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  1. 1
    334036

    World Health Organization's 2010 recommendations for HIV treatment: Natiional guideline revision challenges and lessons learned.

    Rossi V; Ojikutu B; Hirschhorn L

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow [JSI], AIDS Support and Technical Assistance Resources [AIDSTAR-One], 2012 Feb. [26] p. (Technical Brief; USAID Contract No. GHH-I-00–07–00059–00)

    In 2010, the World Health Organization released revised recommendations for adult and adolescent HIV treatment. This technical brief provides HIV policy makers and program managers with a point of reference as they adapt and implement revised national HIV treatment guidelines. Approaches that worked well, challenges and lessons learned from Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and South-East Asia are highlighted. Links to key resources for countries revising guidelines and implementing revisions are also provided.
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  2. 2
    166155
    Peer Reviewed

    Resources required for global tuberculosis control. [Ressources nécessaires pour le contrôle de la tuberculose au niveau mondial]

    Floyd K; Blanc L; Raviglione M; Lee JW

    Science. 2002 Mar 15; 295(5562):2040-1.

    The authors estimate that to achieve the WHO's tuberculosis (TB) control targets, the 22 high-burden countries (HBCs) that collectively account for approximately 80% of the world's TB cases require about US$ 1 billion/year during the period 2001-05. A further US$ 0.2 billion/year is needed for low and lower-middle income countries outside the 22 HBCs. There is a resource gap of up to around US$ 300 million/year. Substantial progress in TB control could be achieved with increased investment that is large in the context of existing spending, but small in the wider context of global health expenditure. (author's)
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  3. 3
    091410

    Keep taking the initiatives.

    ECONOMIST. 1993 Nov 13; 99-100.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) eradicated smallpox in 1977. This was the first time that an effective vaccine disseminated through a systematically organized inoculation program had been so successful. In the aftermath, WHO launched the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) with the objective of eradicating measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, tuberculosis, and polio. These diseases were chosen because all caused major child mortality and effective vaccines existed against each. After 16 years, 80% of the world's children have been immunized and many lives have been saved, but only patchy geographical coverage of immunizations has been achieved and each targeted disease in still with us. In light of this situation, program critics saw the need to take an alternative approach and launched the Children's Vaccine Initiative (CVI) in 1990. EPI concentrated on increasing the effectiveness of bureaucracy to delivery vaccines, but 5 clinic visits in the first 15 months of the baby's life were nonetheless needed for a complete regimen of inoculations against all 6 target diseases. The WHO bureaucracy had trouble incorporating improved vaccines as they were developed and in maintaining the cold chain. The CVI, however, has only minority participation by WHO and the different strategy of focusing upon the development of simpler, more robust vaccines. The CVI is striving to develop a combined vaccine against all 6 diseases which would be affordable, unaffected by changing temperatures, and administered orally in 1 dose shortly after birth. The WHO chief, Nakajima, conceded to the flaws of EPI and agreed to merge the program and its resources with CVI in January, 1994. This move will bring a great deal of program money to CVI. Regarding specific technologies, Virogenetics of Troy, New York, is testing canary-pox-based vaccines on people with the goal of securing a vaccine capable of effectively carrying 7 different antigens. Timed-release capsules are being tested as a means of dealing with the need for repeated doses and it appears that using heavy water to make polio vaccine increases the latter's resistance to heat; researchers are trying to find out why.
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  4. 4
    067793

    Report of a technical advisory meeting on research on AIDS and tuberculosis, Geneva, 2-4 August 1988.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS

    [Unpublished] 1989. 21 p. (WHO/GPA/BMR/89.3)

    A technical advisory meeting on research on AIDS and tuberculosis was held to review and prioritize ongoing and planned research in the field, suggesting essential studies and study design. Studies in need of international collaboration, as well as subjects not covered by ongoing and planned research were considered, with attention given to recommending frameworks for development. The final major objective of the meeting was to determine key areas of TB programs requiring strengthening to facilitate such research, and to suggest developmental steps for improvement. The report provides opening background information of tuberculosis, AIDS, and the relationship between the 2, then launches into a discussion of urgently needed research. Epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical presentation, prevention, and treatment studies are called for under this section heading, each sub-section providing objectives, justification, and specific research questions. Design examples for selected research studies constitute an annex following the main body of text. When planning for action on suggested research, the report acknowledges the need for resources, organizational structures, detailed plans and timetables, and collaborative arrangements. 7 areas in which WHO could provide assistance are offered, followed by discussion of strengthening tuberculosis control capacity in WHO, and at the country and local levels. Selection of research sites is considered at the close of the text.
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