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  1. 1

    Report to Congress by the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator on the involvement of faith-based organizations in activities of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria.

    United States. Office of the United States Global AIDS Coordinator

    [Washington, D.C.], Office of the United States Global AIDS Coordinator, 2008 May. 40 p.

    The Administration provides this Report pursuant to Section 625(b) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2008 (Division J, Public Law 110-161), which requires the U.S. Secretary of State to submit a report to the Committees on Appropriations "on the involvement of faith-based organizations in Global Fund Programs. The report shall include (1) on a country-by-country basis -(A) a description of the amount of grants and subgrants provided to faith-based organizations; and (B) a detailed description of the involvement of faith-based organizations in the Country Coordinating Mechanism (CCM) process of the Global Fund; and (2) a description of actions the Global Fund is taking to enhance the involvement of faith-based organizations in the CCM process, particularly in countries in which the involvement of faith-based organizations has been underrepresented.
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  2. 2

    Report of the European Region on Immunization Activities. (Global Advisory Group EPI, Alexandria, October 1984). WHO/Expanded Immunization Programme and the European Immunization Targets in the Framework of HFA 2000.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI]. European Region on Immunization Activities

    [Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the EPI Global Advisory Group Meeting, Alexandria, Egypt, 21-25 October 1984. 3 p. (EPI/GAG/84/WP.4)

    Current reported levels of morbidity and mortality from measles, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, and tuberculosis in most countries in the European Region are at or near record low levels. However, several factors threaten successful achievement of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) goal of making immunization services available to all the world's children by the year 2000, including changes in public attitudes as diseases pose less of a visible threat, declining acceptance rates for certain immunizations, variations in vaccines included in the EPI, and incomplete information on the incidence of diseases preventable by immunization and on vaccination coverage rates. To launch a more coordinated approach to the EPI goals, a 2nd Conference on Immunization Policies in Europe is scheduled to be held in Czechoslovakia. Its objectives are: 1) to review and analyze the current situation, including achievements and gaps, in immunization programs in individual countries and the European Region as a whole; 2) to determine the necessary actions to eliminate indigenous measles, poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus, congenital rubella, and diphtheria; 3) to consider appropriate policies regarding the control by immunization of other diseases of public health importance; 4) to strengthen existing or establish additional systems for effective monitoring and surveillance; 5) to formulate actions necessary to improve national vaccine programs in order to achieve national and regional targets; 6) to reinforce the commitment of Member Countries to the goals and activities of the EPI; and 7) to define appropriate activities for the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization to achieve coordinated action.
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Evolution of WHO policies for tuberculosis control, 1948-2001.

    Raviglione MC; Pio A

    Lancet. 2002 Mar 2; 359:775-80.

    The authors examine the evolution of WHO managerial policies for tuberculosis (TB) control during 1948-2001 to provide a new framework that will accelerate control expansion in the near future. In the first period (1948-63), a vertical approach to TB control was the policy adopted by WHO and the international community. However, although this approach was successful in more-developed countries, it largely failed in resource-poor settings. As a result, involvement of general health services was soon deemed essential. During 1989- 98, a new framework for effective TB control was created and a new five-element strategy was branded with the name of directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS). This period was characterized by the recognition of TB control as a public-health priority, the intensification of TB control efforts worldwide, and the return of TB to the political agenda of governments. However, although nominal adoption of DOTS increased rapidly due to massive promotion by WHO and partners, expansion to provide full access was too slow and only 23% of all infectious cases in 1999 were managed under DOTS. A truly multisectoral approach based on advocacy and social mobilization, community involvement, and engagement of private-for-profit practitioners is becoming the way forward for TB control. HIV-associated TB and multidrug-resistant TB must be tackled as priority issues. The authors conclude that, based on the lessons of the past, the future of TB control should be focused on a pragmatic approach combining a specialized, well-defined management system with a fully integrated service delivery. A multisectoral approach that builds on global and national partnerships is the key to future TB control. (author's)
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  4. 4

    Policy statement on preventive therapy against tuberculosis in people living with HIV. Report of a meeting held in Geneva, 18-20 February 1998. World Health Organization. Global Tuberculosis Programme and UNAIDS.

    Godfrey-Faussett P

    [Geneva, Switzerland], World Health Organization [WHO], Global Tuberculosis Programme, 1998. 26 p. (WHO/TB/98.255; UNAIDS/98.34)

    During February 18-20, 1998, the Global Tuberculosis (TB) Programme of the WHO and the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS convened a meeting in Geneva to review available data on TB and to make updated recommendations to governments concerning preventive therapy (PT). This document presents the policy statement arising from the meeting regarding PT against TB in people living with HIV. It also forms a technical annex to those guidelines and sets out the process by which the guidelines were developed, as well as the technical information on which they are based. The meeting brought together 50 people comprising technical experts, potential consumers, policy-makers, and donor agencies. The meeting was spent reviewing knowledge on the interactions between TB and HIV; strategies for TB control; approaches to HIV care; experience with voluntary HIV counseling and testing; efficacy, feasibility and cost-efficacy of PT.
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    Kochi's tuberculosis strategy article is a "classic" by any definition.

    Sbarbaro JA

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2001; 79(1):69-70.

    This article reviews the 1991 paper by Arata Kochi on the strategy of WHO to control tuberculosis. It notes that Kochi's paper did not report a new scientific discovery, rather it depicted the devastating impact of tuberculosis around the world in a clear and forceful manner. Consequently, it changed the public health focus of WHO, national governments and leading voluntary organizations. Kochi's paper pinpointed three major programmatic deficiencies that had to be overcome: inadequate treatment services; high rates of failure to complete therapy; and the worldwide absence of adequate governmental surveillance and monitoring systems. Furthermore, the paper gave attention to the role of public health in addressing the tuberculosis issue. To address the problem, Kochi emphasized that it would take strong, directive leadership by national government to implement systems for an effective prevention and control program for tuberculosis.
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  6. 6

    What priority for TB? [editorial]

    NATURE. 1994 Jan 6; 367(6458):2.

    The World Health Organization [WHO] recently requested $3 million from USAID to combat tuberculosis (TB) in developing countries, but USAID refused the request, claiming that the budget does not allow it. European nations also do not readily contribute to the fight against TB. Yet, TB is the world's most prevalent fatal infection. It is likely to take the lives of at least 30 million people before the year 2000. If drug-resistant strains of the TB mycobacterium continue to multiply, the number could be even higher. The statement that USAID, a A$6.5 billion agency, could not find $3 million is either nonsense or evidence of a distorted priority. USAID must know that TB and AIDS are linked in developed countries as well as in developing countries. While it is difficult to acquire HIV, TB is easily transmitted. AIDS patients serve as ideal hosts for the TB mycobacterium, where it can mutate into drug-resistant forms. Thus, it would be best to combine TB and AIDS fundings to keep drug-resistant forms from spreading in developing nations, which in turn protects people in developed nations. The medical community knows how to successfully treat TB, especially nonresistant strains, and it is relatively inexpensive to treat patients in developing countries (as little as $30/patient). The title of WHO's report, TB: A Global Emergency--Low Priority, best sums up the reluctance of developed nations to fund TB programs in developing countries.
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  7. 7

    USAID steps up anti-AIDS program.

    USAID HIGHLIGHTS. 1991 Fall; 8(3):1-4.

    This article considers the epidemic proportion of AIDS in developing countries, and discusses the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) reworked and intensified strategy for HIV infection and AIDS prevention and control over the next 5 years. Developing and launching over 650 HIV and AIDS activities in 74 developing countries since 1986, USAID is the world's largest supporter of anti-AIDS programs. Over $91 million in bilateral assistance for HIV and AIDS prevention and control have been committed. USAID has also been the largest supporter of the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS since 1986. Interventions have included training peer educators, working to change the norms of sex behavior, and condom promotion. Recognizing that the developing world will increasingly account for an ever larger share of the world's HIV-infected population, USAID announced an intensified program of estimated investment increasing to approximately $400 million over a 5-year period. Strategy include funding for long-term, intensive interventions in 10-15 priority countries, emphasizing the treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases which facilitate the spread of HIV, making AIDS-related policy dialogue an explicit component of the Agency's AIDS program, and augmenting funding to community-based programs aimed at reducing high-risk sexual behaviors. The effect of AIDS upon child survival, adult mortality, urban populations, and socioeconomic development in developing countries is discussed. Program examples are also presented.
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