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New York, New York, UN Women, . 7 p. (Policy Brief No. 1)UN Women’s project "Promoting and Protecting Women Migrant Workers’ Labour and Human Rights: Engaging with International, National Human Rights Mechanisms to Enhance Accountability" is a global project funded by the European Union (EU) and anchored nationally in three pilot countries: Mexico, Moldova, and the Philippines. The project promotes women migrant workers’ rights and their protection against exclusion and exploitation at all stages of migration. One of the key results of the project has been the production of high-quality knowledge products. These have provided the foundation of the project’s advocacy and capacity building objectives. This Brief draws from the project’s knowledge products and provides an overview of the key situational and policy concerns for women migrant workers in each of the three pilot countries.
Using the international human rights system to protect and promote the rights of women migrant workers.
New York, New York, UN Women, . 7 p. (Policy Brief No. 6)This Brief provides an overview of the international human rights system as it applies to the promotion and protection of women migrant workers’ rights. Using examples from UN Women’s joint EU-funded project "Promoting and Protecting Women Migrant Workers’ Labour and Human Rights: Engaging with International, National Human Rights Mechanisms to Enhance Accountability" (the Project), which is anchored nationally in three pilot countries: Mexico, Moldova, and the Philippines, this Brief illustrates how these mechanisms can be used by governments, civil society and development partners, to enhance the rights of women migrant workers in law and practice.
New York, New York, UN Women, 2015 Oct. 32 p.Since approximately 1990, peace processes involving the negotiation of formal peace agreements between the protagonists to conflict have become a predominant way of ending violent conflicts, both within and between States. Between 1990 and 2015 1,168 peace agreements have been negotiated in around 102 conflicts, on a wide definition of peace agreements to include agreements at all stages of the negotiations. Peace agreements are therefore important documents with significant capacity to affect women’s lives. However, a range of obstacles for women seeking to influence their design and implementation persists. These include difficulties with accessing talks, achieving equal influence at talks, raising issues of concern for women, and achieving material gains for women as an outcome of the peace process. This report examines what ‘a gender perspective’ in peace agreements might mean, assesses numerous peace agreements from between 1 January 1990 and 1 January 2015 for their ‘gender perspective, and produces data on when women have been specifically mentioned in those peace agreements.
2016 Dec; New York, New York, UN Women, 2016 Dec. 20 p.The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is an international legal instrument that requires countries to eliminate discrimination against women and girls in all areas and promotes women’s and girls’ equal rights. CEDAW is often described as the international bill of rights for women, and is one of the key international agreements that guides the work of UN Women in achieving gender equality and empowering all women and girls. CEDAW for Youth is a youth-friendly version of CEDAW, that was authored by a young woman and young man. This resource explains why CEDAW is important to youth, describes CEDAW’s impact in advancing gender equality and human rights for women and girls around the world, and summarizes the articles of CEDAW, including the specific forms of discrimination that must be ended and how CEDAW is implemented and monitored.
Guidelines or other tools for integrating gender considerations into climate change related activities under the Convention.
[Bonn, Germany], UNFCCC, 2016. 33 p.Drawing on relevant web-based resources, this technical paper aims to provide an overview of existing methodologies and tools for the integration of gender considerations into climate change related activities under the Convention. The paper assesses selected tools and guidelines in terms of their methodology, information and data requirements, capacity-building needs, lessons learned, gaps and challenges, and relevance for social and environmental impacts. Parties may wish to use the information contained in this paper in their consideration of entry points for the integration of gender considerations into the formulation and implementation of strategies for mitigating and adapting to the impacts of climate change.
[New York, New York], Women’s Environment and Development Organization [WEDO], 2015 Oct. 26 p.The impact of climate change is already causing widespread socio-economic and environmental loss and human suffering around the globe. Climate change erodes human freedoms and limits choice. However, the impacts of climate change are not felt equally. Without measures to address the injustice of climate change, those with the fewest resources, countries and individuals alike, will be most susceptible to its negative effects; and those in positions of wealth and power will be the first to benefit from transitions in the economy towards a low carbon society. Climate change impacts and solutions, when viewed through an intersectional lens, encompass a wide diversity of experiences due to age, ethnicity, class, and in particular, gender. Gender is a social construct. While not immutable nor universal, gender shapes expectations, attributes, roles, capacities and rights of women and men around the world. Climate change affects everyone, but women and men experience the impacts differently, and women are often disproportionately negatively affected. Women, compared to men, often have limited access to resources, more restricted rights, limited mobility, and a muted voice in shaping decisions and influencing policy. At the same time, gender roles generally ascribed to women such as informal, reproductive work often relate to caregiving for households and communities, caretaking of seeds and soils, maintaining traditional agricultural knowledge, and responsibility for natural resource management such as firewood and water, and thus these roles create opportunity for engagement as women bring diverse and critical solutions to climate change challenges. Effective climate policy is only possible when it is informed by the experiences of and responds to the rights, priorities and diverse needs, of all people. 2015 is a critical year for climate policy, as well as the broader global sustainable development agenda. It is also a critical time to review progress on gender mainstreaming in the context of climate change responses, including key challenges and opportunities to move toward an equal and sustainable future. This background paper focuses on the UNFCCC. It begins with a review of gender mainstreaming generally; followed by an exploration of gender mainstreaming in the context of UNFCCC policies and programs and a related section on what gender-responsive actions look like; then identifies gaps and opportunities; and finally concludes with recommendations for the UNFCCC.
Globalization and women's and girls' health in 192 UN-member countries convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women.
International Journal of Social Economics. 2016 Jul 11; 43(7):692-721.Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the ratification of the United Nations' (UN's) Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and women's and girls' health outcomes using a unique longitudinal data set of 192 UN-member countries that encompasses the years from 1980 to 2011. Design/methodology/approach - The authors focus on the impact of CEDAW ratification, number of reports submitted after ratification, years passed since ratification, and the dynamic impact of CEDAW ratification by utilizing ordinary least squares (OLS) and panel fixed effects methods. The study investigates the following women's and girls' health outcomes: Total fertility rate, adolescent fertility rate, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality ratio, neonatal mortality rate, female life expectancy at birth (FLEB), and female to male life expectancy at birth. Findings - The OLS and panel country and year fixed effects models provide evidence that the impact of CEDAW ratification on women's and girls' health outcomes varies by global regions. While the authors find no significant gains in health outcomes in European and North-American countries, the countries in the Northern Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Africa, Caribbean and Central America, South America, Middle-East, Eastern Asia, and Oceania regions experienced the biggest gains from CEDAW ratification, exhibiting reductions in total fertility, adolescent fertility, infant mortality, maternal mortality, and neonatal mortality while also showing improvements in FLEB. The results provide evidence that both early commitment to CEDAW as measured by the total number of years of engagement after the UN's 1980 ratification and the timely submission of mandatory CEDAW reports have positive impacts on women' and girls' health outcomes. Several sensitivity tests confirm the robustness of main findings. Originality/value - This study is the first comprehensive attempt to explore the multifaceted relationships between CEDAW ratification and female health outcomes. The study significantly expands on the methods of earlier research and presents novel methods and findings on the relationship between CEDAW ratification and women's health outcomes. The findings suggest that the impact of CEDAW ratification significantly depends on the country's region. Furthermore, stronger engagement with CEDAW (as indicated by the total number of years following country ratification) and the submission of the required CEDAW reports (as outlined in the Convention's guidelines) have positive impacts on women's and girls' health outcomes.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2013 Jun 19.  p.UNHCR's annual Global Trends report, released today, covers displacement that occurred during 2012 based on data from governments, NGO partners, and the UN refugee agency itself. The report shows that as of the end of 2012, more than 45.2 million people were in situations of displacement compared to 42.5 million at the end of 2011. This includes 15.4 million refugees, 937,000 asylum seekers, and 28.8 million people forced to flee within the borders of their own countries. The report does not include the rise in those forced from their homes in Syria during the current year. War remains the dominant cause. A full 55 percent of all refugees listed in UNHCR's report come from just five war-affected countries: Afghanistan, Somalia, Iraq, Syria and Sudan. The report also charts major new displacement from Mali, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and from Sudan into South Sudan and Ethiopia.
Dark sides of the proposed Framework Convention on Global Health's many virtues: A systematic review and critical analysis.
Health and Human Rights. 2013 Jun; 15(1):117-134.The costs of any proposal for new international law must be fully evaluated and compared with benefits and competing alternatives to ensure adoption will not create more problems than solutions. A systematic review of the research literature was conducted to categorize and assess limitations and unintended negative consequences associated with the proposed Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH). A critical analysis then interpreted these findings using economic, ethical, legal, and political science perspectives. Of the 442 documents retrieved, nine met the inclusion criteria. Collectively, these documents highlighted that an FCGH could duplicate other efforts, lack feasibility, and have questionable impact. The critical analysis reveals that negative consequences can result from the FCGH’s proposed form of international law and proposed functions of influencing national budgets, realizing health rights and resetting global governance for health. These include the direct costs of international law, opportunity costs, reducing political dialogue by legalizing political interactions, petrifying principles that may have only contemporary relevance, imposing foreign values on less powerful countries, forcing externally defined goals on countries, prioritizing individual rights over population-wide well-being, further complicating global governance for health, weakening the World Health Organization (WHO), reducing participation opportunities for non-state actors, and offering sub-optimal solutions for global health challenges. Four options for revising the FCGH proposal are developed to address its weaknesses and strengthen its potential for impact. These include: 1) abandoning international law as the primary commitment mechanism and instead pursuing agreement towards a less formal “framework for global health”; 2) seeking fundamental constitutional reform of WHO to address gaps in global governance for health; 3) mobilizing for a separate political platform that completely bypasses WHO; or 4) narrowing the scope of sought changes to one particular governance issue such as financing for global health needs.
Global policy and programme guidance on maternal nutrition: what exists, the mechanisms for providing it, and how to improve them?
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology. 2012 Jul; 26 Suppl 1:315-25.Undernutrition in one form or another affects the majority of women of reproductive age in most developing countries. However, there are few or no effective programmes trying to solve maternal undernutrition problems. The purpose of the paper is to examine global policy and programme guidance mechanisms for nutrition, what their content is with regard to maternal nutrition in particular, as well as how these might be improved. Almost all countries have committed themselves politically to ensuring the right of pregnant and lactating women to good nutrition through the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Despite this, the World Health Organization (WHO) has not endorsed any policy commitments with regard to maternal nutrition. The only policy guidance coming from the various technical departments of WHO relates to the control of maternal anaemia. There is no policy or programme guidance concerning issues of maternal thinness, weight gain during pregnancy and/or low birthweight prevention. Few if any countries have maternal nutrition programmes beyond those for maternal anaemia, and most of those are not effective. The lack of importance given to maternal nutrition is related in part to a weakness of evidence, related to the difficulty of getting ethical clearance, as well as a generalised tendency to downplay the importance of those interventions found to be efficacious. No priority has been given to implementing existing policy and programme guidance for the control of maternal anaemia largely because of a lack of any dedicated funding, linked to a lack of Millennium Development Goals indicator status. This is partly due to the poor evidence base, as well as to the common belief that maternal anaemia programmes were not effective, even if efficacious. The process of providing evidence-based policy and programme guidance to member states is currently being revamped and strengthened by the Department of Nutrition for Health and Development of WHO through the Nutrition Guidance Expert Advisory Group processes. How and if programme guidance, as well as policy commitment for improved maternal nutrition, will be strengthened through the Nutrition Guidance Expert Advisory Group process is as yet unclear. The global movement to increase investment in programmes aimed at maternal and child undernutrition called Scaling Up Nutrition offers an opportunity to build developing country experience with efforts to improve nutrition during pregnancy and lactation. All member states are being encouraged by the World Health Assembly to scale-up efforts to improve maternal infant and young child nutrition. Hopefully Ministries of Health in countries most affected by maternal and child undernutrition will take leadership in the development of such plans, and ensure that the control of anaemia during pregnancy is given a great priority among these actions, as well as building programme experience with improved nutrition during pregnancy and lactation. For this to happen it is essential that donor support is assured, even if only to spearhead a few flagship countries. (c) 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Assessing implementation mechanisms for an international agreement on research and development for health products.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2012; 90:854-863.The Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) are currently debating the substance and form of an international agreement to improve the financing and coordination of research and development (R&D) for health products that meet the needs of developing countries. In addition to considering the content of any possible legal or political agreement, Member States may find it helpful to reflect on the full range of implementation mechanisms available to bring any agreement into effect. These include mechanisms for states to make commitments, administer activities, manage financial contributions, make subsequent decisions, monitor each other’s performance and promote compliance. States can make binding or non-binding commitments through conventions, contracts, declarations or institutional reforms. States can administer activities to implement their agreements through international organizations, sub-agencies, joint ventures or self-organizing processes. Finances can be managed through specialized multilateral funds, financial institutions, membership organizations or coordinated self-management. Decisions can be made through unanimity, consensus, equal voting, modified voting or delegation. Oversight can be provided by peer review, expert review, self-reports or civil society. Together, states should select their preferred options across categories of implementation mechanisms, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. The challenge lies in choosing the most effective combinations of mechanisms for supporting an international agreement (or set of agreements) that achieves collective aspirations in a way and at a cost that are both sustainable and acceptable to those involved. In making these decisions, WHO’s Member States can benefit from years of experience with these different mechanisms in health and its related sectors.
New York, New York, UN Women, 2012.  p.The Handbook for National Action Plans on Violence against Women brings together current knowledge on effective policy for the prevention of, and response to, violence against women, and concretely demonstrates how States have developed and implemented such policy in their own contexts. Although not a model plan itself , this publication sets out guidelines to help policy makers and advocates formulate effective plans. It is based on good practices in States’ plans and the advice of experts from different countries and regions. It first outlines the international and regional legal and policy framework which mandates States to adopt and implement National Action Plans to address violence against women. It then presents a model framework for National Action Plans on violence against women, which sets out recommendations, accompanied by explanatory commentaries and good practice examples.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2012 Feb 1; 90(2):79A.Despite global commitment and prevention through well-known interventions, progress has been slow towards Millennium Development Goal 5 of reducing global maternal mortality. The United Nations (UN) Human Rights Council has highlighted maternal mortality as an issue bearing not just on development, but also on human rights. In August 2011, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women became the first UN human rights body to issue a decision on maternal mortality. The case Alyne da Silva Pimentel v. Brazil established that States have a human rights obligation to guarantee women of all racial and economic backgrounds timely and non-discriminatory access to appropriate maternal health services. After the death of this Brazilian woman who died from pregnancy-related causes after a misdiagnosis and delay in provision of emergency obstetric care, the Convention of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) argued that there was no effort to establish professional responsibility and that she was unable to obtain justice in Brazil. The Committee found violations of the right to access health care and effective judicial protection in the context of non-discrimination; cases like this furnish opportunities for international and domestic accountability. The Committee made several general recommendations intended to reduce preventable maternal deaths, which include ensuring women’s rights to safe motherhood and emergency obstetric care, providing professional training for health workers, and implementing Brazil’s national Pact for the Reduction of Maternal and Neonatal Mortality.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2012.  p. (Global Observatory for eHealth Series Vol. 5)Given that privacy of the doctor-patient relationship is at the heart of good health care, and that the electronic health record (EHR) is at the heart of good eHealth practice, the question arises: Is privacy legislation at the heart of the EHR? The second global survey on eHealth conducted by the Global Observatory for eHealth (GOe) set out to answer that question by investigating the extent to which the legal frameworks in the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) address the need to protect patient privacy in EHRs as health care systems move towards leveraging the power of EHRs to deliver safer, more efficient, and more accessible health care. (Excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2011.  p.This tool, developed in collaboration between WHO, the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) is designed to support countries to strengthen national health strategies by applying human rights and gender equality commitments and obligations. The tool poses critical questions to identify gaps and opportunities in the review or reform of health sector strategies.
Training manual to fight trafficking in children for labour, sexual and other forms of exploitation. Textbook 1: Understanding child trafficking.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Organization, 2009. 51 p.This training manual is aimed at governments, workers, employer's groups, nongovernmental organizations, and international agencies working for children. It can be used in a training environment and as a stand-alone resource for those who wish to hone their understanding and skills in efforts to end child trafficking.
Regional report on the implementation of the UNICEF guidelines for the protection of the rights of child victims of trafficking in South Eastern Europe: Assessment of the situation in Albania, Kosovo and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
[Geneva, Switzerland], Terre des Hommes, . 115 p.Trafficking in human beings still remains a major human rights violation affecting South Eastern Europe. Although many efforts have been made and progress achieved in combating trafficking throughout Europe in general, and South Eastern Europe in particular, human beings are still victims of trafficking and children, as a particularly vulnerable group, represent an important proportion of the persons being trafficked.
[Wellington, New Zealand], Family Planning International, 2006 Dec. 27 p.This report focuses on the relationship between policies implemented by the World Trade Organisation, World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund, and access to health, particularly sexual and reproductive health. .
[Unpublished] 1998.  p.The assembled national youth ministers commit themselves to national youth policies and formulate guidelines in association with youth on the following topics: Participation, Development, Peace, Education, Employment, Health, and Drug & Substance Abuse.
[Unpublished] 1999.  p.This statement regards the Convention on the Rights of the Child in Poland and other Eastern and Central European countries. It discusses initiatives that the participants urge all governments to implement for children's rights and to eliminate child poverty, discrimination, and dangerous work situations.
Journal of School Health. 2008 Jul; 78(7):368-373.India made 2 important policy statements regarding tobacco control in the past decade. First, the India Tobacco Control Act (ITCA) was signed into law in 2003 with the goal to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Second, in 2005, India ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). During this same period, India conducted the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in 2003 and 2006 in an effort to track tobacco use among adolescents. The GYTS is a school-based survey of students aged 13-15 years. Representative national estimates for India in 2003 and 2006 were used in this study. In 2006, 3.8% of students currently smoked cigarettes and 11.9% currently used other tobacco products. These rates were not significantly different than those observed in 2003. Over the same period, exposure to SHS at home and in public places significantly decreased, whereas exposure to pro-tobacco ads on billboards and the ability to purchase cigarettes in a store did not change significantly. The ITCA and the WHO FCTC have had mixed impacts on the tobacco control effort for adolescents in India. The positive impacts have been the reduction in exposure to SHS, both at home and in public places. The negative impacts are seen with the lack of change in pro-tobacco advertising and ability to purchase cigarettes in stores. The Government of India needs to consider new and stronger provisions of the ITCA and include strong enforcement measures. (author's)
[Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2002. 5 p. (E/CN.4/RES/2002/52)Reaffirming that discrimination on the basis of sex is contrary to the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and other international human rights instruments, and that its elimination is an integral part of efforts towards the elimination of violence against women. Reaffirming the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopted in June 1993 by the World Conference on Human Rights (A/CONF.157/23) and the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 48/104 of 20 December 1993. Recalling all its previous resolutions on the elimination of violence against women, in particular its resolution 1994/45 of 4 March 1994, in which it decided to appoint a special rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences. Noting all General Assembly resolutions relevant to elimination of violence against women. Welcoming the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action adopted in September 1995 by the Fourth World Conference on Women (A/CONF.177/20, chap. I), follow-up action by the Commission on the Status of Women on violence against women and the outcome of the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly, entitled "Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century". (excerpt)
Integrating the human rights of women throughout the United Nations system. Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/50.
[Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2002. 5 p. (E/CN.4/RES/2002/50)Reaffirming that the equal rights of women and men are enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and other international human rights instruments. Recalling all previous resolutions on this subject. Recalling also the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action adopted in June 1993 by the World Conference on Human Rights (A/CONF.157/23) which affirms that the human rights of women and of the girl child are an inalienable, integral and indivisible part of universal human rights and calls for action to integrate the equal status and human rights of women into the mainstream of United Nations activity system-wide. Welcoming the increased integration of a gender perspective into the work of all entities of the United Nations and the major United Nations conferences, special sessions and summits, such as the special session of the General Assembly on human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance and their integrated and coordinated follow-up. (excerpt)
Providing reproductive health care to internally displaced persons: Barriers experienced by humanitarian agencies.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2008 May; 16(31):33-43.Reproductive health care for internally displaced persons (IDPs) is recognised by the Inter-Agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Refugee Situations and the Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium as a neglected area in humanitarian relief operations. To identify barriers to agencies providing reproductive health care to IDPs, and their strategies for overcoming these barriers, we interviewed representatives of 12 relief and development agencies providing health care to conflict-affected populations. Although material and human resources are significant constraints on agencies, the main challenge is to tackle ideological, managerial and policy barriers, and those related to donor influence. The absence of a legal instrument that recognises IDPs internationally has contributed to the difficulties agencies face in systematically reaching IDPs. Our findings suggest that considerable efforts are needed to close the gap between international commitments and the provision of services at field level. We recommend that agencies carry out awareness-raising activities internally and among partner organisations and donors, strengthen internal organisation and inter-agency collaboration and share expertise in order to maximise benefits and save resources at the local level. We also recommend exploring the possibility of an international convention to protect the rights of internally displaced persons. (author's)
Reproductive Health Matters. 2008 May; 16(31):22-32.This paper surveys the international legal frameworks, including the many guidelines, handbooks, resolutions, toolkits, conclusions and manuals produced by various United Nations bodies, that confirm an awareness of the protection issues specific to women and girls displaced by conflict. It explores the extent to which these documents address the gendered impacts of conflict-induced migration, and the role of United Nations bodies as international governmental organisations in implementing these norms. The main focus is upon internally displaced women and women refugees. In addition to problems of enforcing compliance with existing guidelines, the paper concludes that two areas - developing strategies to accommodate the realities of long-term, even permanent displacement and enhancing women's literal and legal literacy - require much greater attention on the part of governmental and non-governmental international organisations. (author's)