting of mayors focuses on solutions to urban problems.

    UNDP UPDATE. 1994 Aug 29; 7(17):1-4.

    The UN sponsored a gathering of more than 100 mayors from around the world in August 1994 as preparation for the UN Conference on Human Settlements scheduled for 1996. Recommendations from the August meeting will also be presented to the 1995 World Summit for Social Development which will focus on rising unemployment, increasing poverty, and worsening social disintegration. Most of the mayors cited unemployment as their primary problem. This was echoed by the results of a survey of 135 mayors conducted prior to the symposium. The next problems cited were inadequate housing, insufficient solid waste management, crime, and poverty. One speaker likened conditions in cities to a crisis which affects everyone in urban as well as rural areas, industrialized as well as developing countries. Another reported that in 5-6 years, more than half of humanity will live in cities or towns, and that every year during the next 3 decades, 2 new cities the size of Los Angeles will develop. Our choice will be to stand back and allow cities to grow out of control or to work to make cities livable, safe, and productive. The mayors made a declaration of commitment to work with international and national organizations and governments to begin social development programs, improve health and education, attack poverty, generate jobs, and enhance the status of women and the elderly.
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  12. 12

    Poverty risks from population displacement in water resources development.

    Cernea MM

    Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard Institute for International Development, 1990 Aug. v, 51 p. (Development Discussion Paper No. 355)

    Development planners often disregard the counter development risks of development projects in developing countries. Since they do not acknowledge these risks beforehand and do not take action to circumvent or reduce these risks, some counter development effects cause a considerable unexpected chain reaction. For example, dam construction agencies either underestimate population displacement numbers or do not include the estimates in feasibility reports. The development of Lake Sobradinho in Brazil displaced 65,000 inhabitants. 24,000 were supposed to relocate 800km upstream, but only 28% actually moved there. Many people lost their possessions and animals. Once they arrived at the new location, they had to fend for themselves. A hydropower and irrigation project on the Citarum river in West Java, Indonesia, resulted in a 49% lower household income and a 47% lower land ownership. The Kiambere reservoir project in Kenya caused mean land holding size to fall from 13-6 hectares, a >33% reduction in livestock, and >66% reduction in yields of maize and beans. Thus water resource development programs designed to bring irrigation, flood control, drinking water, energy, and better navigation to the aggregate population often result in impoverishment for the dislocated population. Joblessness, homelessness, morbidity, marginalization, and the disintegration of social and kinship networks also cause impoverishment. Water resource development planners can incorporate preventive and mitigating measures to guarantee adequate resettlement of the displaced persons into these projects via 4 frameworks. The policy framework involves guidelines for forced population displacement. Governments need to develop a legal framework to protect the interests and rights of the displaced people. The planning framework requires resettlement actions plans (ideally to reduce displacement) to be an integral part of planning the project. The organizational framework places resettlement high on the list of priorities.
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  13. 13

    South Asia's future population: are there really grounds for optimism?

    Leete R; Jones G

    International Family Planning Perspectives. 1991 Sep; 17(3):108-13.

    South Asia consisting of Bangladesh, India, Nepal Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, claims 1/5 to total world population with expected population growth of at least 200 million by the year 2000. Taking issue with assumptions behind World Bank (WB) and United Nations (UN) population projections for the region, the authors make less optimistic assumptions of country fertility and mortality trends when running population projections for the region. Following discussion of methodological issues for and analysis of population projections, the paper's alternate assumptions and projection results are presented and discussed. Projections were made for each country of the region over the period 1985-2010, based on assumptions that only very modest fertility declines and improvements in life expectancy would develop over most of the 1990s. South Asian population would therefore grow from over 1 billion in 1985, to 1.4 billion by 2000, and almost 1.8 billion by 2010. Overall slower fertility decline than assumed for the UN and WB projections point to larger population growth with momentum for continued, larger growth through the 21st century. Rapid, substantial population growth as envisioned by these projections will impede movement toward an urban-industrial economy, with a burgeoning labor force exceeding the absorptive capacity of the modern sector. Job seekers will pile up in agriculture and the informal sector. Demands upon the government to deliver education and health services will also be extraordinarily high. High-tech niches will, however, continue expanding in India and Pakistan with overall negative social effects. Their low demand for labor will exacerbate income disparities, fuel interpersonal, interclass, and interregional tensions, and only contribute to eventual ethnic, communal, and political conflict. Immediate, coordinated policy is urged to achieve balanced low mortality and low fertility over the next few decades.
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  14. 14

    Population and development problems: a critical assessment of conventional wisdom. The case of Zimbabwe.

    Sibanda AE

    ZIMBABWE JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS. 1988 Jan; 2(1):81-100.

    Conventional wisdom, as reflected in reports by the World Bank and the Whitsun Foundation, maintains that control of population growth is the key strategy for stimulating socioeconomic development and ending widespread poverty. The Witsun Foundation has criticized the Government of Zimbabwe for failing to include specific policies for population control in its National Transitional Development Plan. the report further expressed alarm about future availability of land to contain Zimbabwe's growing population. Communal areas are designed for a maximum of 325,000 families yet presently contain 700-800,000 families. This Malthusian, deterministic emphasis on population growth as the source of social ills ignores the broader, complex set of socioeconomic, historical, and political factors that determine material life. Any analysis of population that fails to consider the class structure of society, the type of division of labor, and forms of property and production can produce only meaningless abstractions. For example, consideration of crowding in communal areas must include consideration of inequitable patterns of land ownership in sub-Saharan Africa. Unemployment must be viewed within the context of a capitalist economic structure that relies on an industrial reserve army of labor to ensure acceptance of low wages and labor-intensive conditions. While it is accepted that population growth is creating specific and real problems in Zimbabwe and other African countries, these problems could be ameliorated by land reform and restructuring of the export-oriented colonial economies. Similarly, birth control should not be promoted as the solution to social problems, yet family planning services should be available to raise the status of women. Literacy, agrarian reform, agricultural modernization, and industrialization campaigns free from the dominance of Western capitalism represent the true solutions to Zimbabwe's problems.
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  15. 15

    Report of the Director-General. Part II: activities of the ILO, 1987.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, [ILO], 1988. x, 93 p. (International Labour Conference, 75th Session, 1988)

    Part II of the 1987 Report of the Director-General of the International Labor Organization (ILO) summarizes progress in terms of standard setting, technical cooperation, and information dissemination in labor relations, workers' and employers' activities, social security, the World Employment Program, and training. Also included is a report of the situation of workers in the occupied Arab territories. The overall goals of the ILO's Medium-Term Plan for 1990-95 include the defense and promotion of human rights, the promotion of employment, continuous improvement of working conditions, and the maintenance and strengthening of social security and welfare. In view of problems arising from certain atypical forms of employment and new working time arrangements, the ILO's role in the organized, formal sectors of national economies will assumed increased importance. It will also be necessary for the ILO to increase its efforts to extend social protection to the unorganized, informal sectors of national economies and to promote the protection of groups such as women, migrants, and younger and older workers. The creation of productive employment and the alleviation of poverty remain the most significant challenges facing the ILO today. Among the milestones of 1987 were: 1) the 4th European Regional Conference, which addressed both the impact of demographic development on social security and the training and retraining implications of technological change; 2) the 74th Maritime Session, devoted to the profound economic and technical changes faced by seafarers; 3) the High-Level Meeting on Employment and Structural Adjustment; and 4) the 14th International Conference of Labor Statisticians, which adopted new standards designed to enhance the reliability of national labor statistics and their international comparability.
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  16. 16

    A.I.D.'s experience with selected employment generation projects.

    Bowles WD

    [Washington, D.C.], U.S. Agency for International Development, 1988 Mar. xix, 90 p. (A.I.D Evaluation Special Study No. 53)

    This report is based on an examination of over 30 projects designated as "employment generation" in as many countries during the period from the early 1970s to 1982 sponsored by USAID. The focus is on the policy environment of these projects, building on a World Bank study that highlights the positive relationship between growth, equity, and an economy relatively free of distortions in foreign exchange, factor, and product pricing. 1 major conclusion must be stressed: the policy environment is the single most important determinant of project success. Although not examined directly in the study, 3 related suggestions can be gleaned from the overall economic background of the economies examined. 1) The administrative environment (contract laws, public accountancy, ease of entry into business, "honest weights and measures," and the like) can reduce the effectiveness of projects in otherwise supportive policy environments. 2) The continued provision and expansion of social overhead capital, such as education and health, is an important foundation for the expansion of the private sector. 3) The informal sector exhibits extraordinary vitality, and further attempts should be made by USAID to understand that vitality may pay large dividends in future USAID programming. Rapid population growth and policy distortions that have weakened both the formal and informal sectors of the economies of developing countries have retarded a transformation in the sectorial structure of the labor force. As a result, vast numbers of people remain in low-productivity agricultural, off-farm, and urban activities. They need to be moved into productive employment, which is the major link between growth and equity.
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  17. 17

    Asia and the Pacific annual review, 1985.

    International Labour Office [ILO]. Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific

    Bangkok, Thailand, ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, [1986]. 61, [4] p.

    The International Labour Organization's (ILO) 1985 annual report for the Asia and the Pacific region summarizes the activities of a year spent in consolidating past programs and charting the course and direction of ILO's future programs. 2 major events of the year at which leading labor figures converged were the Tenth Asia and Pacific Labour Ministers' Conference and the Tenth Asian Regional Conference of the ILO. A number of recommendations, conclusions, and resolutions calling for measures to enhance the effectiveness of ILO programs and projects was suggested. A new ILO office in Beijing was set up in the beginning of the year in pursurance of ILO's policy of decentralization, bringing to 10 the number of ILO representative offices in the region. The ILO's technical assistance programs continue to promote social and economic development through human resources development, the improvement of living and working conditions, job creation, and the development of social institutions. The dynamism and diversity of the region made an impact on ILO activities during 1985 affecting such areas as technology, migration, and productivity. Programs to alleviate the plight of specific disadvantaged groups such as women, young workers, and disabled persons have also been actively pursued. This annual review of ILO activities provides information on the scope and depth of ILO's multifaceted work in this region.
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  18. 18

    The need for paradigms, statement made at the Japan Economic Research Centre, Tokyo, 3 April, 1978.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1978]. 11 p.

    At present there exists no clear paradigm for development. The earlier preoccupation with aggregate economic growth and industrialization is greatly diminished. In its place there is greater concern for matters of absolute poverty, growing inequality and rising unemployment, as well as growth of the Gross National Product. The United Nations World Population Conference, held in Bucharest, in 1974 served to direct attention to and interest in a broader, less simplistic, more sophisticated view of the mutual interrelationships between population and development factors. There is still much territory to be explored to bring this idea to full fruition and implementation. First and foremost, all countries need data on population structure and change in order to plan effectively. Other areas deserving attention are policy formulation to make use of the data effectively; communication; education and training programs; as well as continued development of family planning programs. UNFPA currently provides financial support to all these areas. The Japanese experience may serve as a useful model for developing countries in Asia which have recognized the need to promote transition in order to achieve socioeconomic development.
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  19. 19
    Peer Reviewed

    Plundering the poor: the role of the World Bank in the third world.

    Feder E

    International Journal of Health Services. 1983; 13(4):649-60.

    In this review of Cheryl Payer's recent book, The World Bank: A Critical Analysis, the World Bank's role in the third world and the reasons why poverty, hunger, malnutrition, and unemployment are on the rise are discussed. The World Bank annually gives billions of dollars to third world governments, supposedly to develop their economies through a variety of loan projects. In reality, the loans subsidized the transnational corporations from the industrial countries and expand their industrial, commercial and financial activities in the third world. Capitalism has brought technological innovations, lowered infant mortality rates, and lengthened life expectancy in the third world. But it has also resulted in rapid population growth and an increase in other problems. Food, water, medical services, sanitary facilities and housing are becoming scarce to the poor. The World Bank has used its large resources, distributed annually on an increasing scale to its member countries, to expand capitalism in the third world and to fortify the business activities of the transnational corporations, including the large transnational banks. Many of the underdeveloped economies are having a difficult time due to an immense debt burden from all the lending activities of the World Bank. It is believed that the World Bank and capitalism will not be able to resolve the economic and social problems of the third world, and that socialism holds more hope for the masses worldwide. Under socialism, the World Bank would cease to exist. The World Bank and other UN agencies speak much, but really care nothing about problems facing the third world. It is believed that the growth of these problems are the prelude to the coming revolution that so frightens the World Bank and its supporters.
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  20. 20

    Health for all by year 2000.

    Jones L

    Populi. 1983; 10(1):78-81.

    The World Health Organization's (WHO) aim is to achieve a level of health that will allow all the world's citizens to lead a socially and economically productive life by the year 2000. Peter D. O'Neill's book, "Health Crisis 2000," is based on WHO's European regional strategy for attaining "health for all" by the year 2000. Its goal is to enable a large audience to participate in a dialogue on the real issues. An analysis of trends in health and disease, made over the past 3 years by representatives of the medical profession, has produced ominous signs that current health policies have set a dangerous course. If "health for all" is to be realized by the year 2000, it will be necessary to implement a new strategy with 3 inseparable themes, i.e., health as a way of life, the prevention of ill health, and community care for all. While the book analyzes the 1st stage of work which the WHO European Region has drawn up for itself, it interprets the official strategy document and offers ample detail to draw ministers, parliamentarians, industrialists, and the media into the debate. Fakhruddin Iqbal reports that a recent study suggests that the Bangladesh family planning program neglected to consider age old social and cultural values. The study identifies 2 distinct cultural values that present obstacles to the program: the traditional preferences for age old treatment as opposed to modern medical practices and the persistent tradition of relegating women to the lowest rung of mass education; and the traditional family size perceptions of the people. Andrew Hamilton writes that the Jamaica Family Planning Association has employed 7 people to spread knowledge of family life education and family planning among youth. These 18-23 year old youth associates are part of a major national drive to keep Jamaica's population below 3 million by the year 2000. About traditional midwives Jan Steele writes that they deliver between 60-80% of babies in the developing world each year and provide support and care in environments commonly shunned by the medical profession. The IPS reports that according to the 1980 census the population of Brazil is 120 million. If the current demographic trends continue, the population will double by 2014. With the present unemployment level, there will be 41.5 million people underemployed and 15 million unemployed in 2014. Meena Panday writes that Nepal cannot seem to get its population program going. The Population Council reports that no evidence exists as yet that use of the copper bearing or nonmedicated IUD increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy.
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  21. 21

    Further thoughts on the definitions of economic activity and employment status

    Blacker JGC

    Population Bulletin of the Economic Commission for Western Asia. 1980; (19):69-80.

    The author cites problems in the definitions of different categories of economic activity and employment status which have been made by the UN. The term "casual workers" has never been clarified and these people were described as both employed and unemployed on different occasions; there is also no allowance for the term underemployed in the UN classification. The latter term, he concludes, is not included in most censuses. The UN in its Principles and Recommendations for Population Censuses, discusses sex-based stereotypes which he states are based on a set of conventions that are arbitrary, irrational, and complex. However on the basis of the UN rules it is possible to divide the population into 3 categories: 1) those who are economically active (black), 2) those who are not active (white), and 3) those whose classification is in doubt (gray). In developed countries most people are either in the black or the white area and the amount in the gray area is small, but in developing countries the gray area may be the majority of the population. In the Swaziland census no attempt was made to provide a clear picture of employment. In view of the complexity of the underlying concepts, the decisions as to whether a person should be classified as economically active or not should be left to the statisticians, not the census enumerators.
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  22. 22

    The decade for women...1985 and beyond.

    International Women's Tribune Centre [IWTC]

    Tribune: A Women and Development Quarterly. 1983; (22):1-40.

    This special issue of "The Tribune" attempts to answer the many requests for information on the Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace. There has been a particular need for specific information on plans and preparations for the 1985 World Conference. Information is gathered in this issue on background to the Decade, the views of various governmental and nongovernmental groups concerning the issues and priorities of the Conference, the preparations underway, some of the major initiatives taken in the Decade, and some useful addresses for soliciting further information. The Program of Action for the 2nd half of the UN Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace focuses on ensuring women's increased participation in the realization of the objectives of the World Plan of Action. In particular, the World Plan of Action gives high priority to improving the conditions of the most disadvantaged groups of women, especially the rural and urban poor and the vast group of women workers in the tertiary sector. The Program of Action reiterates these priorities, particularly those disadvantaged because of socioeconomic and historic conditions, with emphasis on the rural and urban poor and on the subthemes: employment; education; and health. The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) invited nongovermental organizations (NGOs); intergovernmental organizations; UN specialized agencies, organs, and organizations; regional commissions; and member states to submit their views on their contributions to the World Conference and the possible themes and issues of the Conference, in writing, to the Center for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs, for consolidated presentation to the preparatory body. Summaries of the views expressed by these groups are provided. Overall, there was an emphasis given by the Member States to the importance of involving women and women's organizations in the preparations for the Conference. In many replies it was indicated that the review and appraisal of the achievements of the Decade should be the primary task of the Conference. As a corollary, and of equal importance, that Conference should consider actions to be taken to resolve the problems that are faced by the women and to hasten their advancement.
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  23. 23

    Tonga: report of a Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1982. 38 p. (Report No. 51)

    Tonga's annual population growth rate is 2.01% (1975-1980). There is a high birth rate, but emigration has eased population pressures somewhat. Tonga's development plans include population objectives and the nation has a family planning program; but there is no comprehensive national population policy. The Mission recommends that new posts be created within the planning structure for dealing with population concerns. The posts should be filled by trained nationals. A constraint to planning has been the lack of statistics. More survey data are needed. The Mission recommends that the censuses continue decennially. Registration of emigrants should be adopted, and that steps should be taken to help expand and strengthen the capacity of local institutions for social and economic research. Post-secondary courses should be developed to this end. The Mission also recommends assistance for filling vacant supervisory posts, strengthening the training capability of the Tonga Health Center, and recruiting more pulbic health nurses. Another recommendation is that health data collection and health education be strengthened. Curricula and materials on population concerns should be designed and teachers trained in their use. The Mission recommends expanding the use of radio for communication of population and health information. Women's activities and organizations need coordination. Extensive village-based training is recommended for women, youth, and rural residents.
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  24. 24

    Kiribati: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1982. 53 p. (Report No. 54)

    There is no comprehensive national population policy in Kiribati. Migration from the outer islands to urban South Tarawa is a problem. Overcrowding on the island will soon be severe. The National Development Plan aims at maintaining a balance between population and natural resources. The Mission proposes aid for population-related projects. The Central Planning Office coordinates the development activities. A National Population and Development Co-Ordinating Committee has been established. The government needs more staff to deal with overcrowding. The country's data base needs to be strengthened and upgraded. The Mission recommends that 1) another census be carried out in 1983; and 2) an inventory of research relating to Kiribati be maintained. The government has made efforts to provide an adequate health services network. The Mission recommends that a consultant be provided who specialized in health education and community participation. The family planning program has been diminishing in effectiveness. The Mission recommends support for: 1) a 3-year In-School Population Education Project; and 2) a project to focus on using communications programs to increase outer-island participation in population-related and development activites. The government has set up a Women's Interest Section to coordinate and develop policies and programs. The Mission recommends support for a 3-year project to aid the National Women's Federation. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities Youth Training Program should be supported. Protestants and Roman Catholics have promoted family life, health education and community-based activities.
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  25. 25

    Population problems and international cooperation, statement made at a meeting of the Scientific Council of the Moscow State University, Moscow, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 29 September 1982.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1982]. 19 p. (Speech Series No. 80)

    This statement discusses certain population problems within a framework of international cooperation. Specifically, linkages between population and development, basic data collection, population and development research, policy formulation, family planning, communication and education, training, population migration, urbanization, aging of the population, and integration of population with development planning, are all issues examined. Solving the problems generated by population growth of developing countries are social and economic development, accumulation of resources and economic growth. All countries need data on population structure and its changes in order to plan effectively. There is a continuous need to learn more about the dynamics of population change, especially for demographers in developing countries. Data gathering, processing, analysis and research are crucial components in the formulation of policies. UNFPA devotes a great amount of its resources to family planning, education and training programs within countries. The inability to find employment opportunities has led to considerable internal and international migration, increasing and promoting urbanization and overcrowded cities. Aging of the population is becoming an important issue for developed countries and will necessitate further policy formulation. Population planning needs to become a more effective arm of overall development planning.
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