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Improving tuberculosis screening and isoniazid preventive therapy in an HIV clinic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2013 Nov; 17(11):1396-401.BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends active tuberculosis (TB) case finding among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in resource-limited settings using a symptom-based algorithm; those without active TB disease should be offered isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate rates of adherence to WHO recommendations and the impact of a quality improvement intervention in an HIV clinic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. DESIGN: A prospective study design was utilized to compare TB symptom screening and IPT administration rates before and after a quality improvement intervention consisting of 1) educational sessions, 2) visual reminders, and 3) use of a screening checklist. RESULTS: A total of 751 HIV-infected patient visits were evaluated. The proportion of patients screened for TB symptoms increased from 22% at baseline to 94% following the intervention (P < 0.001). Screening rates improved from 51% to 81% (P < 0.001) for physicians and from 3% to 100% (P < 0.001) for nurses. Of the 281 patients with negative TB symptom screens and eligible for IPT, 4% were prescribed IPT before the intervention compared to 81% after (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We found that a quality improvement intervention significantly increased WHO-recommended TB screening rates and IPT administration. Utilizing nurses can help increase TB screening and IPT provision in resource-limited settings.
Performance of the new WHO diagnostic algorithm for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV prevalent settings: a multisite study in Uganda.
Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2012 Jul; 17(7):884-95.OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of the new WHO (2007) diagnostic algorithm for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in high HIV prevalent settings (WHO07) to the WHO 2003 guidelines used by the Ugandan National Tuberculosis Program (UgWHO03). METHODS: A prospective observational cohort design was used at Reach Out Mbuya Parish HIV/AIDS Initiative, an urban slum community-based AIDS Service Organisation (ASO) and Kayunga Rural District Government Hospital. Newly diagnosed and enrolled HIV-infected patients were assessed for PTB. Research staff interviewed patients and staff and observed operational constraints. RESULTS: WHO07 reduced the time to diagnosis of smear-negative PTB with increased sensitivity compared with the UgWHO03 at both sites. Time to diagnosis of smear-negative PTB was significantly shorter at the urban ASO than at the rural ASO (12.4 vs. 28.5 days, P = 0.003). Diagnostic specificity and sensitivity [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for smear-negative PTB were higher at the rural hospital compared with the urban ASO: [98% (93-100%) vs. 86% (77-92%), P = 0.001] and [95% (72-100%) vs. 90% (54-99%), P > 0.05], respectively. Common barriers to implementation of algorithms included failure by patients to attend follow-up appointments and poor adherence by healthcare workers to algorithms. CONCLUSION: At both sites, WHO07 expedited diagnosis of smear-negative PTB with increased diagnostic accuracy compared with the UgWHO03. The WHO07 expedited diagnosis more at the urban ASO but with more diagnostic accuracy at the rural hospital. Barriers to implementation should be taken into account when operationalising these guidelines for TB diagnosis in resource-limited settings. (c) 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Two vs. three sputum samples for microscopic detection of tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence population.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2009 Jul; 13(7):842-7.SETTING: A busy urban hospital in Cameroon. OBJECTIVES: To compare the yield in bacteriologically proven tuberculosis (TB) cases examining two morning vs. three spot-morning-spot sputum specimens (MM vs. SMS) by direct microscopy for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). DESIGN: Repeated temporal cross-over between MM and SMS sampling for successive TB suspects, using culture as gold standard. RESULTS: A total of 799 suspects were screened using the MM strategy, identifying 223 smear-positives, and 808 suspects with the SMS strategy, yielding 236 smear-positives. Of the MM, 256 were culture-positive, of whom 195 (76%) were smear-positive. For SMS, these figures were respectively 281 and 206 (73%), a non-significant difference. The MM and SMS strategies also detected respectively 28 and 30 smear-positive cases not confirmed by culture. No cases were lost to treatment with either strategy. CONCLUSIONS: In this population with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with late case presentation, smear microscopy of two morning specimens detected at least as many positive cases as the classical strategy, and no cases were lost before treatment. Two specimens for initial TB suspect screening can thus be recommended, also without excessive workload. Comparative studies in populations presenting with paucibacillary sputum are needed to determine the equivalent quality and yield of an alternative strategy with two spot specimens at consultation.
Symptom-based screening of child tuberculosis contacts: improved feasibility in resource-limited settings.
Pediatrics. 2008 Jun; 121(6):e1646-52.OBJECTIVE: National tuberculosis programs in tuberculosis-endemic countries rarely implement active tracing and screening of child tuberculosis contacts, mainly because of resource constraints. We aimed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of applying a simple symptom-based approach to screen child tuberculosis contacts for active disease. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study from January through December 2004 at 3 clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. All of the children <5 years old in household contact with an adult tuberculosis source case were assessed by documenting current symptoms and tuberculin skin test and chest radiograph results. RESULTS: During the study period, 357 adult tuberculosis cases were identified; 195 cases (54.6%) had sputum smear and/or culture positive results and were in household contact with children aged <5 years. Complete information was available for 252 of 278 children; 176 (69.8%) were asymptomatic at the time of screening. Tuberculosis treatment was administered to 33 (13.1%) of 252; 27 were categorized as radiologically "certain tuberculosis," the majority (n = 22) of which had uncomplicated hilar adenopathy. The negative predictive value of symptom-based screening varied according to the case definition used, with 95.5% including all of the children treated for tuberculosis and 97.1% including only those with radiologically "certain tuberculosis." CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support current World Health Organization recommendations, demonstrating that symptom-based screening of child tuberculosis contacts should improve feasibility in resource-limited settings and seems to be safe.
Impact of the 1994 expanded World Health Organization AIDS case definition on AIDS surveillance in university hospitals and tuberculosis centers in Cote d'Ivoire.
AIDS. 1997 Dec; 11(15):1867-72.To assess the impact of the 1994 expanded World Health Organization (WHO) AIDS case definition upon AIDS surveillance in Cote d'Ivoire, passive AIDS case surveillance was conducted from March 1994 through December 1996 at the 3 university hospitals in Abidjan, while active AIDS case surveillance was conducted at the 8 large tuberculosis (TB) centers throughout Cote d'Ivoire. Standardized questionnaires were administered and blood samples for HIV testing were collected from patients evaluated. 3658 of the 8648 hospital patients met the clinical and/or expanded case definition: 744 HIV-seropositive individuals met only the expanded definition, 44 HIV-seropositive individuals met only the clinical definition, 2334 HIV-seropositive individuals met both definitions, and 536 HIV-seronegative persons met only the clinical definition. Of 18,661 TB center patients, 9664 met the clinical and/or expanded case definition: 5685 HIV-seropositive individuals met only the expanded definition, none of the HIV-seropositive individuals met only the clinical definition, 2625 HIV-seropositive individuals met both definitions, and 1354 HIV-seronegative persons met only the clinical definition. The use of the 1994 expanded definition for surveillance purposes should be encouraged in areas of the developing world where HIV serologic testing is available.