Your search found 6 Results
Improving tuberculosis screening and isoniazid preventive therapy in an HIV clinic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2013 Nov; 17(11):1396-401.BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends active tuberculosis (TB) case finding among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in resource-limited settings using a symptom-based algorithm; those without active TB disease should be offered isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate rates of adherence to WHO recommendations and the impact of a quality improvement intervention in an HIV clinic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. DESIGN: A prospective study design was utilized to compare TB symptom screening and IPT administration rates before and after a quality improvement intervention consisting of 1) educational sessions, 2) visual reminders, and 3) use of a screening checklist. RESULTS: A total of 751 HIV-infected patient visits were evaluated. The proportion of patients screened for TB symptoms increased from 22% at baseline to 94% following the intervention (P < 0.001). Screening rates improved from 51% to 81% (P < 0.001) for physicians and from 3% to 100% (P < 0.001) for nurses. Of the 281 patients with negative TB symptom screens and eligible for IPT, 4% were prescribed IPT before the intervention compared to 81% after (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We found that a quality improvement intervention significantly increased WHO-recommended TB screening rates and IPT administration. Utilizing nurses can help increase TB screening and IPT provision in resource-limited settings.
Performance of the new WHO diagnostic algorithm for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV prevalent settings: a multisite study in Uganda.
Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2012 Jul; 17(7):884-95.OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of the new WHO (2007) diagnostic algorithm for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in high HIV prevalent settings (WHO07) to the WHO 2003 guidelines used by the Ugandan National Tuberculosis Program (UgWHO03). METHODS: A prospective observational cohort design was used at Reach Out Mbuya Parish HIV/AIDS Initiative, an urban slum community-based AIDS Service Organisation (ASO) and Kayunga Rural District Government Hospital. Newly diagnosed and enrolled HIV-infected patients were assessed for PTB. Research staff interviewed patients and staff and observed operational constraints. RESULTS: WHO07 reduced the time to diagnosis of smear-negative PTB with increased sensitivity compared with the UgWHO03 at both sites. Time to diagnosis of smear-negative PTB was significantly shorter at the urban ASO than at the rural ASO (12.4 vs. 28.5 days, P = 0.003). Diagnostic specificity and sensitivity [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for smear-negative PTB were higher at the rural hospital compared with the urban ASO: [98% (93-100%) vs. 86% (77-92%), P = 0.001] and [95% (72-100%) vs. 90% (54-99%), P > 0.05], respectively. Common barriers to implementation of algorithms included failure by patients to attend follow-up appointments and poor adherence by healthcare workers to algorithms. CONCLUSION: At both sites, WHO07 expedited diagnosis of smear-negative PTB with increased diagnostic accuracy compared with the UgWHO03. The WHO07 expedited diagnosis more at the urban ASO but with more diagnostic accuracy at the rural hospital. Barriers to implementation should be taken into account when operationalising these guidelines for TB diagnosis in resource-limited settings. (c) 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Validation of 2006 WHO prediction scores for true HIV infection in children less than 18 months with a positive serological HIV test.
PloS One. 2009; 4(4):e5312.INTRODUCTION: All infants born to HIV-positive mothers have maternal HIV antibodies, sometimes persistent for 18 months. When Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is not available, August 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations suggest that clinical criteria may be used for starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in HIV seropositive children <18 months. Predictors are at least two out of sepsis, severe pneumonia and thrush, or any stage 4 defining clinical finding according to the WHO staging system. METHODS AND RESULTS: From January 2005 to October 2006, we conducted a prospective study on 236 hospitalized children <18 months old with a positive HIV serological test at the national reference hospital in Kigali. The following data were collected: PCR, clinical signs and CD4 cell count. Current proposed clinical criteria were present in 148 of 236 children (62.7%) and in 95 of 124 infected children, resulting in 76.6% sensitivity and 52.7% specificity. For 87 children (59.0%), clinical diagnosis was made based on severe unexplained malnutrition (stage 4 clinical WHO classification), of whom only 44 (50.5%) were PCR positive. Low CD4 count had a sensitivity of 55.6% and a specificity of 78.5%. CONCLUSION: As PCR is not yet widely available, clinical diagnosis is often necessary, but these criteria have poor specificity and therefore have limited use for HIV diagnosis. Unexplained malnutrition is not clearly enough defined in WHO recommendations. Extra pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), almost impossible to prove in young children, may often be the cause of malnutrition, especially in HIV-affected families more often exposed to TB. Food supplementation and TB treatment should be initiated before starting ART in children who are staged based only on severe malnutrition.
Symptom-based screening of child tuberculosis contacts: improved feasibility in resource-limited settings.
Pediatrics. 2008 Jun; 121(6):e1646-52.OBJECTIVE: National tuberculosis programs in tuberculosis-endemic countries rarely implement active tracing and screening of child tuberculosis contacts, mainly because of resource constraints. We aimed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of applying a simple symptom-based approach to screen child tuberculosis contacts for active disease. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study from January through December 2004 at 3 clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. All of the children <5 years old in household contact with an adult tuberculosis source case were assessed by documenting current symptoms and tuberculin skin test and chest radiograph results. RESULTS: During the study period, 357 adult tuberculosis cases were identified; 195 cases (54.6%) had sputum smear and/or culture positive results and were in household contact with children aged <5 years. Complete information was available for 252 of 278 children; 176 (69.8%) were asymptomatic at the time of screening. Tuberculosis treatment was administered to 33 (13.1%) of 252; 27 were categorized as radiologically "certain tuberculosis," the majority (n = 22) of which had uncomplicated hilar adenopathy. The negative predictive value of symptom-based screening varied according to the case definition used, with 95.5% including all of the children treated for tuberculosis and 97.1% including only those with radiologically "certain tuberculosis." CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support current World Health Organization recommendations, demonstrating that symptom-based screening of child tuberculosis contacts should improve feasibility in resource-limited settings and seems to be safe.
Safety of switching to nevirapine-based highly active antiretroviral therapy at elevated CD4 cell counts in a resource-constrained setting [letter]
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2007 Aug 15; 45(5):598-600.The World Health Organization recommends the use of generic nevirapine (NVP)/efavirenz (EFV)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens as first-line therapy in the management of HIV in resource-limited settings. Initiating NVP-based HAART at elevated CD4 cell counts can lead to liver toxicity. Short-term risk of liver toxicity has been reported in men with CD4 counts greater than 400 cells/mL and in women with CD4 counts greater than 250 cells/mL. Hence, clinicians are advised to monitor the results of liver chemistry tests closely in the first 18 weeks of therapy because of the potential to develop life-threatening hepatic events. Mocroft et al showed that initiating NVP therapy at elevated CD4 levels may be safe for use in antiretroviral-experienced patients. Little is known about short-term adverse consequences and clinical outcome at elevated CD4 cell counts in a resource-limited setting. (author's)
Chronicles. 1983 Jun; 3(1):11-4.Analyzes the anti-tuberculosis (BCG) vaccine controversy. The vaccine was highly controversial at the beginning due to difficulties in standardization, maintenance of efficacy, and in the methods of applying the vaccine. Nevertheless, BCG gained increasing acceptance and is used widely in France, Germany, Norway, Sweden and Japan. It is also 1 of the vaccines regularly employed in the worldwide immunization campaign of the World Health Organization. A number of well controlled prospective studies have been done in the last 50 years in several countries to determine the efficacy of BCG. The studies give contradictory results which may prove that under certain conditions, BCG has a clear protective effect against infection from human virulent tubercle bacilli. The 1982 evaluation after 10 years showed a 45% protective efficacy. On the basis of an extended review of BCG vaccination, it is recommended that the use of BCG be continued. However, there are situations where the effectiveness of BCG cannot be predicted with certainty, and it is recommended that every effort be made to identify local factors that may modify the outcome of BCG vaccination. The worldwide tuberculosis problem presents differing patterns in different countries, making a single recommendation for all situations unwise. The BCG program chosen should be based on the epidemiological situation in each country. The authors conclude that BCG vaccination, together with chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy, can play an important role in controlling tuberculosis, which still constitutes 1 of the major world health problems. (summaries in SPA, POR, ARA)