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AMERICAN REVIEW OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE. 1992 Oct; 146(4):818-22.In May 1990 in Boston, Massachusetts, in the US, American Thoracic Society, the American Lung Association, and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease hosted the World Conference on Lung Health. At the end of the conference, participants adopted several resolutions calling on WHO and governmental and nongovernmental organizations to take specific actions to prevent and control lung diseases. The Conference adopted 7 resolutions pertaining to tuberculosis (TB) and AIDS, such as governments must ensure high quality care for TB and AIDS patients and strengthen TB and AIDS prevention programs. Since acute respiratory infections (ATIs), the leading cause of death in children, cause considerable suffering and death in children, the Conference asked WHO and government and nongovernment organizations to increase funding for provision, cold storage, and distribution of vaccines in developing countries, and for training care workers, and for programs to help parents recognize the signs and symptoms requiring medical attention. Other ARI-related resolutions included education about the risk and prevention of indoor air pollution and increased funding for research to develop heat-stable vaccines. Resolutions related to air pollution and health embraced tighter controls of emission of air pollutants, development of policies to protect indoor air, and more research into the hazards of indoor and outdoor air pollution. More research and gathering of accurate data on deaths and illness due to asthma were among resolutions related to asthma. Resolutions on smoking included a call for the end of all governmental support for the tobacco industry, including the import and export of tobacco products, and of all advertisements and promotions of tobacco products; for nonsmoking policies in all public places, especially health care facilities and schools; and for health workers to be societal role models by not smoking.
BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1991; 69(6):779-89.5-15% of all 3-15 year old children in the world are mentally impaired. In fact, 0.4-1.5% (10-30 million) are severely mentally retarded and an additional 60-80 million children are mildly or moderately mentally retarded. Birth asphyxia and birth trauma account for most cases of mental retardation in developing countries. >1.2 million newborns survive with severe brain damage and an equal number die from moderate or severe birth asphyxia. Other causes of mental retardation can also be prevented or treated such as meningitis or encephalitis associated with measles and pertussis; grave malnutrition during the 1st months of life, especially for infants of low birth weight; hyperbilirubinemia in neonates which occurs frequently in Africa and countries in the Pacific; and iodine deficiency. In addition, iron deficiency may even slow development in infants and young children. Current socioeconomic and demographic changes and a rise in the number of employed mothers may withhold the necessary stimulation for normal development from infants and young children. Primary health care (PHC) interventions can prevent many mental handicaps. For example, PHC involves families and communities who take control of their own care. Besides traditional birth attendants, community health workers, nurse midwives, physicians, and other parents must also participate in prevention efforts. For example, they should be trained in appropriate technologies including the risk approach, home risk card, partograph, mouth to mask or bag and mask resuscitation of the newborn, kick count, and ictometer. WHO has field tested all these techniques. These techniques not only prevent mental handicaps but can also be applied at home, health centers, and day-care centers.