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  1. 1
    283481

    Creating markets for new vaccines. Part II: Design issues. Draft.

    Kremer M

    [Unpublished] 2000 Apr 13. 64 p.

    Malaria, tuberculosis, and African strains of AIDS kill almost 5 million people annually, primarily in poor countries. Despite recent scientific advances, research on vaccines for these diseases remains minimal. This is in large part because potential vaccine developers fear that they could not sell enough vaccine at a sufficient price to recoup their research expenditures. The U.S. administration and the World Bank have each recently proposed programs that would help developing countries to purchase vaccines for these diseases, if and when they are developed. Such programs could both create incentives for vaccine research and help increase accessibility of vaccines once they are developed. This paper explores the design of such programs. It focuses on commitments to purchase new vaccines. For vaccine purchase commitments to spur research, potential vaccine developers must believe that the sponsor will not renege on the commitment once vaccines have been developed and research costs sunk. There is a tradeoff between enhancing credibility with potential vaccine developers by specifying rules for vaccine eligibility and pricing in detail, and preserving flexibility to judge suitability of vaccines after they have been developed and tested. In any case, eligibility will need to be interpreted after candidate vaccines have been developed. The credibility of purchase commitments can be enhanced by including industry representatives on committees making eligibility decisions, insulating committee members from political pressure through long terms, and establishing a minimum price for vaccine purchases under the program. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    283480

    Creating markets for new vaccines. Part I: Rationale. Draft.

    Kremer M

    [Unpublished] 2000 Apr 13. 49 p.

    Malaria, tuberculosis, and AIDS kill approximately 5 million people each year. The overwhelming majority of deaths occur in poor countries. Despite recent scientific advances, research on vaccines for malaria, tuberculosis, and African strains of HIV remains minimal. This is in large part because potential vaccine developers fear that they would not be able to sell enough vaccine at a sufficient price to recoup their research expenditures. This paper sets out the economic rationale for committing in advance to purchase vaccines once they are developed. The U.S. administration’s budget proposal includes a tax credit for vaccine sales. The World Bank has proposed establishing a vaccine purchase fund. Such commitments could potentially create incentives for vaccine research and help increase the accessibility of any vaccines developed. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    187229

    Meeting the need.

    Averyt A

    InterDependent. 2004 Spring; 22-23.

    However, there is reason for optimism. Proven methods of prevention and treatment exist and there is mounting evidence that the disease can be brought under control. The problem is resources. While the level of funding and political commitment to address the epidemic has improved dramatically in the last few years, more is needed. The U.N. estimates that by 2005, over $10.5 billion will be required per year to combat the disease in developing countries, where 95 percent of those infected with HIV live. Yet, in 2003, only about $4.7 billion was spent for this purpose. Recognizing the crucial importance of generating increased financing, the international community, led by U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan, began calling for the creation of a global health fund in early 2000. With strong support from the United States, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was established in January 2002 to dramatically increase resources to fight three of the world's most devastating diseases. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    182587

    The new lepers. HIV-positive people are treated as social outcasts while the government fails to cope.

    Osokina A

    London, England, Institute for War and Peace Reporting [IWPR], 2003 Aug 8. 3 p. (Belarus Reporting Service No. 28)

    More and more people in Belarus are finding themselves in her position – 50 or 60 new HIV cases are recorded every month. At the beginning of August, the number of people carrying the virus reached 5,150, and experts fear that the figure will be more than double that in 2005. More worryingly, some say the recorded figures should be multiplied by a factor of three or more since they fail to capture drug users who have not been seen by the health authorities. Although HIV and AIDS are advancing rapidly, neither the government nor society in general appear able to come to terms with it. A survey conducted jointly by the United Nations and the Centre for Sociological and Political Research in Minsk found that three quarters of the people polled thought people with HIV should not be allowed to care for their own children, and more than 40 per cent said they should not be allowed to travel around the country or choose where they want to live. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    178337
    Peer Reviewed

    World Bank approves loan to help Russia tackle HIV / AIDS and tuberculosis.

    Webster P

    Lancet. 2003 Apr 19; 361(9366):1355.

    Russia’s health system received a boost on April 3 when the World Bank approved a long-delayed loan delivering US$100 million for federal tuberculosis programmes, coupled with $50 million for HIV/AIDS efforts. Russia first requested the loan in 1999, but wrangling over tuberculosis treatment strategies and sourcing for commercial tuberculosis drugs forced years of delay, even as the disease continued to kill 30 000 people per year, and HIV cases skyrocketed. (excerpt)
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