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  1. 1
    046689

    A perspective on controlling vaccine-preventable diseases among children in Liberia.

    Weeks RM

    INFECTION CONTROL. 1984 Nov; 5(11):538-41.

    In 1978 the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MHSW) of Liberia launched the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) with the 5-year objective of establishing an 80% reduction in child mortality and morbidity from measles, polio, diphtheria, neonatal tetanus, pertussis, and tuberculosis. The program at first adopted a strategy of using 15 mobile units in 11 operational zones to deliver vaccinations throughout the country. However, by 1980, despite support from the Baptist World Alliance, the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), and the World Health Organization (WHO), it became evident that the mobile strategy was neither economically feasible nor practical. Therefore, with support from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the EPI shifted to a strategy of integrating immunization activities into the existing network of state health facilities. After 5 years, in 1982, the Program was evaluated by a team from the MHSW, WHO, USAID, and the Centers for Disease Control. The evaluating team felt that the EPI's strategy was good, but its goals were not being achieved due to deficiencies in funding, clinic supervision, and rural community outreach, as well as shortages of kerosene and spare parts needs to keep the essential refrigerators in operating condition. Measles remains endemic; in the capital, Monrovia, only 9% of the children have been vaccinated against it. Immunization coverage is particularly low in the capital the countries. Other reasons for low vaccination coverage in Liberia are lack of community awareness of existing facilities and the importance of vaccination and lack of coordination at the community level to use the existing facilities efficiently. International assistance is still needed, especially to develop heat-stable vaccines, so that maintenance of refrigerators will not be necessary.
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  2. 2
    270489

    Local Area Monitoring (LAM).

    Kirsch TD

    WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS QUARTERLY. RAPPORT TRIMESTRIEL DE STATISTIQUES SANITAIRES MONDIALES. 1988; 41(1):19-25.

    Routine surveillance of the incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases has not proved sensitive enough to demonstrate the impact of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in many countries. In order to document progress since the start of the EPI in 1979, data are needed for several years prior to that. In most developing countries these can be found only in major cities or large hospitals. Therefore a system of sentinel surveillance, the Local Area Monitoring Project (LAM), is being set up in selected institutions in the major cities of the developing world. The primary goal of the LAM project is to provide disease-incidence data of sufficient quality to evaluate more fully the global impact of the EPI on the 6 target diseases--diptheria, pertusis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles, and tuberculosis. The goal is to include the major city of each of the 25 largest developing countries, with a total population of 115 million. These 25 countries together account for 85% of all births in the developing world. The program and coverage information is used to assess the impact of individual EPI programs on disease trends. Preliminary analysis of the 12 cities with the best data suggests that the impact of the EPI on the incidence of the target diseases has been greater than previously shown by the routine system. The LAM information is useful for global and regional analysis of program impact, but for the countries themselves its utility may be even greater. It is hoped that the project will help to improve a country's surveillance system by encouraging the use of sentinel reporting as a means of supplementing routine data. The information on the impact of the EPI may further increase political and public support for a program. (Summaries in ENG, FRE)
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