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  1. 1
    312576

    WHO training course for TB consultants: RPM Plus drug management sessions in Sondalo, Italy, September 28 - October 1, 2006: trip report.

    Barillas E

    Arlington, Virginia, Management Sciences for Health, Center for Pharmaceutical Management, Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus, 2006 Oct 18. 26 p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-00-00016-00; USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No. PN-ACI-323)

    WHO, Stop-TB Partners, and NGOs that support country programs for DOTS implementation and expansion require capable consultants in assessing the capacity of countries to manage TB pharmaceuticals in their programs, developing interventions, and providing direct technical assistance to improve availability and accessibility of quality TB medicines. Beginning in 2001, RPM Plus, in addition to its own formal courses on pharmaceutical management for tuberculosis, has contributed modules and facilitated sessions on specific aspects of pharmaceutical management to the WHO Courses for TB Consultants in Sondalo. The WHO TB Course for TB Consultants was developed and initiated in 2001 by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, the S. Maugeri Foundation, the Morelli Hospital, and TB CTA. The main goal of the course is to increase the pool of international level TB consultants. As of December 2005, over 150 international TB consultants have participated in the training, a majority ofwhom have already been employed in consultancy activities by the WHO and international donors. In 2006 fiscal year RPM Plus received funds from USAID to continue supporting the Sondalo Course, which allowed RPM Plus to facilitate sessions on pharmaceutical management for TB at four courses in May, June, July, and October of 2006. RPM Plus Senior Program Associate, Edgar Barillas, traveled to Sondalo from September 28 to October 1 to facilitate the TB pharmaceutical management session at the WHO course for TB Consultants in Sondalo, Italy. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    052107

    Diarrheal diseases morbidity, mortality and treatment rates in Bahrain (1986).

    Al-Khateeb M

    [Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the 13th World Conference on Health Education, Houston, Texas, August 28 - September 2, 1988. 60 p.

    This study is the report of a 1986 baseline survey, guided by the World Health Organization's "Guidelines for a Sample Survey of Diarrheal Diseases Morbidity, Mortality, and Treatment Rate." The survey method was the Expanded Program on Immunization 30 cluster 2-stage method. Baseline data were also gathered on the status of immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, poliomyelitis, measles, and tuberculosis. Primary health care services in Bahrain are generally good. The archipelago of 670 sq km has a population of 417,210 including 55,000 children under 5. There are 18 health centers and 480 physicians or 1 physician for every 860 people. All inhabitants of a catchment area live within 5 km of a health center, and medical care is free. Diarrhea is due to a number of different organisms, including typhoid, paratyphoid, salmonellosis, Escherichia coli, rotaviruses, and giardiasis, but there has been no cholera in Bahrain since 1979. The national diarrheal diseases control program, drafted by the World Health Organization in 1985, emphasized the use of oral rehydration therapy, breast feeding, and feeding during diarrhea. No vaccinations are compulsory in Bahrain, but immunization coverage has been reported annually since 1981, and vaccinations are in line with the World Health Organization's criteria. Diphtheria-Typhoid-Paratyphoid vaccinations were 1st given in Bahrain in 1957; polio vaccination began in 1958 with Salk vaccine and in 1962 with the Sabin vaccine. Measles vaccination began in 1974. BCG vaccination has been given to children entering school since 1972. All health centers in the country offer vaccination services. Vaccines are stored under refrigeration, and the central supply is at the Public Health Directorate. Adverse effects of vaccinations are monitored. The 1986 diarrheal diseases survey, using the 30 cluster method, looked at a sample of 4114 children under 5 from 2515 households. 378 (9.2%) of the children suffered from diarrhea, and 200 (52.9%) were treated with oral rehydration salts. The under-5 diarrheal mortality rate was .97/1000. The estimated number of episodes of diarrhea per child per year is 2.4, with a high of 8.7 episodes in the Northern Region and a low of 1.2 episodes in the Muharraq Region. Vaccination coverage of children under 2 for other diseases was found to be 96.5% for diphtheria, paratyphoid, and typhoid; 95% for polio; 82.5% for measles; and 59.8% for the trivalent mumps, measles and rubella vaccine. 96.4% of all vaccinations were given in government hospitals. 98.7% of mothers have been examined during pregnancy, and 98.9% of all deliveries are in hospitals. It is recommended that a health education campaign be concentrated on diarrhea, breast feeding, feeding during diarrhea, and hygiene; that both medical staff and mothers be trained in the use of oral rehydration salts; that they should also be informed of the adverse effects of treating diarrhea with antibiotics; that a system for reporting cases of diarrhea be developed; that health education campaigns emphasize the importance of receiving booster doses of vaccines and of vaccination against measles; that staff at health centers adjust their schedules so as to be available for immunizations as needed; and that this survey be repeated every 2 years.
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